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THE 



JOURNAL 



or 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY 



OF 



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VOL. III. 



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THE 



JOURNAL 



OP 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY 

OP 

BENGAL. 

EDITED BY 

JAMES PRINSEP, F. R. S. 

SECRETARY OF THE AS. SOC, AND HON. MEM. OP THE AS. SOC. OF PARIS. 



VOL. III. 



JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 

1834. 



" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men of science, 
in different parts of Asia, will commit their observations to writing, and send them to 
the Asiatic Society at Calcutta ; it will languish , if such communications shall be long 



intermitted ; and it will die away, j 



kely cease." 
G£> ■*;;* ^S. Sir Wm. Jones. 




PKINTED AT THE BAPTIST MISSION PRESS, CIRCULAR ROAD. 
SOLD BY MESSRS. THACKER AND CO., ST. ANDREW'S LIBRARY. 

1834. 



PREFACE. 



The third volume of the Journal of the Asiatic Society 
would not have required a preface, had not the observations 
made by the Editor, on publishing the second volume, implied 
that the subscribers and supporters of the work should be made 
acquainted with its progress in a financial point of view, especially 
after the diminution of support which the order regarding postage, 
taking effect on the 1st June last, was calculated to produce. 
The Editor is however happy to announce that his friends and 
the public have not allowed this circumstance materially to affect 
their support. The circulation is now nearly as great as it was, 
not more than 30 names having been withdrawn in consequence 
of the postage regulations ; while other names have been added 
to the subscription list, probably from a feeling of interest, lest 
the work should succumb to circumstances of discouragement. 
Some reductions were liberally allowed in the printing charges 
by the Press which has from the first been employed in publish- 
ing the work (and in a manner highly creditable to the Baptist 
Missionary Establishment), so that the expences this year, 
notwithstanding the increase of the number of plates to thirty- 
six, have not much exceeded the income. It is unnecessary to 
enter into particulars, as the statement published last year will, 
with the aid of the list of subscribers, furnish an near as estimate 
as it is possible to give on the result of the year's operations. 

The Editor cannot refrain from making known to his corre- 
spondents the great interest which has been excited in Europe by 
many of the papers which they have done him the honor to 
contribute. The letters he has received from Oxford, London, 
and Paris would alone be sufficient to urge him to a continuance 
of his Editorial labours, did he not feel, unconnected with praise 
or censure, that the Journal was now become a necessary adjunct 
of the Asiatic Society, and that it continues to receive an unin- 



VI PREFACE. 

termitted supply of valuable papers and memoirs which there 
would now be a degree of culpability in withholding from imme- 
diate publication ! 

The tenor of the chief publications of the past year has been 
turned aside from the objects of natural science to which it was 
supposed future Indian researches would principally be confined, 
by a train of antiquarian discovery of an unexpected and highly 
interesting nature in the classical field of ancient Bactriana. 
Every endeavour has been made to bring to notice the novelties 
and facts, as they have been discovered ; and this has in some 
cases caused confusion in the recital, imperfect investigation, and 
some contradiction in results too hastily announced. It is hoped, 
however, that these inconveniences, incident to a periodical 
appearing at short intervals, will be more than counterbalanced 
by the speedy and faithful publication of the circumstances as 
they have been brought to light. The Index will serve in 
some degree to connect the detached notices of one subject into 
a continuous narrative. Thus, the present volume comprises 
all that has been hitherto discovered in the various topes of 
Manikyala. Much however remains to be brought to notice 
regarding the Bactrian coins, and what has been learnt from the 
specimens furnished by Dr. Gerard, and by Shekh Keramat 
Ali, has been purposely kept back to be incorporated with the 
facts developed by the collection of General Ventura, now on 
its way to France under charge of the Chevalier Allard. 

Of inscriptions and antiquities, more purely Indian, the present 
volume furnishes an abundant store ; nor have they been with- 
held until interpretations could be furnished. Every care has 
been taken to render the plates accurate, and extra copies have 
in all cases been struck off for circulation where aid may be 
expected in decyphering them. 

If the past year has been fortunate in antiquarian research, it 
has also been eminently so in fossil geology. The several notices 
in the Proceedings of the Society will bear out this assertion. 
Besides further discoveries in the Nerbada valley, a new fossil 
field has been opened in the Sewalik range of the Himalaya, and 
already museums are being filled with its gigantic spoils. 

Several geographical notices in this volume will be read with 
interest ; and none more so than the extract from an Arabic 



PREFACE. Vll 

work on the Navigation of the Indian Ocean by the illustrious 
Von Hammer of Vienna. The seasons and the modes of reck- 
oning set forth in the Mohit are still followed by the Arab 
navigators who frequent the port of Calcutta ; the Editor in 
passing the article through the press derived much information 
from some of the Nakodas, who recognized and pointed out 
almost all the places enumerated in the Arabic work. 

If the existence of the Journal has in any way promoted the 
acquirement or the preservation of any of the knowledge which 
its pages boast of containing, the Editor is fully rewarded for the 
labour, and for the sacrifice of time that has necessarily been de- 
manded in more than an ordinary measure, where correspon- 
dence, arrangement, correction of the press, and publication 
have fallen on one individual, who has had moreover only the 
hours of leisure and recreation to devote to the purpose. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS, 1834. 

[Members of the Asiatic Society, marked M. A. S,, receive their copies gratis.] 



The Honorable the Court of Directors, (By the Secretary to Government, General 
Department.) 

The Right Honorable Lord W. C. Bentinck, Governor General, &c. &c. M. A. S. 
The Honorable Sir C.T. Metcalfe, Bart. Governor of Allahabad. V. P. A. S. 
His Excellency Sir R. W. Horton, Governor of Ceylon. M. A. S. 
The Honorable Sir E. Ryan, Knt. Chief Justice. Pres. A. S. 
The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Calcutta, V. P. A. S. 
The Honorable Sir J. Peter Grant, Knt. M. A. S. 



Abercrombie, Lieut. W. Hazareebagh. 

Agra Book Club, Agra. 

Allan, J. Esq. Calcutta. 

Anburey, Col. Sir Thos. M. A. S. Cal. 

Artillery Book Club, Dum-Dum. 

Avdall, J. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 

Awdry, Capt. J. Hazareebagh. 

Bagshaw, R. J. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Baker, Lieut W. E. Engineers, Kurnal. 
Barlow, J. H. Esc|. Bagundee. 
Barrett, M. Esq. Calcutta. 
Beattie, A. Esq. M. A. S. Ditto. 
Bateman, Rev- J., M. A. S. Ditto. 
Beatson, Lieut. -Col. W. S. Ditto 
Beckett, J. O. Esq. Coel. 
Bedford, Capt. J. care of Messrs. McAr- 

thur and Co. Calcutta. 
Bell, Dr. H. P. Calcutta. 
Bengal Club, Ditto. 
Beresford, H. Esq. Kishnaghur. 
Bird, W. W. Esq. Calcutta. M. A. S. 

, R. M. Esq. Allahabad. 

Blake, Capt. B. care of A. Smith, Esq. 

Calcutta. 

. , H. C. Esq. Culna. 

, Lieut. M. T., 56th, Dinapur. 

Blechynden, A. H. Esq. Calcutta. 
Boileau, Capt. J. T., Engineers, Agra. 
, Lieut. A. H. E. Engineers, G. T. 

S. Agra. 
Book Club, 62nd N. I. Loodianah. 

, 24th N.I. care of Mr. T. Ostell. 

Boulderson, H. S. Esq. Seharunpur. 

, S. M. Esq. Azimgurh. 

Boutrous, F. Esq. Purneah. 
Bramley, Dr. M. J. Calcutta. 
Brander, J. M. Esq. Cuttack. 
Bridgman, J. H. Esq. Goruckpore. 
Briggs, Col. J., M. A. S. Nagpore. 
Brown, Capt. W. Seharanpur. 

, G. F. Esq. Jaunpur. 

Brownlow, C. Esq. Calcutta. 
Bruce, W. Esq. Ditto. 



Bryant, Col. Sir J., M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Burke, W. A. Esq. M. A. S. Ditto. 
Burney, Lieut. -Col. Ava. 
Bushby, G. A. Esq. Allahabad. 
Butter, Dr. D. Ghazipur. 
Byrn, W. Esq. Calcutta. 

Calcutta, Periodical Book Society. 
Campbell, Dr. D. Mirzapur. 

, Dr. A. Nipal. 

, J. Esq. Cawnpore. 

, Dr. A. Moulmein. 

Carr, W. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Carte, Dr. W. E. Hansi. 
Cautley,Capt. P. T., M. A. S. Seharanpur. 
Cheek, Dr. G. N. Bancoorah. 
Clarke, D. Esq. Calcutta. 
Coignard, E. Esq. Jungheepore. 
Colvin, Major J. Engr. Kurnal. 

, J. R. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 

Conolly, Lieut. E. B. Cawnpore. 
Conoylal Tagore, Babu, Calcutta. 
Cope, Gunner, Meerut. 
Cordier, Capt. &c. &c. Chandernagore. 
Cracroft, W. Esq. Dacca. 
Crawfurd, W. Esq. Banda. 
Crommelin, Capt. A. Engrs. Barrackpur. 
Csoma de Koros, A. Esq. M. A. S. 

Calcutta. 
Cimningham, Lt. J. D. Eng. Berhampur. 

■ , Lieut. A. Engr. Benares. 

Curnin, J. Esq. Calcutta. 
Currie, F. Esq. Ghazipur. 

Dean, Serjeant, Delhi. 
Debud£, Capt. H. Engrs. Ditto. 
Dixon, C. 6. Esq. Ajmere. 
Dobbs, A. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Dorin, J. A. Esq. Ditto. 
Douglas, H. Esq. Patna. 
Druinmond, Capt. J. G. Allahabad, 
Dubois, Col. A. Lucknow. 
Dunlop, Lieut. -Col. W. Calcutta. 
Durand, Lieut. H. M. Engrs. Kurnal. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Eckford, Dr. J. Allahabad. 
Edgeworth, M. P. Esq. Umbala. 
Editor, Calcutta Courier. 
. ■ , Ceylon Govt. Gaz- Colombo. 

i , Chinese Repository. 

, Asiatic Journal, England. 

Egerton, C. C. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Elliot, J. B. Esq. Patna. 

■ , H. M. Esq. Moradabad. 

Erskine, D. Esq. Elambazar. 
Evans, Dr. Geo. Calcutta. 
Everest, Rev. R., M. A. S. Delhi. 

■ , Major G. Ditto, Agra. 

Ewer, W. Esq, Ditto, Allahabad. 

Fagan, Lieut. G. H. Neemuch. 

■ , Brigr. C. S.. C. B. Ditto. 

, C- W. Esq. Seeonee, Jabbalpur. 
Falconer, Dr. H. care of Messrs. Thacker 

and Co. 
Fane, W. Esq. Allahabad. 
Fergusson, J. Esq. Calcutta. 
Fiddes, Col. T. Muttra. 
Finnis, Capt. J. 57th, Neemuch. 
Fisher, Lieut. T. Kachar. 
Fitzgerald, Capt. W. R. Engrs. Calcutta. 
Foley, Capt. W., M. A. S. Moulmein. 
Forbes, Capt. W. N. Engrs. M. A. S. 

Calcutta. 
Fordyce, Lieut. J. Azimgurh. 
Fraser, H. Esq. Delhi. 

. , A. Esq. Ditto. 

, C. A. Esq. Sagur. 

Garden, Dr. A. Calcutta. 
Gardener, Col. W. L. Lucknow. 
Gerard, Capt. A. Subatoo. 

. , Capt. P. Ditto. 

. , Dr. J. Ditto. 

Gilchrist, Dr. W. Yizianagaram. 
Gordon, J. R. Esq. Calcutta. 
Gorton, W. Esq. Benares. 
Gowan, Capt. E. P. Calcutta. 
Graham, J. Esq. Ditto. 
Grant, J. W. Esq. Ditto. 

, Dr. J. Ditto. 

Grant, W. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Gray, E. Esq. Calcutta. 
Greenlaw, C. B. Esq. Ditto. 
Gubbins, C. Esq. Delhi. 

Hamilton, H. S. Esq. Bhagulpore. 

Harding, Ben. Esq. Calcutta. 

Hare, D. Esq. M. A. S. Ditto. 

Harris, F. Esq. Ditto. 

Hart, Dr. T. B. Dinapur. 

Hasted, G. Esq. .Tauupore. 

Hearsey, Major J. B. Com. 2nd Local 

Horse, Sagur. 
Hodges. Lieut. A. Sunderbunds. 
Hodgson, B. H. Esq., M. A. S Nipal. 

■ , Col. J., M. A. S. Calcutta. 

Homfray, J. Esq. care of Messrs. Jessop 

and Co. 



-, Robt. Esq. Calcutta. 



Howrah Dock Company, Ditto. 
Houstown, It. Esq. Ditto. 
Huddleston, Lieut. Ii. Goruckpur. 



Hutchinson, Major G. Engrs. Calcutta. 
Hutton, Lieut. T. Neemuch. 
Hyderabad Book Society, Hyderabad. 

Inglis, R. Esq. care of W. Wilkinson, 

Esq. Calcutta. 
India Gaz. Press, Calcutta. 
Irvine, Major A. Engrs. C. B. Allahabad. 

2 copies 

Jackson, Dr. A. Calcutta. 
Jenkins, Capt. Fras. Assam. 
Johnston, Capt. J. Nagpore. 

Kali Kissen, Maharaja, Bahadur, Cal. 
Kean, Dr. Arch. Murshedabad. 
King, Dr. Geo. Patna. 
Kossipersaud Ghose, Babu, Calcutta, 
Kyd, J. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 

Laidly, J. W. Esq. Beerbhoom. 
Laing, J. W. Esq. Agra. 
Lamb, Dr. Geo. Dacca. 
Lambert, W. Esq. Allahabad. 
Langstaff, Dr. J., M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Laughman, J. Esq. Dumow. 
Lindsay, Col. A. Dum-Dum. 
Lloyd, Capt. Rich. Calcutta. 

, Major, W. A. Rungpur. 

Louis, T. Esq. Allahabad. 
Low, Lieut. -Col., M. A. S. Lucknow. 
Lowther, R. Esq. Ditto. 
Lushington, G. T. Esq. Calcutta. 

Macdonald, Lieut. R. Sagur. 
Macdowall, W. Esq. Rungpore. 
Macfarlane, D. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 
MacGregor, Dr. W. L. Ludianah. 
MacCheyne, W. O. H.Esq. Nsirab£d. 
Mackenzie, Lieut. J. Cawnpore. 
Macleod, Col.D. Engrs. MurshedfibiCd. 

■ , Capt., M. A. S. Moulmein. 

Macnaghten, W. H. Esq. M. A. S. Cal. 
Macqueen, Rev. J. Ditto Ditto. 
Manson, Capt. J. Bittour. 
Martin, Lieut. R. Zngnrs. Delhi. 
Masters, W. Esq. Calcutta. 
May, J. S. Esq. M. A. S. Kishnaghur. 
Mill, Rev. W. H., M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Miluer, Capt. E. T. Almorah. 
Military Board, Calcutta. 
Montgomery, Dr. W. Penang. 
Morgan, R. W. Esq. Tirhoot. 
Morley, C. Esq. Calcutta. 
Morris, J. C. Esq. Arrah. 
Mouat, Lt. Sir J. A. Bt. Engrs. Kurnal. 
Muller, A. Esq. Calcutta. 
Murray, Capt. H. R. Noacollv. 
Mozafferpui Book Club, Tirhoot. 

Napier, Lieut. J. Engrs. Seharunpnr. 
Nicolson, Capt. M. Jubbulpur. 
, S. Esq. Calcutta. 

Officers, 73rd N. I. Benares. 

, 40th N, I. i . 

Capt. Bonham, / Alra can. 
, H. M. 16th, Ghazipur. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



XI 



Officers, 12th N. I. Lucknow. 

,22nd N.I. j Lucknow . 

Capt. Sampson, J 
Oliver, Col. F. Nasirabad. 
Ommaney, Lieut. E. L. Engrs. Dacca. 

, M. C.Esq. Sagur. 

Ostell, T. Esq. Calcutta. 

Pakenham, T. Esq. Calcutta. 
Parental Ac. Institution, Ditto. 
Parker, H. M. Esq. Ditto. 
Patrick, W. Esq. Fort Gloster. 
Pearson, Dr. J. T., M . A. S. Calcutta. 
Pemberton, Capt. R. B., M. A. S. Cal. 
Penning, Dr. J. Calcutta. 
Persidb Narain Sing, Benares. 
Piddington, H. Esq. Choradinga Fac- 
tory, Niaseri. 
Pigg, T. Esq. Calcutta. 
Playfair, Dr. Geo. Meerut. 
Plumb, J. B. Esq. Calcutta. 
Poole, Col. C. Ditto. 
Presgrave, Col. D. Sagur. 
Prinsep, H. T. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 

, C. R. Esq- M. A. S. Calcutta. 

Proprietor of the Englishman Press, Cal. 
Pyle, J. C Esq. Calcutta. 

Rajkrishna Mukarjy, Fort William. 
Radhacaunt Deb, Babu, M. A. S. Cal. 
Ramcomul Sen, Ditto, Ditto, Ditto. 
Ramsay, Capt. W. H. 
Ranken, Dr. J. Delhi. 
Rattray, R. H. Esq. Calcutta. 
Renny, Lieut. T. Engrs. Nagoond. 
Renauld, F. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Richy, Monsr. A. L., M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Robertson, T. C. Esq. Calcutta. 
Robison, C. K. Esq. M. A. S. Ditto. 
Ross, D. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 

, Capt. D. Gwalior. 

Routh, W. de H. Boolundshuhr. 
Row, Dr. J. Benares. 
Ruspini, Rev. W. Ghazipur. 
Rassomoy Dutt, Babu M.A. S. Calcutta. 

Sage, Capt, W. A., M. A. S. Dinapur. 
Sale, Lieut. T. H. Delhi. 
Sanders, Capt. E. Engrs. Cawnpur. 
Sandys, T. E. Esq. Arrah. 
Satchwell, Capt. J. Dinapur. 
Saunders, Geo. Esq. Calcutta. 

, P. Esq. Allighur. 

, J. O. B. Esq. Ditto. 

Scott, D. Esq. Burdwan. 
Seaton, Lieut. T. Jamalpore. 
Seppings, J. M. Esq. MA. S. Calcutta. 
Sevestre, Robt. Esq. Calcutta. 
Siddons, Lieut. J. Engrs. Chittagong. 

, G. J. Esq. Calcutta. 

Shaw,T. A. Esq. care of Messrs Bruce and 

Co. Calcutta. 
Sleeman, Capt. W. H. Jabbalp ur. 



Sloane, W, Esq. Tirhoot. 
Smith, Col. T. P. Dinapur. 

, S. and Co. Calcutta. 

, Capt. E. J. Engrs. Allahabad. 

Smoult, W. H. Esq. Calcutta. 
Smyth, Capt. W. H. Engrs. Ditto. 
Speed, D. W. H. Esq. Ditto. 
Spiers, A. Esq. Allahabad. 
Spilsbury, Dr. G. G. Jabbalpur. 
Stacy, Major L. R. Nasirabad. 
Stainforth, F. Esq. Gomckpur. 
Stephenson, J. Esq. Calcutta. 
Stevenson, Dr. W. Lucknow. 
Stokes, Dr. J. Hameerpur. 
Stopford, J. S. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Strong, F. P. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Sweetenham, H. Esq. Futtygurh. 
Swiney, Dr. J. Calcutta. 
Sylhet Book Club, Sylhet. 
Syttasharan Ghoshal. Calcutta. 

Tanner, Capt. W. H. Monghyr. 
Terraneau, Capt. W. H. Dacca. 
Thomas, Dr. W. Barrackpur. 

, E. T. Esq. Almorah. 

Thomason, J. Esq. M. A. S. Azimgurh. 
Thompson, Capt. G. Engrs. Hazaribagh. 

, Capt. J. Engrs. Calcutta. 

Thoresby, Capt. C. Benares. 
Tickell, Col. R. Engrs. Barrackpur. 
Tregear, V. Esq. Jaunpur. 
Trade Association Rooms, Calcutta. 
Trail, G. W. Esq. Kemaon. 
Tremenhere, Lieut. G. B. Engrs. Delhi. 
Trevelyan, C. E. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Trotter, R. Esq. Ghazipur. 
Troyer, Capt. J., M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Turner, T. J. Esq. Seharanpur. 
Twining, W. Esq. M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Tytler, J. Esq. Ditto, Ditto. 

Vicary, Lieut. N. Meerut. 

Wade, Capt. C. M., M. A. S. Ludianah. 
Walters, H. Esq. Cape. 
Wallich, Dr. N., M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Warner, Capt. J. H. Bauleah. 
Waugh, Lieut. A. H. Engrs. Sagur. 
Wells, F. O. Esq. Calcutta. 
Western, Lieut. J. R. Engrs. Delhi. 
Westmacott, Capt. G. E. 37th N. I. 

Darung, in Assam. 
White, Rev. E. Cawnpur. 
Wilcox, Capt. R., M. A. S. Agra. 
Wilkinson, W. Esq. Pooree. 
, L. Esq. Assistant Resident, 

Bhopal. 
Winfield, Capt. J. S. Bhopal. 
Wise, Dr.T. A. care of T. Ostell, Esq. 

, J. P. Esq. Dacca. 

Withers, Rev. G. N., M. A. S. Calcutta. 
Wooburn, Dr. D. Shirghaty. 
Woollaston, M. W. Esq. Calcutta. 



xn 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Subscribers at 

The Bombay As. Soc. 

Editor, Bombay Literary Gaz. 

Burn, A. Esq. Assistant Surgeon, Akul- 

cote 
R. C. Chambers, Esq. Surat. 
D. A. Eisdale, Esq. Poona. 
Col. S. Goodfellow, Chief Engineer, 

Bombay. 
Capt. Thos. Jervis, Engineers, Bombay. 
J. S. Law, Esq. Surat. 
Dr. J. McNeil, with the Persian Embassy, 

via. Bombay. 



Bombay, fyc. 

J. J. Malvery, Esq. Bombay. 
C. Moorhead, Esq. Mahabalishur Hills. 
Dr. J. McLennan, Bombay. 
Capt. R. Mignan, Ditto. 
Dr. Geo. Smytton, Ditto. 
Lt. R. Shortreede, Poona. 
Rev. J. Stevenson, Ditto. 
Shrecreestra Wassoodewjee, Chief Se- 
cretary's Office, Bombay. 
Hon'ble J. Sutherland, Ditto. 
Captain G. Twemlow, Arungabad. 
W. Wathen, Esq. Bombay. 



Subscribers at Madras. 



Dr. Baikie, Neelgerries. 
Lieut. J. Braddock, Madras. 
Lieut. Balfour. 
R. Cole, Esq. 
Col. W. Cullen. 
Lieut. T. Ditmas. 
H. S. Fleming, Esq. 
J. M. Heath, Esq. 
Madras Club . 



Lieut. S. Macpberson. 

Dr. J. N. Malcolmson. 

J. C. Morris, Esq. 

Capt. W. Macleod, 35th N. I. 

Capt. J. A. Moore. 

Hon'ble W. Oliver. 

J. B. Pharoah, Esq. 

T. G. Taylor, Esq. H. C. Astronomer. 



Subscribers in England. 

W. H. Benson, Esq. j. p. R oy i e , Esq. 

Capt. A. Burnes. W. Saunders, Esq. 

Lieut. J. S.Burt, Engineers. G. Swinton, Esq. 

Sir Charles Grey. H. H. Wilson, Esq. Prof. &c. 

The Journal is circulated to all learned Societies intitled to receive a copy of the 
Asiatic Society's Researches. 



CONTENTS. 



No. 25.— JANUARY. 

Page. 

I. — Professor Schlegel's Enigma. — Mode of expressing numerals in the San- 
skrit and Tibetan language, .. .. .. .. . . i 

II. — A Brief Description of Herat. By Mohiin Lai. . . . . . . 9 

III. — On the Climate of the Fossil Elephant. By the Rev. R. Everest, 

M. G. S., &c. .. .. .. .. .. is 

IV. — Chirra Punji, and a detail of some of the favourable circumstances which 
render it an advantageous Site for the Erection of an Iron and Steel Manu- 
factory on an extensive scale. By Lieut.-Col. T. C. Watson, ., 25 

V. — Description of the Mode of Extracting Salt from the damp Sand-beds of 
the River Jumna, as practised by the Inhabitants of Bundelkhand. By Lieut. 
J. S. Burt, Engineers, .. .. ,. .. ..33 

VI. — On the Saline Nature of the Soil of Ghazipoor, and Manufacture of Com- 
mon Salt, as practised by the Natives of the Viliages of Tuttulapoor, 
Ratouly, Sahory, Chilar, and Becompoor. By Mr. J. Stephenson, Supt. 
H. C. Saltpetre Factories in Behar, .. . ; ..36 

VII. — Progress of the Boring for Coal at Jamutra in Cutch. By Capt. Grant, 

Engineers, .. .. .. .. .. ..40 

VIII. — Discovery of an Ancient Town near Behut, in the Doab. By Capt. P. 

T. Cautley, Supt. Doab Canal, . . . . . . . . 43 

IX. — A Brief Account of the System adopted by Divers in the Deccan, for the 
Recovery of Valuables lost in the Tanks and Rivers of that Province. By 
Lieut. G. J. Taylor, 7th Mad. Lt. Cav., .. .. .. ..45 

X.— Register of the Weather at Futtehgurh, (Lat. 27° 21' N. Long. 79" 30' E.) 

from April 1832, to October 1833. By M. P. Edgeworth, Esq. C. S. . . 46 

XI. — Note on the Botanical Specimens from Mount Ophir, . . . . 48 

XII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. .. ..49 

XIII. — Miscellaneous. 

1. — Correction of an Error in Gregory's Mathematics, . . . . 54 

2. — Tufa Formation in Persia, . . . . .. ib. 

3. — Gigantic Natural Arch, .. .. ..35 

Meteorological Register, . . . . . . 56 

No. 26.— FEBRUARY. 

I. — Extracts from Tibetan Works, translated by M. Alexander Csoma de Koros, 57 

II. — Some Remarks upon the Country to the South-west of Hoshungabad, and 
of the Soil, Cultivation, &c. of that part of the Valley of the Nerbudda, situ- 
ated between Hoshungabad and the Fort of Mokrai, in the lower range of 
the Kali-bheet Hills. By Lieut. R. H. Miles, .. .. ..61 

II. — A Summary Description of the Geology of the country between Hoshun- 
gabad on the Nerbudda, and Nagpoor, by the direction of Baitool. By 
Lieut. John Finnis, 51 s^ Regt. Asst. Exce. Offr. 14th Divn,, .. .. 71 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page. 

IV. — Further Information regarding the Siah Posh Tribe, or reputed descendants 

of the Macedonians. By Munshi Mohan L41, .. .. ..76 

V. — Abstract of a Meteorological Register kept at Mozafferpur, inTirhut, (Lat. 

26 u 7' 29" N. Long, 85° 24' 30" E.,) by T. Dashwood, Esq. C. S. . . 79 

VI.— On the Land Shells of India. By Lieut. Thomas Hutton, 37th Regt. Na- 
tive Infantry, . . . . . . . . 81 

VII. — A Catalogue of Stars to be obsei'ved with the Moon, in March and April, 
with the view of determining the difference of longitude of the places whereat 
they may be observed. By John Curnin, Esq. F. R. A. S. . . . . 94 

VIII. — Miscellaneous. 

Anniversary Meeting of the Bengal Asiatic Society, Saturday, 11th May, 
1833, .. .. -- .. .. ..96 

IX. — Meteorological Register, . . . . . . . . . . 104 

No. 27— MARCH. 

I. — A Description, with Drawings, of the Ancient Stone Pillar at Allahabad 
called Bhim Sen's Gad* or Club, with accompanying copies of four inscrip- 
tions engraven in different characters upon its surface. By Lieut. T. S. 
Burt, Engineers, .. .. .. .. .. .. 105 

II. — Note on Inscription No. 1 of the Allahabad Column. By James Prinsep, 

Sec. &c... .. .. .. .. .. ..114 

III. — Remarks upon the second Inscription of the Allahabad Pillar. By Captain 
A. Troyer, A. D. C. Sec. Sanscrit College, &c. .. .. lis 

IV. — Extract from a Journal kept by Captain F. T. Grant, of the Manipur Levy, 
during a Tour of Inspection on the Manipur Frontier, along the course of 
the Ningthee River, &c. in January 1832, .. .. ..124 

V. — Note on the Chiru Antelope. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. .. .. 138 

.VI. — Comparative Section and Tonnage of English and Indian Boats for River 

Navigation, .. .. . .. .. .. 136 

VII. — Climate of Seringapatam. Latitude 12. 45. N. Long, 76. 51. E. .. 138 

VII.— Catalogue of Stars to be observed with the Moon in May, 1834, . . 139 

IX. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. .. .. 141 

X. — Scientific Intelligence. 

1. — Royle's Illustrations of the Botany of the Himalaya Mountains. Part 1 . . . 143 

2. — Analysis of the Edible Moss of the Eastern Archipelago. By W. B. 

O'Shaughnessy, M. D. Asst. S\irg. H. C. S. .. .. .. 145 

XI. — European Science, .. .. .. .. .. 147 

XII. — Meteorological Register, .. .. .. .. 152 

No. 28.— APRIL. 
I. — Memoir on the Ancient Coins found at Beghram, in the Kohistan of 

Kabul. By Chas. Masson, .. .. .. .. 152 

II. — Journal of a Route from Dera Ghazi-Khan, through the Veziri Country 

to Kabul. By Dr. Martin Honigberger, in a Letter to Captain C. M. 

Wade, Pol. Agent at Ludianah : Plate XIV. .. .. .. 175 

III. — On the Aptitude of the Himalayan Range for the Calture of the Tea Plant. 

By Dr. H. Falconer, Supt. of the H. C. Bot. Garden, Seharunpur, .. 178 

IV. — On the Efflorescence of Khari Nun, or Sulphate of Soda, as found native 

in the soil of Tirhut and Sarun, in the province of Behar. By Mr. J. 

Stephenson, Supt. H. C.'s Saltpetre Factories, &c. .. .. 188 

V.— Meteorological Register for 1833, kept atBancoora, by J. McRitchie, Esq. 190 
VI. — Experiments on the Preservation of Sheet Iron from Rust in India. By 

James Prinsep, Sec. &c. .. .. .. .. .. 191 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page. 
VII.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. ..193 

VIII. — European Science, .. .. .. .. .. 196 

IX.— Miscellaneous. 

1. Note on the description of the Iron Suspension Bridge near Sagur, .. 206 

2. Mr. Previte's mode of preserving bread for Ships, . . .. ib. 

3. Illustration of Herodotus' account of the mode of obtaining gold dust 

in the deserts of Kobi, . . . . . . . . ib. 

X. — Meteorological Register, . . . . . . . . . . 208 

No. 29.— MAY. 

I. — Translation of an Inscription in the Pali and Burma Languages on a 
stone slab from Ram&vati, (Ramree Island,) in Arracan, presented to the 
Asiatic Society by H. Walters, Esq. C. S. as explained by Ratna Paula, 209 

II. — Translation of an Inscription in the Pali character and Burmese Language, 

on a stone at Buddh Gya, in Behar. Plate XVI. . . . . 214 

III. — Classification of N£w£rs or Aborigines of N£pal Proper, preceded by 
the most authoritative Legend relative to the Origin and Early History of 
the Race, by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., .. .. .. 215 

IV. — Further Account of the Remains of an ancient Town, discovered at 
Behat, near Seharanpur. By Capt. P. T. Cautley, Art. Supt. Doab 
Canal, .. .. .. .. .. .. 221 

V. — Note on the Coins found by Captain Cautley, at Behat. By James Prinsep, 

Sec. &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. 227 

VI. — A Brief Sketch of the Present State of Georgia, now a Russian Province. 
By Captain Robert Mignan, Bombay European Regiment, Fellow of the 
Linnaian Society, and Member of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great 
Britain and Ireland, .. .. .. .. .. 232 

VII. — Explanation of the Sketch giving a Geological Section of the Strata from 
Nimach to Merta, published in the Asiatic Researches, vol. XVIII. page 
92. By James Hardie, Esq. Beng. Med. Service, .. .. 238 

VIII.— Latitude of the Church Bungalow at Nasir&b6d, by altitudes (170) of 
Polaris out of the Meridian, observed with a Troughton's lS-inch Altitude 
and Azimuth Circle. By Col. Thos. Oliver, . . . . . . 243 

IX. — Population of the City and District of Allahabad, .. .. 244 

X. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. ., ,. ib. 

XI. — Scientific Intelligence. , 

1. — Willard's Treatise on the Music of Hindustan, .. .. .. 247 

2. — Representation in Roman Characters of the principal Alphabets in Eastern 
India, .. .. .. .. .. ib. 

XII. — Meteorological Register, .. .. .. 256 

No. 30.— JUNE. 

I. — Restoration of the Inscription, No. 2, on the Allahabad Column. By the 
Rev. W. H. Mill, D. D. Principal of Bishop's College, Vice-President of the 
Asiatic Society, &c. . . . . . . . . . . 257 

II. — Journal of a Tour through Georgia, Persia, and Mesopotamia. By Capt. 
Mignan, Bombay European Regiment, Fellow of the Linnaian Society of 
London, and M. R. A. S. .. .. .. .. ..271 

III. — On the Adaptation of the Roman Alphabet to the Orthography of Oriental 
Languages, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 281 

IV.— On Catadioptric Microscopes. By J. W. Laidly, Esq. .. .. 288 

V. — Notes relative to the collection of some Geological specimens, in the Kasia 

Hills between Assam and Nauklow. By W. Cracoft, Esq. C. S. .. 293 



XV CONTENTS. 

Page. 
VI.— Observations of the Moon and Moon-culminating Stars at Sehdranpur, 
Nasirabad, and Dholeswar, with the Longitudes deduced, .. ..297 

VII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, . .. .. ... 300 

VIII.— Indian Zoology, .. .. •• •• ..304 

IX. — Miscellaneous. 

1. — On Spherical Mirrors, .. •• •• •• •• 308 

2.— Replies to Lieut. Burt's Questions, by Lieut. W. S. Jacob, Engineers,.. 310 
X. — Meteorological Register, .. .. •• •• •• 312 

No. 31.— JULY. 

I.— On the Coins and Relics delivered by M. le Chevalier Ventura, General in 
the Service of Mah£ R;ija' Ranjit Singh, in the Tope of Maniky£la. By 
James Prinsep, F. R. S. Sec. As. Soc. &c. .. .. ..313 

II.— Memoir on the Topes and Antiquities of Afghanistan. By J. G. Gerard, 
Esq. Surgeon, Beng. Est., addressed to the President of the Asiatic Society, 
from Jel£l£b&d, 4th Dec. 1833, .. •• •• ..321 

III.— Extracts from Mr. Masson's Letter to Dr. J. G. Gerard, on the Excava- 
tion of Topes, dated Tattung, 22nd March, 1834. .. .. ..329 

IV.— Journal of a Tour through Georgia, Persia, and Mesopotamia. By Capt. 
Mignan, Bombay European Regiment, Fellow of the Linnaean Soeiety of 
London, and M. R. A. S. .. .. •• •• ..332 

V.— Supplement to the Historical Remarks on the Allahabad Inscription, No. 2. 

By the Rev. W. H. Mill, D. D. &c. . . • • • • 339 

VI.— On the Influence of the Moon on Atmospherical Phenomena. By the Rev. 

R. Everest, M. G.S.M. A. S. .. •• •• ..345 

VIL— On the Measurement of the Ilahy Guz, of the Emperor Akber. By W. 

Cracroft, Esq. .. .. •• ..360 

VIII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. •• 362 

IX. — Miscellaneous. 

I.— Note on the Locality of the Rajagriha, of the Town of that name, in 

Behar, and of a Hot Spring in the neighbouring Hills, . . . • 366 

2. — Note on the Temperature of Wells at N&han, . . • • 366 

3.— Fall of Fish, .. .. .. •• ..367 

4. — Transactions of the Batavian Society, vol. xiv. . . . . • • 367 

5. — Protection of Tinned Sheet Iron, from Rust, . .. •• 367 

X. — Meteorological Register, . . . . • • • • 368 

No. 32.— AUGUST. 

I.— Memoir on the U'sbek State of Kokan, properly called Khokend, (the 
Ancient Ferghana,) in Central Asia. By W. H. Wathen, Esq. Persian 
Secretary to the Bombay Government, &c. . . . . . • 369 

II.— Note of a Pilgrimage undertaken by an U'sbek and his two Sons from 
Khckend or Kokan, in Tartary, through Russia, &c. to Mecca. Obtained 
in conversation with the parties, by W. H. Wathen, Esq. &c. .. 379 

III.— European Speculations on Buddhism. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. C. S. 

Resident at Nipal, &c. . . . . • • • • • • 382 

IV.— Geological Section across the Valley of the Nerbudda, from Tendukh^rl to 

Bittoul. By J. G. Spilsbury, Esq. Ben. Med. Est- Plate xxiii., .. 388 

V.— Note on the Fossil Bones of the Nerbudda valley, discovered by Dr. G. G. 
Spilsbury, near Nersinhpur, &c. By J. Prinsep, Secretary, &c. (See 
Plate xxiv). .. .. .. .. •• •• 396 

VI.— Determination of the Errors of Division of the Mural Circle at the Madras 

Observatory. By T. G, Taylor, Esq. H. C. Astronomer, Fort St. George,. . 403 



CONTENTS. XVH 

Page. 
VII. — Table of the Times of High Water at the principal places between Calcutta 

and Point Palrairas, prepared by Mr. P.G.Sinclair, .. .. 408 

VIII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. .. 410 

IX. — Miscellaneous. 

J. — Roman Orthography of Oriental words, .. .. .. 413 

2.— Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, .. .. 417 

X. — Catalogue of Birds of the Raptorial and Insessorial Orders, (systematically 
arranged,) observed in the Dukhun by Lieut. -Colonel W. H. Sykes, Bom- 
bay Army, F. L. S., F. Z. S., M. R. A. S. .. .. ..418 

XI. — Meteorological Register, .. .. .. .. 424 

No. 33.— SEPTEMBER. 
I. — Further Remarks on M. Remusat's Review of Buddhism. By B. H. 

Hodgson, Esq. Resident at the Ne"p<il Court, &c. . . . . . . 425 

II. — NDte on two Coins of the same species as those found at Behat, having 

Greek inscriptions. By Major D. L. Stacy, (Plate XXV.) . . . . 431 

III. — Continuation of Observations on the Coins and Relics, discovered by 

General Ventura, in the Tope of Maniky&la. By J. Prinsep, Sec. &c. . . 436 
IV. — Journal of a Tour through Georgia, Persia, and Mesopotamia. By Capt. 

R. Mignan, Bombay European Regiment, F. L. S. and M. R. A. S. .. 456 

V. — Observations on the Golden Ore, found in the Eastern Provinces of Mysore, 

in the year 1802. By Lieut. John Warren, H. M. 33rd Regt. . . 463 

VI. — Abstract Statement of 412 Villages in Zillah Bareilly. Settlement under 

Regulation VII. 1822. By H. S. Boulderson, Esq. Collector, .. 475 

VII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. .. ib. 

VIII. — Miscellaneous. 

1. — On the Making of Chinese Paper : translated from the 23rd Volume of the 
Pun Tsaou Kang Muh, .. .. .. .. 477 

2. — Preventing the adhesion of earthy crust to the inner surface of Steam 
Boilers, .. .. .. .. .. .. 479 

IX. — Meteorological Register, . . . . . . . . 480 

No. 34.— OCTOBER. 

I. — Notice of some Ancient Inscriptions in the Characters of the Allahabad 

Column. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Resident in N£pal, .. .. 481 

II. — Note on the Mathiah L£th Inscription. By James Prinsep, Sec. &c. . . 483 
III. — Second Note on the Bhilsa" Inscription. By the same, .. .. 488 

IV. — Inscription on the Iron Pillar at Delhi. By the same, .. .. 494 

V. — Restoration and Translation of some Inscriptions at the Caves of Cai'li. By 

the Rev. J. Stevenson, .. .. .. .. .. 495 

VI. — Remarks on M. Remusat's Review of Buddhism. By B. H. Hodgson, 

Esq. Resident at the Court of N£pal, &c. .. .. .. 499 

VII. — On the Use of the Siddh&ntas in the Work of Native Education. By 

Lancelot Wilkinson, Esq. Bomb. C. S., As. Resident at Bhopal, .. 504 

VIII.— On the Land Shells of India. By Lieut. Thos. Hutton, 37th Regt. N. I. 520 
IX. — Account of the Bearded Vulture of the Himalaya. By the same, .. 522 

X— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. .. 524 

XI. — Illustrations of the Botany and other branches of the Natural History of 

the Hiin&layan Mountains and of the Flora of Kashmir ; Part II. By J. 
Forbes Royle, Esq! F. L. S. and G. S. M. R. A. S., &c. .. ..530 

XII.— Col. Sykes' Catalogue of Birds of the Insessorial Order in the Dukhun, 536 
XIII.— Meteorological Register, .. .. .. .. .. 544 



xviii CONTENTS. 

Page. 
No. 35.— NOVEMBER. 

I.— Extracts from the Mohit, that is the Ocean, a Turkish work on Navigation 
in the Indian Seas. Translated by the Baron Joseph Von Hammer, Prof. 
Orient. Lang. Vienna, Hon. Mem. As. Soc. &c. . . . . . 545 

jj^ Account of some Inscriptions in the Abyssinian character, found at Hassan 

Ghorab, near Aden, on the Arabian coast. By Lieutenant Wellsted, Indian 
Navy, attached to the Survey department, . .. .. 554 

III, — Further Information on the Topes of Manikyala, being the translation of 
an Extract from a Manuscript Memoir on Ancient Taxila, by Mons. A. 
Court, Engineer Officer in the Army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, . . 555 

IV. — Note on the Coins discovered by M. Court. By Jas. Prinsep, &c . . 562 

V. Note on the Brown Liquid, contained in the Cylinders, from Manikyala. 

By the same, . . • . . . • . . . • • 567 

VI.— Journal of a Tour through Georgia, Persia, and Mesopotamia. By Capt. 

R. Mignan, Bombay European Regt. F. L. S. and M. R. A. S. .. 576 

VII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. .. .. 590 

VI 1 1 . — Miscellaneous. 

1. — Influence of Colour on the Absorption and Exhalation of Odorous Princi- 
ples, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..594 

2. — Chinese Method of making Gongs and Cymbals, . . . . . . 595 

IX. — Catalogue of Birds (systematically arranged) of the Rasorial, Grallatorial, 
and Natatorial Orders, observed in the Dukhun by Lieut. -Colonel W. H. 
Sykes, Bombay Army, F. L. S., F. Z. S., &c. &c. .. ..597 

X. — Meteorological Register, . . . . . . . . . . 600 

No. 36.— DECEMBER. 

I. — Some Account of the Territory and Inhabitants of Naning, in the Malayan 
Peninsula. By Lieut. J. T. Newbold, 23rd Regiment, Madras Native In- 
fantry, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 

II. — Notice of an Ancient Mahal or Palace near Jaunpur, in which some Hindu 

Coins were lately dug up. By V. Tregear, Esq. .. .. .. 617 

III. — Price of Grain at Allygurh, near Delhi, from the year 1804 to 1832 inclu- 
sive. By Edward Stirling, Esq. C. S. .. .. .. ..620 

IV.— On the Nepalese Method of Refining Gold. By Dr. A. Campbell, Asst. 

Surgeon attached to the Residency of N£pal, . . . . . . 622 

V. — Notice of some Fossil Impressions occurring in the Transition Limestone 
of Kamaon. By Dr. J. McClelland, . . . . . . . . 628 

VI. — Further notice of the Influence of the Moon on Atmospherical Phenomena. 

By the Rev. R. Everest, M. G. S., &c. .. .. .. .. 631 

VII. — Correction of a mistake regarding some of the Roman coins found in the 
Tope at Manikyala opened by M. Court. By Lieut. Alexander Cunning- 
ham, Engineers, .. .. .. .. .. .. 635 

VIII. — Description of the Fossil Elephant's Tooth from Somrotee, near Na- 

hun. By Lieut. W. E. Baker, Engineers,.. .. .. .. 638 

IX. — Catalogue of Birds (systematically arranged) of the Rasorial, Gral- 
latorial, and Natatorial Orders, observed in the Dukhun, by Lieut. -Colonel 
W. H. Sykes, Bombay Army, F. L. S. F. Z. S., &c. &c. .. .. 639 

X. — Miscellaneous. 

1. Climate of the Nilgiris , .. .. .. ., .. .. 650 

2. Tibetan Grammar, . . , , . . 653 

3. Note regarding temperature of wells, .. .. ..655 

XL— Meteorological Register, .. .. .. .. .. 656 



ERRATA. 



In the December Number of the Second Volume. 

Page 654, dele Note. 

655, line 11, for * 514dth' read * .514dth.' 

15,/or * X (572,300)2 &c.' read « -f (572,300)* X by 

3, from bottom, for ' -}-' read ' -?-.' 

659, 32, for ' W. Burt' read ' T. S. Burt.' 

In the Present Volume. 



52.9 
1609 



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Page 53, 39, for ' granity,' read ' granite.' 

58, last line of Tibetan, for dj^ read^S* 

61, line 3, of ditto, 2nd Stanza, for TJC^SJ" read JJ^*V 
111, 30, for ' 178,'n?ad« 278.' 
226, Note, for ' svasu^ read ' svasru^ 
251, 4, from top, before ' astronomy,' insert ' on.' 
— 18, from foot, for ' Hercules,' read ' A. Herculis.' 



XX ERRATA. 

Page 252, line 7, from top, for * simi,' read * semi.' 

— 13, from top, for ' attractions, read ' attraction.' 

— 8, from foot, (note) for ' in,' read ' on.' 

253, 7, from top, for ' extinction,' read ' extrication.' 

— 12, from foot, for * to have,' read ' we have.' 

— 9, from foot, place the comma before ' has.' 

254, 8, from top, for ' monogram,' read ' monograph.' 

— 18, from foot, for ' greater comparatively,'' read ' comparatively 

greater? 

— 17, from foot, for ' heat-conducting probable,' read ' probable 

heat-conducting.' 

255, I, for ' Phlegrsen,' read ' Phlegraean.' 

— 16, from top, for ' precipices,' read ' precipitous.' 

— 18, from foot,/or • of,' read ' at.' 

In the Latin interlineation of the column 1. 12, in the large Devanagari plate, 
for ' Magnatis,' read ' Magni.' 

310, I j for ' for,' read ' from.' 

313, 10, for ' near Kabul' read ' in the Punj&b, lat. 32 . long. 72 east 

of Paris.' 
315, 25, for ' mass,' read ' chamber.' 
367, 24, for ' seer' read falus (or pice)=282 grs. troy. 
378, in the General Table,/or ' Timutchir,' read ' Timutchin.' 
405, line 17, for ' 3° 0' 0",' read « 0° 0' 0".' 
409, in column headed Saugur,ybr ' 12 18,' read ' 11 18.' 
443, line 9, for « 10 and 11' read ' 9 and 10.' 

10, for ' own,' read ' now.' 
447, 37, after Farnaviz, insert (fard-navis, record-writer.) 
450, last line, for ' Larhkhara,' read ' Lashkhara.' 
452, 14, for MIOPA read MI0PA. 

498, 21, the 19th character, J, should be fa like the one immediately 

preceding it. 
560, line 34, for ' cross,' read ' crop.' 
593, 4, /or* univalve,' read ' bivalve.' 

ADDENDUM. 

Page 450, line 10, insert as afoot note,* Dr. J. Swiney has pointed out to me 
the following passage in the " Analecta Antiquitatum et Consuetudinurn Persica- 
rum," contained m a work entitled, " Asia, by Baptista Gramaye," page 377. 
" Dianam Persica voce Nanneam vocabant, et certis mysteriis colebant." 
This is precisely the word on the reverse of the Kanerkos coin, and would 
prove the figure to represent the moon, a very probable circumstance, as some 
coins since discovered place her in direct connection with Mithra, the sun. It 
also readily accounts for the word Mao, on numerous coins of the same class, 
that being doubtless the Zend for Mas (Sunscrit) and Mali (Persian), the moon. — > 
J. P. 

[For Directions to the Binder see the last page of the volume.] 



JOURNAL 



OF 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



No. 25. — January, 1834. 



I. — Professor Schlegel's Enigma. — Mode of expressing numerals in the 
Sanskrit and Tibetan languages. 

At the end of the pamphlet lately addressed by Professor Schlegel 
to Sir James Mackintosh, on the subject of the Oriental Translation 
Committee of the Royal Asiatic Society*, we findamorceau of enlighten- 
ment for the continental orientalists, on the Hindu method of expressing 
numerals by symbolical words, which the learned author states himself 
to be the first to expound to European scholars. 

It is certainly a curious circumstance that neither Colebrooke, Davis, 
nor Bentley, when quoting, translating, and commenting on the text of 
Sanskrit astronomical works, should have taken occasion to explain the 
system invariably used by their authors in expressing verbally the num- 
bers occurring in their computations and formulae ; it must doubtless be 
attributed to their considering the subject too trite and obvious to need 
any remark, or otherwise the very passage quoted by Professor 
Schlegel would surely have elicited some observation by the translator. 
It is true however that many of the terms thus technically adopted by 
the Sanskrit arithmeticians and astronomers, as the only mode perhaps 
of screwing the uncouth elements they had to deal with into the procrus- 

* This pamphlet contains also an attack upon Dr. H. H. Wilson, which that 
gentleman will doubtless answer for himself, and some severe criticism on the 
careless manner in which oriental works are issued from the press by Calcutta Edi- 
tors generally. We trust our Orientalists will be able to shew that such censure is not 
deserved, or at any rate that it applies but partially ; and we should like to have the 
opportunity of pointing out those works (such as the Shah nama) to the accuracy of 
which real editorial care was devoted, and on which the confidence of the reader 
may be implicitly placed. — Ed. ^ 



2 Professor Schlegel's Enigma. [Jan. 

tean bed of poetical metre, are not to be found in the best dictionaries ; 
for instance, veda, for 4 ; ananta for ; Rudra for 7 ; while on the other 
hand many, such as m, for zero ; vasu, for 8, &c. will be found in Wilson's 
last edition. 

I extract the Professor's remarks at length, since equal credit is 
due to his ingenuity in unravelling the mystery, in the absence of native 
pundits, who would have cleared it up in a moment, as if it had alto- 
gether been a sealed book of hieroglyphics to the more fortunate 
student on this side the water, as to the rising schools of Sanskrit 
philosophy in Germany and France. 

Explication d'une Enigme. 

"Dans les Recherckes Asiatiques, vol. xii. p. 231, M. Colebrooke citeun au- 
teur qui dit que le nombre des jours side>aux compris dans la grande dpoque, 
appetee Calpa, est: 1,582,236,450,000. II donne le texte m£me, dont les mots 
qui r^pondent a ce nombre, signifient litteralement: quatre espacesvides (ouzero), 
cinq, veda, goilt, feu, jumeaux, aile, huit,fleche, lune. Tout ces mots sont r£unis 
en un seul compose - agr^gatif. 

Qu'on se figure maintenant l'embarras des ^coliers interpeltes pour expliquer 
comment cette bigarrure fait precis^ment un trillion cinq cents quatre-vingt-deux 
billions, deux cents trente six millions, et quatre cents cinquante mille. La chose 
est pourtant bien sure : il ne peut y avoir erreur. Voici le mot de l'enigme. Les 
math^maticiens Indiens ont une m^thode d'exprimer les chiffres par desnoms res- 
treints a un certain nombre d'objets. lis commencent a la droite par les unites, 
et remontent vers les chiffres d'un ordre supdrieur. Cela a l'air d'une pueVilite", il 
y a pourtant la-dessous un but raisonnable. Ou a voulu se pr^munir contre l'alt£- 
ration des chiffres qui se glisse si facilement dans les livres copies a. la main. Quand 
le traite" etait r^dige" en vers, comme c'est un ancien usage dans l'Inde d'employer 
la versification meme dans les livres scientifiques, la garantie en devenait d'autant 
plus forte. 

Voici l'explication. Les deux premiers termes, £tant des chiffres sans d^guise- 
ment, n'en ont besoin. Veda ; ces livres sacr^s sout au nombre de quatre. Gout : 
on en compte six esp^ces principales : le doux, l'amer, le sak:, l'aigre, le poignant 
et l'astringent. Feu signifie trois ; par rapport aux trois feux sacr£s que les brah- 
manes entretiennent. Jumeaux, aile, signifient naturellement deux ; le dernier mot 
est employe" aussi pour les deux moiti^s d'une lunaison. Fleche signifie cinq : ce 
sont les cinq filches du dieu de 1' amour, dont les pointes sont armies de fleurs. 
Ces filches sont un embleme des cinq sens par lesquels 1' amour p^netre dans l'ame. 
Lune est un, parcequ'il n'y a qu'une seule lune. 

On voit cependant qu'il y a la dedans quelque chose de conventionnel. Par 
exemple, le mot de gout, chez les Indiens comme chez nous, est employe" aussi 
m£taphoriquement, pour les diff^rentes impressions que produit la poe^ie. Alors 
l'£nume>ation varie de huit a. dix. II faut dont savoir que, lorsque ce mot est 
substitue" a un chiffre, Ton doit entendre le gout materiel. 

Un autre auteur cite" par M. Colebroke, exprime le m£me nombre de la ma- 
niere suivante, &c." 



1834.] Professor Schlegel's Enigma. 3 

The only difference in the second enumeration quoted by the Professor 
consists in the substitution of ocean, quality, vas'u, and lunar day, for 
4, 3, 8 and 15, respectively : of which vasu alone requires explana- 
tion, being the name of a species of inferior divinities, eight in number. 
The astronomical pundit of the Sanskrit College has enabled me to 
publish a catalogue of the principal terms thus numerically employed in 
the Surya-siddhdnta, the Arya-siddhdnta, the Bhdsvatis, and the other 
numerous astronomical works of the Hindus. It does not seem neces- 
sary to offer any explanation, beyond a simple translation of the terms, 
since in most cases their origin is obvious to such as are acquainted with 
the metaphysical or mythological systems of the Hindus. The only 
equivocal expression in the list appears to be ^*f?J, occean, which may 
either represent four or seven : but it is invariably employed in the former 
sense in the Surya-Siddhanta and other best authorities. 

The mode of expressing any number greater than nine is, by placing 
consecutively the term for each figure, beginning with the lowest or 
right-hand figure, as will readily be understood from the example quoted 
by Professor Schlegel ; and as there are numerous synonymes of most 
of the simple terms, which may be selected as they may be the 
best adapted to the metre of the intended aslok, an infinity of compounds 
may be thus formed which must be perplexing enough to a student, in 
addition to all the other difficulties of a science of calculations. For a 
few compounds, however, as 11, 12, 15, 32, &c. single expressions have 
been created, founded on the names of Siva, the signs of the zodiac, the 
days in a half -lunation, the number of human teeth, and other similar 
analogies, that are easily retained in the memory. 

The following is the list alluded to, omitting most of the synonymes 
of each word, which would have swelled it to an inconvenient length, 
o or 0. *sf kha ; vacuity, ^•T 3 fl, ^JT^TT^ &c. space, heaven, zero, cypher. 
\ or 1. "&&?[ prithvi ; the earth, (and its synonymes *rf%, V, fi &c.) 
■^■s^ chandra ; the moon, (^5{*Tr, x*$, f^WTCJ, &c.) 
•^PT rup ; form, colour, &c. 
^, or 2. <T"^ paksh ; a wing, the half of a lunar mouth, 
•sN ne'tra ; the eye, (^nj«T, ^rf, ^ffw, &c.) 
vr*1 bhuja ; an arm, (^T^, ^1^, &c.) 
tjw yam ,- twin, also the deity of Naraha or hell. 
^jf%eT ashwina ; the twin sons of Surya. 
8f^ chhada ; jaw, (the two jaws.) 
\ or 3. if*^ banhi ; fire, C^lfsr, and its synonymes.) 

X$% Rama, the deity Rama ; (the three are Rama, Balardma, 

and Parasurama.) 
b 2 



4 Mode of expressing numerals [Jan. 

fq«rT3ffl^j.T Pin&kanayana ; a name of Siva, (trilochan, 3-eyed.) 
JH!T guna ; the three qualities, good, middling, and had. 
8 or 4. "3^ Veda ; the four Vedas, (and their synonymes.) 

^ff«( abdhi ; an ocean, ( ^iTSf fa^, &c.) n. e. s. and W. seas. 
1HT Krita j the first of the/owr ages of the world. 
VH Yuga, an age, as the preceding. 
Wf^rjala ; water, W[fK, ^\x, &c. (similar to ocean.) 
^ or 5. ^"T^ van ; an arrow, (and its synonymes.) 

■%VQ prdn ; inspiration, the five modes of vital inspiration. 
tf or 6. ^T anga ; the members (head, arms, legs, and body.) 
^ rasa ; taste, the six savours. 

?J3T rdga ; mode of music (the six Hindu musical modes.) 
^■g" Iritu ; the six seasons according to the Hindu division. 
TT^T tark ; Shastra : the six Shdstras. 
^f?: are ; the enemy, the six dangers, or temptations. 
« or 7. *rfa Muni, a saint, sage, (and its synonymes ^ffsf, &c.) 
^^ swara ; vowel, the six vowels. 

•5f3T naga ; a mountain, ^f^f, T^ rT and other synonymes. 
^f^ ashwa ; a horse, (the 7-faced horse of Surya.) 
^W? samudra ; an ocean, the seven encircling seas*. 
cor8. "^ Vasu ; the eight demigods so called. 

3T5T gaj ; an elephant (and its synonymes.) Eight elephants sup- 
port the eight Dishds, or cardinal points. 
€TT?T ndga j a serpent ; the eight species of snakes. 
*nr^T mangala, happiness, good fortune. 
<£. or 9. ^Hf anka ; a numeral : the nine units from 1 to 9. 

f$^ chhidra ; an inlet, (the nine orifices of the body.) 
■?nr graha ; a planet, (the 7 planets and two lunar nodes.) 
V or 10. f^T dishd ; a side, quarter, (and its synonymes,) the eight 
cardinal points, with the zenith and nadir. For this and all 
numbers composed of two or more figures other compound 
expressions may be formed, as *§*T. ^^"^f cypher- earth 
cypher-moon, meaning zero, one, or 10, as explained in the 
foregoing remarks : the following numbers however have 
simple expressions likewise. 
\\ or 11. T*T Isha ,• a name oiRudra or Siva, (and his other 11 names.) 
\^ or 12. ^^ Surya ; the sun, (from his 12 monthly appellations.) 

■^s|f chakra ,- a wheel, the zodiac. 
\3 or 13. fq*S Vishva ; the universe, (the 14 bhutvanas, deducting 
baikunt on Vishnu's heaven) : see the next number. 
3TT*T Kdma; Cupid; the &wa?m or lord of the 13th tithior lunar day. 
* Only used in the Granthas of South India. 



1834.] in the Sanskrit language. r 6 

\B or 14. ^^r bhiwana ; the world, or universe : the seven upper and 
seven lower heavens. 

T" 5 ? Indra, anameof thegodlndra, (renewed at fourteen epochs.) 

1«T Manu ; the fourteen munoos, or saints. 
\* or 15. ffrfa tit hi ; a lunar day, (fifteen in a semilunation.) 

^T^ aha ; a day, (from the same analogy.) 
T^ or 16. ^r^TT kald ; a digit, one-sixteenth of the moon's diameter. 

^f% akhri • a metre, consisting -of four lines, having sixteen 
syllables in each. 

*m nripa ; a king, (and its synonymes, from the tale of the 
1 6 rajas in the Mahdbhdrat .J 
\^ or 1 7. ^JH?fs aty akhri ■ a stanza of four lines, with seventeen syllables 

to the line. 
V£ or 18. "yfw dhriti ; ditto having eighteen syllables in a line. 
\C or 19. ^frT^fVr atidhriti, ditto with nineteen syllables in each line. 
^» or 20. «H3 nakh ; a finger nail. 

H\ or 21. ^31 Swerga; heaven. The twenty one heavens. 
H.1 or 22. STrfff Jdti, kind, sort; race, family, cast. 
RU or 24. f5T«r Jina ; the 24 Jinas of the Buddh religion. 
^> or 25. f}«ef tatwa ; the 25 essences : the five quintuple elements. 
^ or 26. ^3fT3Tf?r utkriti ; in prosody, a stanza of four lines of twenty- 
six syllables each. 
^> or 27. *T or *r^ nakshatra ; a star, the 27 lunar mansions. 
"3R. or 32. <£*fi danta ; a tooth, the number of human teeth. 
33 or 33. ^«f Deva, a god, for the 33 crores of Hindu gods ; or by other 
accounts, 1 1 Rudras, 1 2 Suryas, 8 Vasus, and 2 Viswadevas. 
8<£ or 49. fTTST tana ; tune ; the seven octaves (of seven notes each.) 

"37*7 vdyu, the air, the 7 vayus and their 7 subspecies. 
On looking over Mr. A. Csoma's manuscript translations and extracts 
from the Tibetan works in the Society's library, my attention was at- 
tracted to the passage in his life of Shakya, where the Tibetan., author 
quotes the epoch of Buddha from a variety of different authorities : here 
the same numerical system is seen to prevail ; — the printed Tibetan text 
has the dates in figures above, and written at length in the body of the 
text, in the same kind of symbolical words, as if to secure them from 
the danger of alteration ; this system in fact gives the same safeguard 
against the incertitude of figures as the mode of writing values and 
sums at length in European documents is intended to secure. To eluci- 
date the subject at the time, a separate note was drawn up by Mr. Csoma, 
shewing that the symbolical terms employed by the Tibetan writers were 
chiefly if not entirely derived, like their literature in general, from Sans- 



6 Mode of expressing numerals [Jan. 

krit originals. I am happy in being permitted to take this opportunity of 
publishing the catalogue and notes of this indefatigable scholar, placing in 
juxtaposition the parallel expressions of the Sanskrit language, for the 
convenience of comparison with the catalogue just given of the terms 
usually employed in the latter tongue. 

Tibetan Symbolical Names, used as Numerals. 

" In astronomy and astrology, there are many works to be found in 
Tibet, that have not been introduced into the Kah-gyur or Stan-gyur 
collections. Of these the most celebrated is the Bei'durya Kdrpo, written 
by s,D?-srid Sangs-r,gyas r,Gya-m,ts'ho (^Ify^C^'f^'fraraL) 
a regent or vice-roy at Z^assa, in the last half of the seventeenth century 
of our sera. In all these works, symbolical names (Ejc;^pzj5 grangs br,da, 
numerical signs), are used instead of numerals, in. all arithmetical and 
astronomical calculations. As for instance : •+• Qj«q } for-f-2; — j^for — 3; 
X §, for x 4 ; ~r *j 9 for -f- 32. 

This mode of expressing numbers has been borrowed from India 
by the Tibetans. For some of the numerals specified below, there are yet 
other synonymous terms applied in Tibetan,as in Sanskrit, but in their 
works these only are of general use. Although the nine units, together 
with the zero (o), would be sufficient to express any greater number, 
yet there are used the following numerals also : 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 
16, 18, 24, 25, 27, and 32. 

When dictating to an assistant in symbolical names what to write in 
characters, the pandit commences the operation from right to left : thus if 
he says Q'*T (12), arpsQ (0), «[^'(4), the other writes 4012, &c. This 
method is the same with that followed in the Shastras of India there- 
fore it is unnecessary to add any thing further on the subject. 

The following numbers are expressed by such names as are stated here 
below, and explained in English, to which the Sanskrit terms also have 
been added (with a few exceptions) not from Tibetan books, but from 
other sources : 

o or 1. E]:3E]?\r * gzugs, body ; S. shar&am. 
a zla, the moon ; S. chandra. 
O^r^ix, hot-tkar, white brightness, the moon: S. shweta- 

rochis. 
T{*j T *b, bse-ru, rhinoceros; S.gandaka. 

3 or 2. Q[E] 5 lag, the hand: S. bhuja, hasta, or pani. 
^f^l, m *9> the eye : S. netra, chakshus. 
* Note. The articles, ^ ££ ^ ^ ^ £' (Papo, Fa, 00, ma mo, tyej hare been 
omitted after the roots, since the words occur mostly in this form. 



1834.] in the Tibetan language. 7 

gc^gff]^ zung-phyogs, or simply jgc; zung, the two sides, 

wings, halves, a pair, couple ; S. chhada, pakshd, fyc. 

Qr^S] hkhrig, or Z}3]^ } bgrod, the twins ; copulation : 

3 or 3. Q^*j'^,*i, hjig-rtan, the world ; S. loka. 

Vj 8)" *)$, yon-tan, quality; S. guna. 

9j 9 md, fire, S. agni or anala. 

%s } rise, top, summit: S. agram. 
y 
^,or 4. 9f^ ii mtsho, a sea or lake : S. samudra. 

«g chhu, water ; S. jala or. wari. 

*l£ 5 rkang, a foot : S. pada. 

£*]'§*;, Rig-bytd, a Veda'; S. Veda. 
tj or 5. Q§c; hbyung, an element; S. bhutam. 

^zm, dvang, an organ of sense ; S. indrayam. 

^T^Qj mc?«A, an arrow : S. bdna or vdna. 

Sjc; phung, a heap of the aggregates constituting the body and 
soul; S. skdndha. 
^ or 6, aj"(|)3f<vj" mtshams, the six cardinal points : the north, east, 
south west, zenith and nadir. 

Xj3 T ^ ro,bro-va, taste, savour ; S. rasa, 

z^t dus, time, season; S. samaya. 
1) or 7. azj'SJ Thub-pa, a sage; S. Muni. 

^c; t 5JC; Drang-srong, an hermit: S. Rishi. 

_£ n, a hill or mountain ; S. parvata. 

XAJ'EJWQ R^s-gzah, a special or chief planet; S. Graha. 
^ or 8. j§] ^w, an hydra or snake ; S. ndga. 

IjQj sbrul, serpent; S. sarpa. 

K)^c;*V T -53j gdengs-chan, a hooded-snake ; S. ? 

<ij r Qsj Ito-hgro, creeping on its belly : S. uraga. 

3} x nor or 3) j^* <u nor-lha, wealth, or the eight gods of wealth: 

S. Vasu or vasudeva. 
wc'^ sred-pa, affection, passion: S. ? 

-, or 9. zg rtea, root (or vein): S. mala. 

*\%X S^ er > treasure; S. kosham. 



g Tibetan numeral words. [Jan. 

E]^"Q. cjzah, a planet; S. graha. 
n»E] bu-ga, a hole, S. chiddra. 
*id>'zj Srin-po, an imp or goblin; S. Rdkshasa. 
1 o or 10 ^ /ff l^V Pfyogs, corner, quarter, point : S. Dik or Dish. The ten 
points. 4 cardinal, 4 intermediate, the zenith and the 
nadir.) 
9;or 11. Q^ETg^, h,phrog-by ed, that takes by force ; S. /fan for Siva. 
5E] T £f Drag-po, the brave or fierce, S. Rudra, for Siva. 
ZTVQg c Bde-hbyung, the source of happiness ; S. Shambhu, 

another name of Siva. 
T^rjCj'gfKi' Dvang-phyug, the powerful: S. Ishwara, for <Sfa;a. 

03 or 12. Q T *f. Nyi-ma, the sun; S. Surya, Arka, Bhdnu. 

raaj khyim, the sun's place in the zodiac; S. Griha or pL 
Grihds, the 12 zodiacal signs. 
9^ or id. Qt^vz^ hdod-pa, lust, desire, wish, Cupid; S. Kama. 

sjsj'gc or ^v T g^, myos-byed, that inebriates or makes mad, 
lust, desire, wish, Cupido. S. Madana, Kama Deva. 
o^orl4.$c yid, the mind; S. manas. 

3f'3j Ma-nu, ditto; S. manu. 

3J^, Srid-pa, existence, birth, the world ; S. bhuvanam. 
i)i^ or 15. ^^ Q3j'(ac] teAes, nyin-zhag, the 15M day of a lunar month ; 

any day of the semilunation. S. Aha or Ahan. 
9^3 or 1 6. JfZjcE] Mi-bdag, lord of men, a sovereign ; S. Narapati. 

flQJ T £J Rgyal-po, a king, prince; S. Raja. 
9<* orl8. ?}<y T zj ^r* nyes-pa, or skyon, vice, fault, blemish, S. Dosha. 
i^ or 24.|jqj*zj Rgyal-va, he that has been victorious, a Jina or Buddha ; 

S. /i»a. 
^^jor25. rq^ de-nyid, the same self; S. tatwam. 

or 27. Skar-ma, a star, one of the 27 constellations in the 

path of the moon; S. Nakshatra. 
^ or 32. £f So, a tooth ; S.danta, 

For o zero or the following three terms are used : 

3jfZQ mkhah, void, space, S. kha, dkdsha, gaganam. 

g|E| Jiig, a spot, stain ; S. ? nabhas. 

"^C^rj Stong-pa, the vacuum; empty space, zero; S. shunyam 



1834.] A Brief Description of Herat. 9 

II. — A Brief Description of Herat. By Munshi Mohun Lai. 

To the Editor of the Journal of the Asiatic Society. 
Sir, 

The arrival here lately of a package from India, bringing Journals of the Asiatic 
Society, of which you are the source, containing many curious novelties, has excited 
my desire to contribute some little information to so great a public object. 

I was two years in the Dehli College, under the tuition of Mr. Taylor, and en- 
couraged to gain the eternal advantage of learning by C. E. Trevelyan, Esq. who 
is my kind patron. 

At my friend Mr. B. Fitzgerald's house, I met Lieut. A. Burnes, whom I 
accompanied at his wish, and of my own free will, to Bokhara and Persia, in the 
capacity of a Persian Munshi. I am now in company with Dr. Gerard. We have 
only native articles of writing, and are also not in a place of solitude, or even of quiet 
repose, an account of the preparations for encountering Shah Shuja. I therefore 
hope you will be kind enough to forgive the feebleness of my observations, and the 
badness of my pen and paper, but I trust my endeavours in the accompanying 
will not be the less acceptable in describing a brief account of Herat. 

I remain, &c. 

Kandahar, Mtth October, 1833. Mohun Lal. 



The City of Herat. 
Tradition and the following Persian verse say, that the foundation 
of the city of Herat, or Hari, was by an ancient king called Lahrasp, who 
was succeded by Gushtasp. Alexander, the successor of Behman, 
built and finished the structure of Herat very beautifully, and after him 
it was never repaired. 

&\. 1( xjj& ».> ^[xjjjj l^*u U&£ 4>UL lj i^sjb c^' *^-p i-^^jir* 
a) &> j)j **Jt ^j£l ^^^uxJ &J> j&d ^ J*c Jij) ^o, ^yj 

[Lahrasp laid the foundations of Hare ; Gushtasp erected many buildings thereon ; 
Bahman after him added greatly to the town, and Alexander put the finishing 
stroke to it. — ] 

The city is environed by a strong wall, and also by a small, weak, and 
thirsty ditch. The circumference is nearly four miles. The houses in the 
city are generally made of two stories high, and have very small doors 
to enter at. 

Great part of the population of the city, and even of the western 
district, is ParsiBaban, the follower of Panj-tan, or five persons, name- 
ly, Muhammed, Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, andHosAiN. — They are all fond 
of the Persian government — not with regard to religion, but through the 
ill treatment, which they daily receive from Kamran and his ministers. 

He is a decrepit and gloomy prince. He excites the pity of mankind. 
He has neither state nor good palace, which is like a prison. He i$ 



10 A Brief Description of Herat, [Jan. 

destitute of the signs of royalty, and a ray of meanness and melan- 
choly gleams on his features. 

He is afraid of his ministers and of the whole Ala koo zay family, 
who over-rule him. He is anxious to get rid of them, and to be an 
ally of the English Government, of which he often talked very friendly. 

Shair Muiiammed Khan, the Acting Vizier, is a talkative and base 
man. He suspected us to be Russian spies, and twice sent thieves at 
night to destroy us, but availed nothing. 

Our abode in Herat for seven months was very far from agreeable, 
especially as we hoped to be in Cabul in December. Upon one hand, the 
plague was ravaging the city ; on the other, the dearth of every article 
caused us to spend a great deal of money. 

The streets of Herat are very narrow and dirty, but the roofed ba- 
zar, or chdrsil, gives an idea that in old days it was a great mar- 
ket in Khorasan. The shops are adorned by English chintzes, which 
are here very dear. 

The people of Herat, though poor, are fond of pleasure. They go daily 
to gardens, which resemble paradise, and pass their time in firing from 
horse-back, in racing, and also in singing, joking, dancing, and sleeping. 

Their dress is a red shirt and an open red trowser, below a cloak or 
chogha, and on the head a turban of Peshdwer lungi. They tie 
a very thin cloth round their waist, and keep a knife on their girdle for 
show, and also for aggression. 

The suburbs of Herat are exceedingly fertile, and covered by numerous 
villages, which extend as far as the eyes reach. The whole country is 
divided into four parts : namely, Obaih, Kurakk, Ghuryan, and Sabz- 
war, or Isfazdr. 

Since Kamran's dynasty, the commerce of Herat has fallen to 
nothing. The caravans are plundered, as we ourselves were witness of. 
The resident merchants are fined in a large sum of money upon any 
foolish pretext of the Government. 

There are two frequented roads from Herat to Bokhara, one goes 
through Maimara, where the caravans generally meet with difficulty. 
The other, which is easy, leaves Sdrakhs on the left hand. By this last 
route the caravans cross the Mur-ghdh river, and reach Bokhara after 23 
marches, the distance of which (a merchant told me) is 110 farsangs, 
or 480 miles. 

The caravan pays duty only in four places through all the way, and I 
have got the name of every stage written in my diary. 

I subjoin the list of the income of Herat, which if you think suffici- 
ently interesting and proper, you may include in this letter. 



. 834.] by Munshi Mohun Lai. 11 

Tomans, 

1 Money collected from tehvildt, 1150 

2 Weavers annually pay 1500 

3 The soap manufacture is monopolized for 700 

4 The monopoly of Bokhara caravan passing through Kurakh, 600 

5 The head of the grape-sellers pays annually 250 

6 Money collected by stamping skins and caps, 600 

7 Money collected by the above means on new cloth, 800 

8 Money collected by stamping woollen things, 100 

9 Mir Shahi, or money collected by the inhabitants for the purpose of 

watching at night against thieves, 200 

10 The chief seller of the heels of shoes pays 160 

1 1 Monopolizer of water and wind mills pays 600 

12 Money collected from the people for catching thieves, doozd bagiri,.. 200 

13 Cash collected from the districts or Beluhats, . . 2000 

14 Custom-house officer of Sabzwdr pays 300 

15 Do. of Ghuryan pays 1500 

16 Money collected from the black tents of Emak or Elat annually, 2000 

1 7 Monopolizer of wood for burning and all other uses pays, 300 

18 The head of the horse-sellers pays 180 

19 Money collected from Zeh tcibi, or skin ropes, exported to India, 4 

20 The inhabitants of Caravan-serais pay < 50 

21 Money collected from the Kandahar gate, 150 

22 Do. collected from the Khushk gate, 50 

23 Duty taken upon charcoal, 60 

24 Money obtained from all shops, 1000 

25 Duty taken upon tobacco, 200 

26 Dubbagh or the head of skin-cleaners pays 110 

27 Money collected from stamping the Jcafsh or a kind of shoe, 300 

28 Monopolizer of assafoetida pays 600 

29 Money collected from each Toman's king, called the Toman Shahi, . . 200 

30 Manufacturer of the rice or Shall pays annually, 600 

31 Monopolizer of the mint (in Haji Firoze's reign, 50 tomans every day,) 

now pays yearly, 120 

32 Revenue of Ghuryan, 220 

33 Do. of Obaih, . ., 300 

34 Do. of Kurakh, 110 

35 Do. of Sabzw&r, 100 

List of the Corn produced in Herat, Sfc. Karvan. 

Corn produced in the suburbs of Herat, 27000 

Do. in Obaih, 2000 

Do. in Kurukh, 1020 

Do. in Ghuryan, « 2000 

Do. in Subzwar, 1300 

20 Rupees make a Toman of Herat, which is equal to 6 Rs. and 12 As. of India. 
Karvan is a measure of 100 maunds of Tabriz, which is equal to six maunds and 
10 seers of India. 
c 2 



12 A Brief Description of Herat, [Jan. 

On the 4th of July, 1833, before the sun rose, we set out to the east 
of the city, to examine the place called Gdzur Gdh, where the body of 
Abu Ismael, or Khajeh Abdul Ansar, the son of Abu Mansaur, the 
son of Abu Ayoub, the son of Mat Ansar, or the bearer of Muhammed's 
Koran, reposes. 

Abu ansar was struck with stones by the boys, when he Was doing 
penance, of which he expired in 1065, A. D., or in 481, Hejri*. He had 
learned about 12,00,000 poems by heart, and was the author of 1,00,000 
couplets. 

When we reached the pleasant Gdzur Gdh, we entered the Char- 
su or square of Hasan Khan Shamlu, who has also built a few shops 
and a finecistern on account of the periodical fair in spring. Having pass- 
ed through the saltan, we came to the door which led us to the grave 
of Abu Ansar. The door is made of copper, and on each side are 
fine and clear mosques, where we saw a few Korans laying on the shelves 
or rdhals. The Musnavi, or the book of Maulanai Rum, is recited 
every morning, and the people faint during the invocation. 

On our right hand were the tombs of Mansur Sultan, the father 
of Shah Rukh Mirza, and of the descendants of Amir Timur. On 
our left were buried the successors of Chengiz Khan. The body of 
Mansur was lodged on a large platform, bordered with marble, and 
towards the head of the tomb we saw the following inscription : 

c^l^lLw^&lLo £*Xy <S$) \Jy0j o^i\ c~a>jj ^j^Lwl^ j {j^sifi 

lJ»J)j**^Jj jy a ^*i*ri < ^J tf J d*taJ) ii>Uc tjA*-« AX*a, ^UaL* j^fI T J 
JjI *>pM3X* iy*±i \r**- c ^^-^ *&*»• j) i*j:.y j . <^*- *&"** i JoUix-e^Uj 

The substance of the inscription may be thus rendered : 
" This excellent construction aad meritorious work which resembles Paradise, re- 
splendent with the lights of divine favour and the blessings of the merciful 
God, has been built with great art and beauty as the monument of the famous Sul- 
tan Ghiuscddin Mansur and his pious descendants, in the year of H. 772. 
Written by Sultan Mushhadi." 

* The year 481 Hejiri began on the 27th March, 1088, not 1065 as above stated. 
—Ed. 



1834.] by Munshi Mohan Lai. 13 

Among the graves of Changiz Khan's family was a body covered 
with black marble, on which we beheld the surprising sculptures of the 
ancient unknown hewer. The works are incomparable at the present 
day. The stone was carved in seven figures, called " haft kalm," or 
seven pens. I copied the following inscription from the above tomb : 

%)j£* lA*> ) *NI **&k ««**£* ^ *-* Zip jfi 

[On the day of the great king's death, the Lord sent him repose, and the pen of 
fate inscribed his simple epitaph " rest in peace." [a. h. 718.] 

The tomb of Abu ansar was very large, bordered with marble, and 
covered with stones : on the head of the grave stands a marble I6h 
which resembles a minar : it is beautifully made of two pieces. The 
size of one piece is five feet high, and of the other is 10 feet. It is co- 
vered with Arabic letters, and has only one in the following Persian: 

[The Khajeh, in look and verity a king, was equally versed in the affairs of both 
the worlds : would you know the date of his death, read it in the words ' Khajeh 

Abdulla,: i. e. a. h. 737. The words C^v»^li5;) give the same date.] 

The tomb is commanded by a magnificent high arch, erected by Shah 
Rukh Mirza, 480 years ago. It is 70 feet high. 

Timur Shah resolved to gild the arch, but was diverted by some ac- 
cidents. On the right hand of the tomb are many inscribed poems 
written by the celebrated author named Jami, but the following 
verse made by Hasun Khan Shamlu informs us the day of abdul 
ansar's death : 

[Tf you are desirous that the cupbearer of wisdom should give you a cup full of 
understanding, come into the banqueting house of Khajah Abdullah Ansari. 
His monument is like the graceful cypress which enchants the angels to hover 
over it, crying and lamenting like doves.] 

When we came out of the door, we went to the cistern, which contains 
a very delicious, sweet-flavoured water, called Ah Zem-zem ; it is cold 
in summer, and hot in winter, which I believe is owing to a deception 
in the temperature of the atmosphere. There were written plenty of verses 
in the arch, which I wished to copy. 



14 A Brief Description of Herat, [Jan. 

Jj^-U" ^Ja. C^l^j *N jd t£ ji lAO/O^jl jjlXw) ^JW,' ^ui^XJ j.^J (Ji^-^M 
<JjJ ^ bj«^')C««*- 1 L-3 U\^.J t-jls^^A- c ^^<)dJl ( ji.i. t V'i_f S^ jX^.^.i ,-l§'L«* 

[The purport of this long inscription is, that Adil Shah Rukh erected a well 
and terraces, &c. for the use of pilgrims to the tomb of Khajeh Assar, " which 
having fallen into disrepair were reconstructed at the expense of a female descend- 
ant of Ca'n one of the sons of Chengez Khan in the year (houz-zemzem-silsabil) 
1090.] 

The original name of Gdzur Gdh is Kazar Gdh. Karzar mean 
in Persian battle, and Gdh, place, (the place of battle ;) in short, it is 
the seat of happiness and pleasure, and the people always go and pass 
their time in drinking and singing, which seems very inconsistent with 
the solemnity of the dead. 

The water of the neighbouring covered fountain runs beautifully 
through the canal which ornaments Gdzur Gdh and makes it a lovely 
spot in Herat. 

Towards the north of the city, under the base of the hills, flourishes a 
pleasant edifice, called Takht Safar constructed by Sultan Hosain 
Mirz a, the fourth descendant of Amir Timur. In spring the neighbouring 
fields and mountains are covered with a bed of yellow and red flowers, 
called UrGhavan. The place i^ now going to decay, but seems to have 
been once a paradise. A tank of water possesses a magnificent fountain, 
which with its watery arrows fights \-vith the top of the building. The 
height of the edifice is measured 100 fee*. 

In the reign of Sultan Hosain Mirz a trie punishment for the people 
of bad demeanor was to reduce them to the office of masons, who were 



1834.] by Munshi Mohun Lai. 15 

ordered to assist in the building of Takht Safar. He also published a 
poem aud applied it on every gate, that the passengers should read it. 

[All who have been trespassing in the pleasures of wine and beauty, by Mirza's 
command must add a stone to the takht -safar.'] 

To the N. E. of the city stand the two very grand ruins separated by 

the stream Anjir. 

Sultan Hosain Mirza leaves his name by building a stately col- 
lege, which is all levelled to the ground. Two arches and four minars 
have still a grand appearance, and are separated into two equal parts by 
the above stream. The arch and the two minars which are situate on 
the right bank of the water are in the vicinity of the grave of Sultan 
Hosain, who is remembered with great respect and honor. He reigned 
in 1500, A. D. The head master of the college was the famous poet 
named Jami, whose works are very interesting indeed. 

On the left bank of the stream rests the body of Goher Shad, the 
daughter of Amir Timur, and the sister of Shah Rukh. The grave 
is shaded by a very high gilt dome. There were formerly nine tombs, 
all made of black marble, ornamented by inscriptions in the Arabic cha- 
racter. The letters are all rubbed out and not legible. 

She built a fine edifice called Musallah, and is said to have been 
the most incomparable lady in the world. She never married, but 
devoted herself to the perusal of the Koran ; she was anxious to encour- 
age the people to learn. The place is decorated by four high mi- 
nars and two lofty arches, which make a beautiful square of 75 paces. 

On the top of the arch were a few defaced Arabic inscriptions, which I 
could not read. The minars seem half finished, and bent towards Meshid, 
to salute Em am Reza. I ascended a minar of two stories high by 
difficult paces, and had a very striking view of the city. Every story 
contains 20 steps. 

Having passed the square, we entered a lofty dome, which encouraged 
us to climb five stairs, and to come into the gilt and painted room where 
Goher Sha'd prayed. 

All these ruins are decorated with azure and gold colour: (the blue 
colour is made of lapis-lazuli, which is found in considerable quantities 
in the mines of Badakhshdn.J 

It is alleged, one day Goher Sha'd, accompanied by 200 beautiful 
ladies, came into the college, and ordered all the students to go out ; she 
passed all day in the place, and had the pleasure of seeing every 
room. 



16 A Brief Description of Herat, [Jan. 

One of the students, being sleepy, was not aware of her coming, and 
therefore he remained in the college. He awoke and peeped fearfully 
through the holes of the window. He cast his eyes on a ruby-lipped lady, 
one of the companions of Goher Shad." She caught the sight of 
the scholar, and fell in love with him. She left her associates, and en- 
tered the room of the student, who gained the pleasure of her society. 

She was a delicate virgin, and after leaving the student, she joined 
her party, who suspected her by the irregularity of her dress and man- 
ners. 

Goher Shad, on the information of this, was very much vexed, and 
to wipe away the reproach, she married all her associates to the students 
of the college, who were first ordered to avoid the friendship of the 
women. She gave them clothes, fine beds, and good salaries to live upon ; 
she made rules for the collegians to meet their wives after seven days, on 
the condition not to forget their studies. She did all this to arrest the 
progress of adultery. 

On the east end of the city flourished a very grand ancient building , 
called Masjid Jamah, or great mosque. It was erected by Sultan 
Ghiasuddin, the old king of Gaur, 700 years ago. He was the 
son of Muhammed Sam, and the sixth descendant of Abu Bakr, one 
of the friends of Muhammed. 

The mosque has four doors and many arched domes. We made our 
entrance through the door called dar-hauz-vah.il. Having traversed 70 
paces under a roof supported by massive pillars, we opened into the 
great square of the mosque. 

On our left hand were two pieces of marble, decorated with Persian 
inscriptions, which contained no valuable subjects, but an order to the 
custom-house officers, to provide the mullas with livelihood. The length 
of the square is 111 paces, and the breadth, 83. 

There are four lofty and magnificently painted arches facing each 
other. The arch which stands to the west led us into the praying place, 
covered with heaps of mud, which has lately fallen by the severity of 
the winter. We saw a marble tomb -stone lying on the ground, which 
had Arabic characters. It was engraved by Ferokh Shad Shervani, 
to cover the grave of Sultan Abu Saed Kurgani. 

The eastern arch exhibits a great deal of Muhammedan neglect. It is 
almost hidden under considerable masses of earth. The arch, which is 
situate towards the south, contains numerous Arabic inscriptions. They 
are all wasted away by the rains. 

The northern arch is the place for students ; it conducted us into a 
cupolated structure, where we were astonished to see a marble slab in 



1834.] By Munshi Molmn Lai. 17 

the shape of a door. It was of a single piece, and so beautifully clear, 
that our faces were reflected in it. The length of the stone was ten 
spans, and the breadth, eight. 

Having passed through a very small door, we happened to come into a 
square of 20 paces, where the body of Sultan Ghiasuddin reposes. 
The place is very filthy, and the grave is reduced to pieces. There is no 
inscription at all. The roof has fallen into decay, and overwhelms the 
tomb. There are many graves also, and the bones of the dead seemed 
to be decayed. Our sight got dim by visiting the sepulchres. There 
was no difference between the tomb of the great Sultan and that of the 
poor man. 

In the square of the mosque is a small cistern of water, for ablution, 
and a large heavy vessel of tin, made by Sultan Ghiasuddin ; the cir- 
cumference of which was 20 spans, and the thickness of the edge was 
one. There were inscriptions written on the borders of the vessel, dated 
700 years ago. 

It was repaired by Malak Ghiasuddin Cu'rt, 470 years ago, and 
repainted by Mir Ali Shair, the minister of Sultan Hosain, 350 
years ago. The verse informs us the day of the repair. 

^.jJ&Lj) "^jJ*j s^f^J lc^J ij^aS JL«a.2w J J- (jEjjUc^jAj 

[This place, which was hefore vile as a rotten hone, has acquired enduring 
fame like the kaaia. I inquired the date of the building, and my mind answered : 
" it is a second altar of Abraham." a. h. 950.] 

The ruined buildings of Herat are beyond my ideas of description, 
and I am very sorry indeed that I am not well conversant with the Eng- 
lish language. 

One far sang far from the city towards the south is a famous bridge, called 
PulMdldn. In former days there were 33 arches, but now only 27 remain. 

No history gives us any information about the foundation of the bridge, 
but the people say that it was built by a lady named Nur Biby, who lived 
more than 1000 years ago. The books of Herat give no account of 
the bridge, which is called by the natives ' the matchless in the world.' 
The inundation of the river was so rapid, during our residence at 
Herat, that three arches were swept away from one end, and nearly for 
two months all intercourse between Herat and other places was arrested. 

From Kochan, or Kabu Shain, where we were with the camp of H. 
R. H. Abas Mirza, Astrabad, a sea-port town on the bank of the Cas- 
pian, is nine days' journey ; and I am sorry not to know what sort of road 
continues from this to the above place ; but in winter we hear the road 

D 



18 



A Brief Description of Herat. [Jan. 



to Astrabad is so muddy and troublesome that foot passengers even 
find difficulty to go. 

The horsemen from Kochan to Herat may come very easily in eight 
davs, and are supplied with all sorts of provision in the way. From Herat 
to Cabul the route is beautifully covered with villages, the produce of 
which can feed a considerable army. It is 20 days' journey without cross- 
ing any hill. 

On the death of Vizir Fatha Khan, his brother, Dost Muhammed, 
mutinied against Shah Muhammed and Prince Kamran, and defeated them 
after a great loss. They escaped from Cabul and came to Herat through 
the Hazdra country, after 13 marches ; they were also accompanied by 
a numerous army. 

Shah Zaman, on his coming to the throne, had occasion to quell an 
insurrection at Cabul, and arrived there from Herat in the space of 10 
or 1 1 days, and a large body of horsemen accompanied him. 

The road through which these two above-mentioned kings came to Ca- 
bul is hilly, and the people are called independent Hazdras. 

From Cabulto the bank of the Indus, the road, through the Khybur coun- 
try, is not to be traversed by carriages, and is eight days' journey : and from 
thence to Lahore we saw ourselves in some places that it was a difficult 
route. 15 marches bring the travellers from the bank of thelndus, or Atock 
to Lahore. 

Alexander the Great, on his invasion of India, came by this road, 
without encountering any difficulty, and also Nadir, who is called an ad- 
venturer, followed his example. 

Our last interview with Shah Kamran was a very friendly one. He pro- 
mised a great deal to be friendly with the British Government, and never 
to submit to the Persians, who he said, are the " obedient slaves of the Rus- 
sians." He told Dr. Gerard to come again to Herat on leave from the Go- 
vernment, where they both will get a great advantage by working the valu- 
able mines of his country. 



HI. — On the Climate of the Fossil Elephant. By the Rev. R. Everest, 

M. G. S. 8fc. 
[Read at the Meeting of the 26th December, 1833.] 
Since the discovery of fossil bones of the Pachydermata, and some 
large Carnivora in England and other parts of Northern Europe, it has 
been usual to consider them as evidence of a tropical climate having ex- 
isted in those localities, while the animals to which they belonged were 
living. 



1834.] On the Climate of the Fossil Elephant. 19 

The term has been rather vaguely used ; for the Cape of Good Hope, 
of which country four of the animals whose bones have been found most 
abundantly are natives, viz. the elephant, the rhinoceros, the hippopota- 
mus, and the hysena, is situated without the tropics, and in a hemisphere 
much colder than the northern one. 

But, barring this, the assertion has been more seriously called in ques- 
tion by Mr. Fleming, a Scotch naturalist, who observed, that the circum- 
stance of certain animals being incapable of bearing a certain climate 
was no proof that their congeners laboured under a like disability ; and 
he instanced the rein-deer, which by its habits, its food, and its cli- 
mate, is totally separated from the genus, in which, according to its 
conformation, it must be ranked. 

Unless therefore (he continued) you can prove the identity of the fossil 
with the existing species, you cannot with propriety draw any conclusion, 
as to the climate the former may have lived in. 

In confirmation of this, we may remark under what disadvantageous 
circumstances we commonly judge the animals of a tropical climate 
unable to bear our northern cold. They are mostly individuals who have 
not even been born in a domestic state, but have been caught wild, caged, 
and suddenly exposed to a great change of temperature. We see in our 
own people, and in animals brought with us from Europe, the conse- 
quences of such a change, equal to, though the reverse of, the other. What 
numbers are carried off, and how few can preserve a healthy and vigorous 
condition with every precaution that can be taken; yet man, the horse, 
and the dog are, with little exception, the hardiest of existing animals, 
and the most universally diffused over the globe. We have a marked 
instance of the liability even of certain varieties of the same species to 
suffer more than others, in the Newfoundland dog, which, I believe, no 
one has ever succeeded in preserving alive in India. 

The objection of Mr. Fleming was strengthened by the circumstance 
that the elephant, which was found in Siberia preserved in ice had ac- 
tually a coat of long hair, such as would have fitted it for living in a 
severe climate. Mr. LYELLtoo quotes from Bishop Heber the informa- 
tion that along the lower range of the Himalaya mountains, in the 
north-eastern border of the Dehli territory, between lat. 29°, and 30° 
he saw an elephant covered with shaggy hair. I have inquired a great 
deal, of people used to elephants, respecting this, since my residence in 
the Dehli territory, but could never find any one who was aware of the 
existence of such a breed or variety of the animal. One solitary indi- 
vidual was mentioned to me, as having been seen at Dehli some years 
ago, with a good deal of long hair upon it, but it was altogether an 
d 2 



20 On the Climate of the Fossil Elephant. [Jan. 

anomaly, being of a dirtv white or cream colour, like the state elephants 
of the Burmese sovereign. 

Since Mr. Fleming raised the objection above stated, the discovery of 
fossil bones of the elephant in Yorkshire, intermingled with those of the 
Bison, a North American animal, and several species of land and fresh- 
water shells yet existing in Great Britain, seems to have determined, that 
the climate, at the period those animals lived, was nearly what it is at 
present. But it is still a question of some interest, how much that dif- 
ference was ; and our situation in a country, where races of animals si- 
milar to those, whose bones have been found fossil, are yet existing, 
enables us to throw some light upon this. I mean, of course, supposing 
the species to be the same. If we revert to Mr. Fleming's objection 
that no argument can be drawn from the capabilities of one species, as 
to those of another, then we must desist from reasoning on the subject, 
until we can ascertain the law according to which different species of the 
same genus are distributed over the globe. 

Of the six species of Carnivora which were discovered in the celebrated 
Kirkdale cavern, four are yet inhabitants of Northern Europe, viz. the 
bear, wolf, fox, and weasel ; of the two others, the tiger and the hyama, 
the first is sometimes found at the very edge of perpetual snow in the 
Himalaya, as we learn from Mr. Hodgson's account of the Mammalia 
of Nepal*. Pennant too mentions it among the snows of Mount Ararat 
and in Armenia, and it is said to be abundant (see Playfair's Geography) 
in the northern part of the peninsula of Corea on the eastern coast of 
China. This peninsula extends from 34° 30' to 43° N. Lat. and its 
climate cannot differ greatly from that of Pekin in 39° N. Lat., where it is 
stated that the frost lasts from November to March, and that the ther- 
mometer is usually below 20° Fahrenheit at night in winter time. An ac- 
count too, has lately been published in Calcutta of a trading ship (the 
Sylph) having been frozen up on the same coast, in Lat. 40° by the 1st of 
December. So that there can hardly remain a doubt, but that the tiger 
is capable of bearing a climate even more severe than that of England, 
probably one approaching to that of the southern coast of the Baltic. 

The only circumstances essential to its existence appear to be a great 
extent of very thick forest, and an abundance of ruminant animals, both 
which would be the consequence of excess of moisture. It is most nu- 
merous, I believe, in Ceylon, the eastern peninsula of India, the Delta of 
the Ganges, and the vast belt of forests that border the outer Himalaya 
range ; every where, in short, that great moisture, and the vegetation 
consequent upon it are to be found. Where the climate becomes dry, 
as in the country to the west of Dehli, the soil sandy, and the vegeta- 
* Journal, As. Soc. vol. i. page 340. 



1834.] On the Climate of the Fossil Elephant. 21 

tion stunted, it is supplanted by the lion, an animal which infested that 
part in great numbers a few years back, though since the arrival of 
the English it has become extinct, or nearly so. 

I have not yet been able to ascertain the limit of the climate of the 
hyaena. But there are two animals in the list of the Kirkdale remains, 
viz. the weasel and the water-rat, that are, at present, confined to high 
northern latitudes. The first of these (see Pennant's Table of Quad- 
rupeds of Arctic Zoology, vol. 1,) extends only as far south as Barbary, 
and the last no further than the south of Europe, so that, in a degree, 
they enable us to set a limit to the heat of the ancient climate, as the 
elephant and animals allied to it do to the cold. The next question, 
therefore, that occurs to us is, — what extreme of cold these latter are 
capable of enduring ? 

The greatest elevation at which the wild elephant is found in the 
mountains to the north of this, is at a place called Nahun, about 4000 
feet above the level of the sea, and in the 31st degree of N. Lat. I have 
not met with the temperature of Nahun itself in any work, but we have 
given us in the Gleanings the temperature of Seharunpoor, 1000 feet, and 
Mussoori 7000 feet above the level of the sea, both places in nearly 
the same latitude and longitude. They are as follows. 

Seharunpur Mean Temperature. 
Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. 

52 55 67 78 85 90 85 83 79 74 64 55 

Mussoori. 

39 39.5 52 60 72.5 73 65.5 65.5 61.5 60.5 52 40 

Now Nahun being, as to elevation, half way between these two, we can- 
not err greatly in taking the arithmetic means of these numbers for its 
temperature. Thus, we have, 

45.5 47 59.5 69 78.5 81.5 75 74 70 67 58 47.5 
for the mean temperature of each month, giving a yearly mean of 64.4. 
Now the yearly mean of Keswick in Cumberland, which we may assume 
for that of Kirkdale, is 48°, leaving a difference of 16.°4 still to be ac- 
counted for. 

But we niay remark that this climate of Nahun is what has been call- 
ed an " excessive," in opposition to an insular, climate ; that is, one in 
which, owing to its distance from the ocean, the extremes of heat and 
cold are very great. Thus, the month of January averages 45.5, and June, 
the hottest month, is 81.5, making a difference of 36 degrees; whereas, at 
Edinburgh, the mean of January for five years is 37, and of July (usually 
the hottest month there) only 60°, giving a difference of only 23 degrees. 

It may be worth while to compare the five coldestmonths atboth places. 
Taking the average at Edinburgh for five years, and adding one degree 



22 On the Climate of th e Fossil Elephant. [Jan, 

for the difference of latitude between that place and Kirkdale, the num- 
bers stand thus : 

Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March 

Nahun, 58 47.5 45.5 47 59.5 

Kirkdale, 42.1 41.8 38 39.8 42.1 

Difference, 15.9 5.7 7.5 7.2 17.4 

So that for the three coldest months in the year, the elephant actually 
endures a temperature not differing in the average more than 6°. 8 Farh. 
from that of Yorkshire at the same season. 

Now we have no reason to suppose the great heats of the summer es- 
sential to the existence of the elephant ; if, therefore, we alter only these 
five months at Kirkdale, so as to raise them above the minimum at Nahun 
(45.5), we have a climate, which we may reasonably suppose it capable 
of bearing the year through. Allowing the differences between each 
successive month to be as at present, we might place the numbers thus : 

Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March 

Kirkdale, 50.1 49.8 46 47.8 50.1 

The total number of degrees added to the five months is 40, which would 
raise the mean of the whole year from 48 to 51.3. The months of April 
and October would be warmer than at present; but this would be com- 
pensated by the diminished heat of the summer months, which would 
probably be somewhat cooler. 

Here then the argument of Mr. Fleming applies with peculiar effect. 
Most species with which we are acquainted have certain breeds or varie- 
ties which are somewhat more hardy than their fellows. Thus the oxen, 
and sheep, and horses that are bred in the low pastures of the south of 
England, would perish in a country where the black cattle and sheep of 
the Highland of Scotland, and the ponies of Shetland, would thrive. If 
therefore it be not improbable to suppose that the present elephant of 
Northern India is fitted to live in an insular clunate, the mean tempera- 
ture of which is about 52° Farh., it is by no means unlikely that a breed 
somewhat hardier may have existed in a mean temperature four degrees 
lower, or 48°. 

There is yet, however, some further evidence, that the elephant is 
capable of bearing a climate somewhat similar to that which has been 
above assigned to it. 

Hannibal, on his famous expedition into Italy, took with him a consi- 
derable number of elephants, which were probably obtained in Mauri- 
tania. A detailed account has been left us of the difficulties he was 
subjected to, particularly in the passage of the Alps ; but it is no where 
that I can find stated, that the elephants suffered more than the other 
beasts of burden belonging to the camp. The transport of them across 



1834.] On the Climate of the Fossil Elephant. 23 

the Rhone is minutely told ; and yet, though the army remained four 
days upon the snow ; though Hannibal himself is said to have told one 
of his Roman prisoners, that he had lost 36,000 men, besides a vast num- 
ber of horses and other beasts of burden; though he is represented by 
his adversary Scirio, before the engagement on the banks of Tesino 
(Ticinus), as having lost two-thirds of his horse and foot in the passage 
of the Alps, yet nothing is said about the elephants, until the battle of 
Trebia, when, owing to the severe fatigue, and long exposure to a snow- 
storm, great numbers of men, cattle, and almost all the elephants perish- 
ed. Shortly afterwards, we read of a pitiable destruction of men and 
cattle in the attempt to pass the Apennines, and that here also seven of 
the elephants, which had hitherto survived, were lost. One only was 
left in crossing the marshes of the Arno in the ensuing spring. 

Thus, it appears, that these animals, who had the disadvantage of being 
born in a climate far to the south, and not even reared in a domestic 
state, endured the extreme cold and privation consequent on the passage 
of the Alps late in the autumn, and a winter campaign succeeding it. 
Now the elephant, though capable of sustaining great burdens, is said to 
bear long marches and scarcity of food very indifferently. These two 
causes, therefore, must have contributed in a great degree to their loss. 

Hannibal recruited his army with men and cattle in the countries he 
passed through, and was thus enabled to proceed ; but we have no ac- 
count of what proportions of the original expedition, which left the 
shore of Africa, were living at the time of crossing the marshes of the 
Arno, and what had perished. In the absence of this, we can only 
guess at the different capacities of man, the horse, the ox, and the ele- 
phant, to endure fatigue and cold. Yet did we know nothing of this 
last, except from the history above alluded to, we could hardly doubt, 
but that, if gradually inured to a colder climate, in a succession of 
generations, it would easily bear any temperature above the freezing 
point. 

The freezing point, however, would of necessity set a limit to the 
existence of any animal of the size and structure of the elephant. In a 
country occasionally subjected to heavy falls of snow, which remained 
unthawed upon the ground for several days, such a creature would be 
unable to move about in search of food, and must consequently perish. 
On this account, the elephant of Siberia could not have lived in a very 
severe climate, notwithstanding its long hair and mane. 

It is singular, that the ancients should have had a tradition of an 
animal somewhat similar, not maned indeed, but crested : " Mirum unde 
cristatos Juba tradiderit" is the expression used by Pliny in speaking of 



24 On the Climate of the Fossil Elephant. [Jan. 

the elephants of Ethiopia, which were a different breed, it appears, from 
those of Mauritania. 

If we turn to the map of Europe, in the 2nd vol. of Lyell's Geology, 
we shall find that a great proportion of it was beneath the sea at a late 
geological period, a circumstance fully sufficient to account for the small 
difference of climate, which we have supposed to be necessary for the 
existence of the elephant. We know enough of the laws which regulate 
the atmospheric phenomena, to be able to assert this change as one that 
must necessarily have happened. It is needless, therefore, to investigate 
the matter further. 

I have not been able to learn the greatest elevation at which the 
rhinoceros is to be found, but it cannot be much less than that of the 
elephant. 

There is another question connected with the climate of these extinct 
animals, and that is the period of their existence. The bones of some of 
them have lately been found in caverns in the south of France, inter- 
mixed with those of men, and fragments of a rude kind of pottery. 
Some have endeavoured to explain away the direct inference from this 
fact, viz. that the animals were contemporaneous with the human race, 
but hardly with success. 

We know nothing of Gaul before the conquest of it by Csesar, nor 

have we any account of Germany of an earlier date. What species, 

therefore, may have existed in the wildernesses of these countries, for 

a thousand years, or more, previous, we cannot determine. The fossil 

elk of Ireland, which was once termed " antediluvian," is now believed 

to have existed in the forest of Germany at a comparatively late period. 

Since the time of the ancients, several large animals have become extinct 

in regions which once harboured them. Thus the lion has deserted 

Greece since the time of Aristotle. The elephant has left Northern 

Africa (I mean that part of it to the north of the great desert), and the 

hippopotamus the Nile, since the days of the Caesars. The rhinoceros, 

which a few centuries back was found as far to the west as Attock on 

the Indus, is now confined to the forests east of the Ganges. Can we 

then suppose that in the many centuries previous, during which it was 

co-existent with man, its limits were not greatly circumscribed? Is it 

not rather probable that both it and the elephant (which is now limited 

by the Sutlej) may at no very remote period have been found far west as 

the Caspian, and that from thence as well as from still further limits 

both have gradually retreated, as they are still retreating, before the 

attacks of man, and the clearing of the forests. 



1834.] Chirra Punji, 8(C. 25 



IV. — Chirra Punji, and a Detail of some of the favourable circumstances 
which render it an Advantageous Site for the Erection of an Iron and 
Steel Manufactory on an extensive scale. By Lieut. -Col. Thomas C. 
Watson. 

Now that the commercial privileges of the East India Company arc 
abolished, and that free scope is given to the improvement of India, 
through the enterprising speculations of British subjects, it may fairly 
be expected ere long that the efforts of enlightened industry, and all the 
aid of modern machinery and scientific research, supported by a liberal 
outlay of capital, will be employed in perfecting the existing produce and 
manufacture of the country, as well as bringing into vigorous and flou- 
rishing development many sources of national prosperity which have 
hitherto languished under the unwholesome shadow of a wide -spreading 
and disqualifying monopoly. 

My present object however is not to speculate on possibilities, but to 
bring forward a few plain matters of fact, which may appear to others 
who have the means of turning them to account to be pregnant with 
matter of some importance. 

A residence of considerable duration in the Kasya or Silhet hills, 
and my observations and inquiries while sojourning there, have impress- 
ed my mind with a full and satisfactory conviction, that works might be 
established in those hills for the manufacture of iron and steel on a 
very extensive scale, and under as favorable a combination of circumstan- 
ces as can well be imagined or desired. It would be foreign to my 
purpose, and I fear beyond my ability, to attempt anything like a scien- 
tific treatment of this subject, and I shall therefore content myself with 
merely detailing in the order in which they strike me, certain matters of 
fact, leaving the inference to be drawn from them to those better qua- 
lified than myself to consider the question in all its bearings and rela- 
tions. 

The sanatary station of Chirra Punji is situated on the range of 
mountains that bound the plains of Silhet on the north, and which run 
nearly east and west. There is little or no rise in the country, to the 
very foot of the hills ; the ascent to which is for the most part very 
abrupt. The Sanatarium is about 4,200 feet above the level of the sea, 
and distant about eight or ten miles from Tyrea Ghat, where the 
ascent commences, to which place the Pandua river is navigable nearly 
half the year. The journey from Tyrea to Chirra is seldom performed 
in less than four hours. 

The average temperature of Chirra throughout the year is more than 



26 Chirra Punji, and its eligibility for the erection [Jan. 

twelve degrees of Farenheit below that of the plains of Bengal : in the 
months of March, April, May, September, and October, the difference 
is full twenty degrees. 

As to climate, my own opinion, founded on personal experience of its 
effects on the health of my own large family, is highly in favor of its sa- 
lubrity. I have no hesitation in giving it the preference to any I have 
ever been in ; it must however be admitted that a widely different view 
has been taken on this point by others, who consider the dampness of 
the atmosphere, during the rains, as injurious to persons labouring under 
organic affections of the liver ; whether this opinion is correct, or not 
remains to be proved, for I believe a large majority of medical gentlemen 
who have visited the Sanatarium concur in considering the climate as 
highly congenial to the European constitution: in which opinion they 
are borne out by the florid and general healthy appearance of the Euro- 
pean soldiers ; but more especially of children, amongst whom no casualty 
has taken place in three years, though many have been afflicted with 
complaints incidental to childhood, which in all human probability would 
have proved fatal in the plains ; some also who have been sent as a last 
hope in a state of extreme debility have been restored to perfect health 
in a few weeks. In these hills Cbolera has never been known, although 
its ravages have frequently extended to the villages at their feet. The 
bilious remittent or jungle fever of Bengal is also unknown, and I be- 
lieve no instance bas occurred of a fatal case of dysentery. 

Tyrea Ghat, which is at the commencement of the ascent, may be 
reached by the Pandua river, which is navigable for small boats, from 
the beginning of May, to the end of September ; during the other months 
land carriage commences from Pandua, or Munipoor Ghat, the form- 
er distant from Tyrea two, and the latter four, miles. The Kasya 
porters however make no additional charge, their fares for conveying a 
load of one maund up or down the hill being four annas, whether taken 
up or laid down, at Tyreah, or either of the other stations. The road 
between Tyrea and Chirra has been recently much improved, and is for 
the most part practicable on horseback. There is no doubt that a liberal 
outlay of money, under the directions of a skilful engineer, would make 
it fit for wheeled carriages, at all events for elephants and loaded bul- 
locks ; it is also certain that at a moderate expence means might be 
devised of bringing coal, iron, and other bulky and heavy articles down 
to the plains, at one-tenth part of their present cost ; but I shall take a 
future opportunity of submitting to the Asiatic Society, a model of a 
cheap and simple machinery, which I have contrived for the purpose. 

From Calcutta, by a steam boat, the journey to Chattak (on the 
Soorma river) may at all seasons be performed in less than six days. 



1834.] of an Iron and Steel Manufactory. 27 

Chattak is distant from Tyrea Ghat by the way of Pandua about 
fourteen miles, which is generally performed in from four to eight hours. 

The journey from Dacca to Cbirra, by large accommodation boats, 
usually occupies about ten or twelve days; the return voyage is perform- 
ed in five or six days. Ladies and sick people are carried up the hill 
in light doolies by two Kasyas, for eight annas each ; but the liberality 
of passengers has of late caused a considerable increase in this charge. 
Children to the age of eight or ten years are taken up with great secu- 
rity and comfort in baskets, by a single Kasya porter, for four annas. 
Bulky articles, which cannot be carried by a single person, often cost a 
sum for conveyance, which appears out of all proportion ; for instance, a 
chest, weighing a maund and a half, will be taken by one man for one 
rupee ; but a square piano forte of the same weight will not be carried 
for less than ten or twelve. 

The only provisions used by Europeans, which are produced in the 
hills, are beef and pork: these are abundant, cheap, and good. A cow fit 
for killing, weighing about 200 lbs., may be purchased for six rupees, 
and a well and clean fed porker, for the same price ; of late the Kasyas 
towards Myrung, in the interior of the hills, have got into the way of 
cultivating potatoes with great success : these at present are sold at ra- 
ther a high price, but a few years will bring them down. The crop comes 
in at the most convenient season in the month of September, when Pat- 
na potatoes become unfit for use, of which advantage might be taken in 
supplying the Calcutta market. A few other vegetables may also be 
had in the hills. It must be admitted however that little progress has yet 
been made in gardening. 

Grain of all kinds is brought from the plains. Rice sells from 35 
seers to one maund for a rupee ; other grains, in proportion ; but at all 
times much cheaper than in Calcutta. Eight ducks for a rupee ; large fowls, 
nine and ten for a rupee ; small fowls, 20 and 22 for a rupee; eggs, 160 
for a rupee; bread, 12 loaves for a rupee, but competition will make this 
much cheaper. Sheep must be brought from the plains and fed. Farm- 
yards answer admirably ; pigeons thrive and increase rapidly ; rabbits 
require more care than has hitherto been bestowed on them; milk and but- 
ter abundant, but rather dear. 

- The native fruits are excellent and abundant in the season; that is, 
from November till the end of February, the finest oranges in India may 
be had for about one thousand for a rupee. 

The pine-apple plant, which produces the hemp, of which specimens 

are sent herewith, is raised with hardly any care in the culture, in all the 

valleys surrounding Chirra, but chiefly in that of Nanguth, about six 

hours' journey from the Sanatarium,where it flourishes in great luxuriance* 

e 2 



28 Chirr a Punji, and its eligibility for the erection [Jan, 

producing in the season, June, July, and August, an abundant crop of 
fruit, which is admitted to be as much superior to pine-apples grown 
elsewhere in Bengal, as the Kasya (or as they are called) Silhet 
oranges are to those of any other part of India. When in full season, this 
fruit is some times sold at the Sanatarium at upwards of 380 for one 
rupee ; it is rather above the common size, weighing from \ to \ of a 
seer each ; it contains much juice, and it only remains to be ascertained, 
whether this fine fruit (certainly the cheapest, considering its quantity 
known to exist any where) may not make fine cider, or whether by dis- 
tillation, it may not be converted into good brandy. The leaves of the 
plant are gathered by the Kasyas according to the wants of their re- 
spective families, and not for the purpose of trade, generally before the 
commencement of the rains ; they are soaked in water for some time, 
before the fibre is separated by being beaten out, this fibre appears 
remarkably strong, but I have not had opportunity of submitting it to 
any comparative trials. It is chiefly used by the Kasyas for the net 
pouches or bags which form part of the equipment of every inhabitant 
of the hills. One of these I have the pleasure to send you. Should this 
hemp be found adapted for cordage, canvas, or even for paper, it may 
become an article of much importance, as I can assure the Society that 
the plant may be spread to any extent that may be supposed desirable, 
with little care and hardly any expense. 

The pepper vine grows wild in the jungles ; it is also cultivated in 
small quantities about the houses of the natives. The specimen now for- 
warded is the produce of such culture. It is used by the natives in 
their ordinary food, and is sold in the bazar of every village ; but I have 
not been able to find that it is ever exported. There can be no question 
however but the cultivation of this vine may be extensively increased. 

Specimens of Indian Rubber I have already presented to the Society. 
It is produced from a tree which grows to a considerable size amongst 
the rocks, and which being of quick growth may be propagated with 
ease to any extent from suckers or even from slips ; but even without 
increasing the plant, a very considerable supply might now be furnished 
were the article to be in demand. From the various purposes to which it 
has lately been applied in England, it may one day become a valuable 
article of export ; in its liquid state I have succeeded in moulding it 
into any shape. 

The cotton which is brought by the Kasyas to the plains for sale is 
purchased by them from the Garrows, a tribe inhabiting the northern 
side of the range of hills which divide Assam from Sylhet, but as this 
article has been already fully described by Captain Fisher I merely men- 
tion it whilst enumerating the various productions of the Kasya moun- 



1834.] of dn Iron and Steel Manufactory . 29 

tains, which may eventually become valuable articles of commerce. 

Honey and bees'-wax are produced from bees kept, as in England, in a 
domestic state, but they are also obtained from the jungles. As yet bees'- 
wax has only been exported in small quantities ; there is, however, no 
reason why it should not be abundantly collected as an article of traffic, 
if not of manufacture on the spot. 

The Kasyas have no regular artificers, except blacksmiths and iron- 
founders, but they are all handy and expert in the use of the daw or 
cleaver, and also with the adze, with which they square their timbers and 
smooth their planks. They are not often employed in building houses, as 
workmen from the plains come up in any number that may be required ; 
of these, excellent bricklayers may be had at the rate of seven rupees 
a month ; good carpenters, at seven rupees per month ; grammies, 
at five ditto ; stone-cutters, at five ditto ; coolies, at four ditto. Kasya 
workmen may be hired by the day at three annas, but the best way 
of employing them, and the way they like best, is by contract ; in 
this way, the tasks they perform are incredible. I shall scarcely be be- 
lieved when I state the particulars of some task-work, which was execut- 
ed by a few Kasyas, with their wives and children, in the course of last 
month (October, 1833). I had a wall built round my estate of dry stones, 
those on the exteriorbeing broke into square or oblong slabs, so as to pre- 
sent a smooth, well-built, and regular surface. This wall was four feethigh, 
at the base it was four feet wide, and two feet at the top ; each foot in 
length consequently contained twelve cubic feet of masonry ; but every 
twelve feet in length, containing 144 cubic feet, were completed at one 
rupee twelve annas, till the whole was finished, measuring upwards of 800 
feet ; thus, six cubic feet, weighing, I should suppose, more than 1000 lbs. 
cost only one anna : — cheaper labour than this I imagine it would be hard 
to find in any country. The Kasyas are remarkably athletic and indus- 
trious ; their women partake in their hardest labours ; and the children 
commence carrying heavy burdens at a tender age : they live well, have 
comfortable houses, and the poorest amongst them is not without gold or 
silver ornaments. 

Their wealth has heretofore resulted from the manufacture of iron, 
which process is explained by Mr. Cracroft in the fourth number of your 
journal for the month of April, 1832. Of late, the sale of iron has been 
unusually dull, and numerous individuals who were employed in digging, 
washing, and smelting the ore, are out of employment. 

All these people are available for any manufactory that may be formed 
at Chirra, at very moderate wages. 

Building materials, either for temporary or permanent buildings, are 
abundant and cheap; for the former, posts, eighteen feet long, and from, 



30 Chirm Punji, and its eligibility for the erection [Jan. 

eight to twelve inches in diameter, cost one rupee each; marwells androaks, 
or roof sticks, eighteen feet long, and four inches in diameter, sell at ten 
and sixteen for a rupee ; small hill bamboos, called aspar, ten feet long and 
§ of an inch in diameter, for lath and plaster walls, and binding on chup- 
pers, or grass roofs, cost one rupee for 250 ; latkorahs, or squared tim- 
bers, five inches square, and eighteen or twenty feet long, for joists or 
rafters, sell four for the rupee ; rattan grows at the foot of the hills, and is 
remarkably cheap ; good grass for thatching is brought from the plains at 
four rupees a thousand bundles, each (being tight bound) measuring 1\ 
inches in circumference. 

For permanent buildings, the common grey sandstone, which forms the 
structure of the table land of Chirra, is found by far the best material. 
This stone is found in inexhaustible qauntities, in slabs or layers from six 
inches to two feet thick ; it may be easily split into square blocks by the 
wedge and hammer ; these blocks require little or no dressing before they 
are passed into the hands of the mason. When thepuckah houses belonging 
to Messrs. Sargent and Cracroft were erected, the facility of working 
this stone was not understood ; hence, a material was used, a red spongy 
soft sandstone, which was squared by the Kasyas, and sold at the enor- 
mous rate of four rupees a hundred ; these same stones now sell for one 
rupee the hundred ; but they will never again be made use of in building. 
The common grey sandstone before alluded to is the same of which 
the wall is built, which I have described under the head of price of labour; 
it hardens from exposure to the air, and is not in any situation liable to 
decay or decomposition. It is of this stone also, cut into blocks of eight or 
ten feet long, three feet wide, and two thick, of which the monument to 
the memory of the late Mr. Scott is now in progress of construction under 
the orders of the Government ; it is likewise the material employed by the 
Kasyas for their tomb stones, some of which are single blocks, standing 
nearly thirty feet high, being bulky in proportion, and which, according to 
the tradition of the natives, have stood uninjured for many centuries. Lime- 
stone is brought to the spot whenever required, within the Sanatarium, 
for six rupees the hundred maunds : burning it even in the simple and 
wasteful manner now adopted costs about ten rupees more, so that good 
fresh lime, fit for use, only costs sixteen rupees the hundred maunds; it 
may however be burnt on an extensive scale in proper kilns, for five or six 
rupees the hundred maunds. Fire-wood for burning lime costs four rupees 
eight annas the hundred maunds. Good sand for mortar maybe got in the 
immediate neighbourhood of any spot where a building is to be erected : 
excellent clay for making bricks or tiles is found within half a mile of the 
Sanatarium ; but except for mixing with mortar and building furnaces, 
bricks will not be much in use at Chirra. Good timber may be had, and 



1834.] of an Iron and Steel Manufactory. 31 

of considerable scantling, but the price increases in proportion to the dif- 
ficulty of conveyance ; beams of twenty-two feet long and nine inches 
square cost six rupees each ; but if the Kasyas were furnished with 
trucks for its conveyance, large timbers might be brought in, at one-fourth 
of the Calcutta price. The saw is not yet brought into use for cutting 
planks : a saw-mill might with advantage form part of such a concern as 
I should recommend to be established at Chirra. The experiments which 
have hitherto been made in the pucka or terrace roofs of Messrs Sar- 
gent's and Cracroft's houses, lead to an opinion that they will not an- 
swer at Chirra. Mr. Cracroft, I believe, has fully adopted this opinion, and 
expresses a conviction, that permanent buildings will require to be roofed 
with copper, lead, or spelter ; but I am far from coinciding in this convic- 
tion,being satisfied that a fair trial has not yet been given to terrace -roofs : 
those at present existing, which have failed, were constructed too 
late in the season, and consequently were not sufficiently beaten down and 
consolidated before the heavy rains set in. Pucka roofs to be effectual 
at Chirra should be constructed at a pitch of about fifteen degrees ; should 
cover the walls and project so as to form a sort of false verandah from 
three to four feet beyond them. The composition should be laid on by the 
middle of December ; and the process of beating down should be slowly and 
regularly persevered in, till a perfect consolidation is obtained. Such a roo f 
I am convinced will answer ; and if so, a most important object will have 
been accomplished, as all the materials are on the spot ; whereas, metal for 
roofs must be brought from Calcutta at great expence, and experienced 
workmen must also be brought to lay them on, and kept in employ for 
their occasional repair. 

These valuable materials are supplied in exhaustless abundance from 
a range of hills which run about three miles north and south across the 
table land, extending between the Sanatarium on the east, and the village 
of Nunklow on the west. This range rises abruptly to the height of about 
four hundred le :t: its summit is flat, and it is covered from top to bottom* 
in contradistinction to the surrounding hills, with timber jungle and luxu- 
riant vegetation ; its base may cover an extent of six or seven square miles 
(but this is mere conjecture). At the foot of this range the lime-stone is 
produced, and at about one-third the distance up, a seam of coal is exhibit- 
ed of from ten to sixteen feet thick, in various directions, so as to leave 
no doubt of its extending almost in an horizontal stratum through every 
part of the range ; this seam has been the more easily traced, as there 
have been slips from all parts of the range, leaving perpendicular gaps, 
where the various strata composing the structure of the hill lie exposed 
to a considerable extent of its elevation. 

At the foot of one of these gaps or slips it was that I first discovered, 



32 Chirr a Punji, fyc. [Jan. 

amidst the wide-spreading confusion, large masses of coal. I took Mr. 
Cracroft to the spot, and his scientific skill enabled him at once to detect 
the seam from whence these masses were supplied, and to hazard a confi- 
dent conjecture that it extended throughout the whole range, and this 
conjecture has been fully verified by discoveries which have since been 
made. The specimens which have been sent to Calcutta and proved at 
the mint, and also by the Secretary of the Physical Class of the Asiatic 
Society, were taken from the heaps of the material which lay exposed to 
the air and weather. At the time we thought the specimens excellent, 
and 1 believe a favorable report was made of them in Calcutta, but we 
have since ascertained that they are beyond comparison inferior to the 
coal which has been detached from the seam. This is now in use at 
Chirra, and is admitted to be of the very finest quality being largely 
impregnated with bituminous matter, easily converted into coke, and 
leaving scarcely any ashes or earthy residue : a specimen shall be for- 
warded to the Society by an early opportunity. This supply which may 
be wrought with the greatest facility, and which is not more than one 
mile distant from the Sanatarium, might be estimated to meet the de- 
mand of ages ; but it is ascertained that the material exists in all parts 
of the hills in profuse abundance. 

The manner in which the iron ore is obtained and worked is, I believe, 
fully described in Mr. Cracroft's paper before alluded to ; it therefore 
only remains for me to state that it may be brought in to any 
required extent at twenty-five rupees the hundred maunds; tw T o- 
thirds of this price however may be considered as payment for 
the conveyance. Any means that can be devised to facilitate this, 
will proportionally reduce the price. I shall forward to the Society 
by an early opportunity a few seers of the ore, that its quality may be 
submitted to experimental proof, and I have reason to believe it will be 
found of the very finest quality. 

Coke for smelting iron may be made on the spot to any extent, and 
charcoal for making steel is abundant and cheap, and a little arrange- 
ment in making it will still farther reduce the price. 

The pipe-clay of Chirra has I believe been already noticed by Mr. 
Cracroft as a valuable commodity in the manufacture of crucibles, 
furnaces, and fire-bricks. 

In the neighbourhood of Chirra there are numerous streams that supply 
sufficient water in the driest seasons, to work overshot mill wheels, but 
the river which bounds the Sanatarium on the west and south is decid- 
edly the best that can be selected, from its vicinity to the coal, lime, 
and charcoal ; also to the bazars, and populous village of Chirra Punji. 
In the course of this stream* from the village of Chirra to that of Moosmai, 



.Jxmu: As. Soc. 



PH. III. PI. I. 



Sketch* of &xZt Sound Af&usfuLr in/ the/ Jiunsuis. 

in 




ElevcUtxrn/ 




IZfext 



Sections at A B. 



Plan 

Fire Plcux< 



U A 



^1— r~ 




Elevation 
Fire Ft<ic& 



a 



*m : >- 



x 



^j* 



1834.] Jumna Salt works. 33 

at the edge of the table land, where it plunges over a perpendicular 
precipice of two thousand feet, there are numerous spots admirably cal- 
culated for the construction of water-mills — spots where there are abrupt 
falls of from ten to twenty feet, and from whence aqueducts might be 
made to regulate the supply of water required. 

When I commenced this sketch it did not occur to me that I should 
have been led into so much of what may appear tedious detail. I fear I 
may have almost exceeded the limits allowed, but I shall now conclude 
by saying, that should the Secretary of the Physical Class, or any other 
scientific gentlemen from the presidency, feel inclined to visit Chirra, and 
form their own judgment on the facts I have endeavoured to detail, he 
or they, should they proceed by a steam-boat, will find at Chattak six 
hundred maunds of coal for their return- voyage. This supply has been 
brought down the hill by Mr. Cracroft and myself, expressly with the 
view of encouraging visitors from Calcutta, in the expectation that the 
frequent report of competent and disinterested individuals may at length 
open the eyes of the Government and of the community, to the many 
advantages, as a sanatary position, and as a highly valuable acquisition, 
which belong to the hitherto neglected station of Chirra Punji. 



V .—Description of the Mode of Extracting Salt from the damp Sand-beds 

of the River Jumna, as practiced by the Inhabitants of Bundelkhand. 

By Lieut. J. S. Burt, Engineers. 

The operation is performed by three persons, one of whom is employ- 
ed in collecting a quantity of damp sand, another in preparing a filter- 
ing vessel, and filling it, as well as in emptying a receiving vessel of 
the saline liquid which has been collected, and the third in superintend- 
ing the boiling of the liquid until it evaporate, and leave a salt at the 
bottom of the pitcher. The sand selected for the purpose is that which 
swells up (phultaj , or is raised by the solar heat a little above the general 
surface of the bed, and is generally found near to the stream, where the 
moist saline particles are alone affected by the sun ; however, a quantity 
of sand becomes intermixed with the salt as it swells into innumerable 
little hillocks, which vary in size from an inch to three or four inches, 
or more, in diameter, according to the quantity of saline matter con- 
tained in them. 

As soon as the gatherer has collected a common ratan-basketful of 
sand, he conveys it upon his head, and depositing the contents near to 
the filtering vessel, returns for a fresh supply; then comes the filler. 
It is however necessary first to describe the manner in which the fil- 
tering vessel is set up. The accompanying plan, elevation, and section 

£ 



34 On the mode of extracting Salt. [Jan. 

(Plate I.) shew it; a is a mass of sand heaped up to the height of about 
four feet, on three sides of a ndnd, or baked earthen pot, which measures 
from one and a half to two feet in height, and fifteen to eighteen inches 
in breadth; it is fixed into the mass of sand, and rests upon three, and 
sometimes upon two, pieces of stick or bambu placed across the top of a 
receptacle, in which lies a small ghara or pitcher immediately below it, 
so as to receive the drops of salt-water as they fall down through an 
aperture cut in the bottom of the large ndnd or pan. Over and perpen- 
dicularly across the aperture is placed a thin bit of stick or bambu, suffi- 
cient to bear a small piece of coarse cloth, which is laid across the stick, 
depending down through the opening to the distance of about three 
inches, and directed to the little pitcher below; upon the stick is placed 
an irregular spherical fragment of tile, or earthen pot, broken angularly, 
so as to allow the water which disengages from the sand to flow beneath 
it, and pass along the piece of cloth that rests upon the stick to the 
receptacle below. In addition, a second piece of cloth is laid over the 
tile, so as to cover, it, and prevent any sand from escaping underneath 
the latter, and mixing with the filtered liquid ; every thing being pre- 
pared, the filler throws into the ndnd a quantity of the saline collec- 
tion, until the vessel is filled to within two or three inches of the top, 
when he fills up the remaining space with fresh water, taken from the 
river close bv; the water in a short time percolates the sand, and falls into 
the pitcher bv the means above-mentioned, and is found to consist of a 
brine, exceedingly salt in taste at first, but diminishing afterwards ac- 
cording to the quantity of water which is added from time to time, as 
the upper surface subsides. The liquid in the small pitcher is emptied 
into a third pan, in which it is conveyed to a chulah or clay fire-place, 
sometimes prepared at the spot, but more frequently at the manufacturers' 
abode, where it is subjected to the action of the fire, and allowed to simmer 
under a slow heat, until the liquid has all evaporated, and the salt remains 
at the sides and bottom of the vessel. The colour of this salt is brown- 
ish ; it is of an excellent quality, and is much superior to the black 
salt which is given to horses, and if it were refined, would, I doubt not, 
be fit for the table; the flavor being very good when the salt is fresh. 

It is rather a curious circumstance that salt should be found mixed 
with the sand of the Jumna, a river of which the water is so pure and fresh 
to the taste, (although it is considered by the natives as almost unfit to 
be drank in the hot and rainy seasons;) the quantities gathered are, how- 
ever, under the present management of the poor, trifling, and but barely 
sufficient to give the laborer a sustenance, although he is allowed by the 
Raja in Bundelkhand a portion or plat of sand free to himself and family 
for the season. The rates, quantities, &c. are as follows : 



1834.] From the Sand-beds of the Jumna. 35 

Each of the three persons, (sometimes women are employed,) can gain 
their anna per day by making two and half seers of salt, which sell at the 
rate of onerupee permaund. They work each from sun-rise tillabout noon, 
and not later, as they consider " sufficient for the day is the evil thereof;" 
besides, after twelve o'clock, the sun becomes too powerful for them to 
work out of doors. 

The locality of this salt preparation is on the Bundelkhand side of the 
river, about thirty-six miles by water, and twenty-four by land, above 
Culpee ; is under the authority of the Budek Raja, and is situated op- 
posite to the village of Marhapoor, nea Karimkhan (or Kurmookah 
Ghat), where the chief operations of removing the rocks which impeded 
the navigation of the Jumna have heen carried on for some time 
past. 

The favorable season of the year for this salt operation is only in the 
hot dry months of April, May, and June, before the river rises ; for on 
its subsidence, which takes place at the close of the rainy season, the sun 
must be allowed to gain some power before these people can attempt a 
renewal of the process, because the only sand from which the salt is dis- 
engaged is drawn forth and raised above the general surface of the bed 
by the direct influence of the sun's heat, which is not sufficiently power- 
ful in the cold season to produce such an effect. I am not aware whe- 
ther the little hillocks of swollen-up sand subside again or not after the 
sun's departure below the horizon, but I should think that they do not. 
A number of sand mounds, fifty or more, raised here and there, some 
given up, and the rest in progress, were to be met with in June last; butl 
should scarcely think if the preparation of salt were carried on after this 
manner on a more extensive scale, that it would reimburse the specu- 
tor for any large sums of money that he might hazard in the manufac- 
ture of the article. 

It appears, from the natives' account, that four baskets filled with this 
saline collection weigh about two maundsof forty seers each (160 lbs.), or 
forty lbs. eachbasketful; also, that half aseer (one lb.) of salt was extracted 
from a maund weight, or eighty lbs. of sand. That a day's work, consisting 
out of doors, of six hours, (passed in collecting, filling, and filtering tillnoon ; 
and the rest of the day in the evaporating process,) enabled the manufac- 
turer to prepare a sufficient quantity of salt for him and each of his family 
to gain an anna a day clear, for the fire cost him but little, as he gather- 
ed or picked up the fuel, consisting of old sticks and gobar, or dried cow- 
dung, and he purchases the earthen pots for a mere trifle, and they last 
a long time, excepting the one subjected to the action of the fire. This 
anna, equal to three half-pence, is found to be sufficient for the individual's 
maintenance; but I suspect he gains something more, as he stated that 
e 2 



36 On the Saline Nature [Jan. 

to every labourer whom he employed in excess to his own family, he 
paid hire at the rate of an anna a day. 

He sells the salt unrefined, at the cheap rate of one rupee per maund 
of forty seers, but this afterwards sells in the towns or cities whither 
it is conveyed, at a rate triple or quadruple (as I understand) its first 
price; it however previously undergoes a process of refinement. Half 
a seer of salt per diem is prepared from each of the mounds in which 
only one ghara is fixed, so that to enable a family of three persons each, 
to get their anna a day at the above rate of one rupee per maund, they 
must keep up fifteen sand mounds, with a ndnd in each. 

I do not know what is the proportion of salt found in the superficial 
hard crust of the dry earth at Cawnpoor*, where I have seen people 
scraping the ground for it, to the depth of half an inch, or more; it would 
be worth while to ascertain, but I should think the proportion of salt 
there exceeded that found in the bed of the Jumna, although it is pro- 
bably not so good. 

As the ndnd was only filled once a day with the sand, and as half a 
seer, equal to one lb., of salt was extracted from it during that period, the 
proportion of the latter to the former will be easily found ; for, 

The ghara contained (by calculation). 0.8836 decimal parts of a cubic 
foot of sand,- considering the space that was filled with it to be a he- 
misphere, and the specific gravity of sand being 1520, the weight of that 
quantity will be eighty-four lbs. nearly ; therefore the proportional 
weight of salt extracted from thus much sand, will be one lb. of salt to 
eighty-three lbs. of sand, nearly. The native's account agrees extraordi- 
narily well with this calculation, for he said that half a seer of salt was 
extracted from a maund weight, or eighty lbs. of sand, as before noticed; 
thereby differing only three lbs. from this statement: his assertion 
therefore is to be relied upon as nearly correct. 

VI. — On the Saline Nature of the Soil of Ghazipoor, and Manufacture of 
Common Salt, as practised by the Natives of the Villages of Tuttulapoor 
Ratouly, Sahory, Chilar,and Becompoor. By Mr. J. Stephenson, Supt. 
H. C. Saltpetre Factories in Behar. 

The surrounding soil in the vicinity of the above villages in the dis- 
trict of Ghazipoor contains a large proportion of various kinds of saline 
matter, such as muriate, sulphate, and carbonate of soda, together with 
nitrate of potass (saltpetre) and nitrate of lime. 

Near the village of Ratouly, about four coss N. W. of the station, an 
opulent native is making a large new tank. Here the excavation al- 
ready made afforded me a section of six feet deep. The first four feet 
* See Journal vol. i. page 503. 



1834.] of the Soil of Ghdzipoor. 37 

from the surface is formed of mud and clay : below this, two feet of 
kankar contained a large proportion of saline matter, consisting of 
sulphate and muriate of soda. The efflorescence i3 in such abundance, 
on the sides and bottom of the excavation, that I gathered it in hand- 
fuls, to obtain an average sample. The bottom of the tank was cover- 
ed with kankar in nodules and lumps recembling stalactites. 

The circumstance of so much saline matter being found here at the 
depth of four feet below the surface, resting upon and impregnating the 
stratum of kankar, naturally leads me to the supposition (taking all ap- 
pearances into consideration) that a constant, but slow, decomposition is 
going on between the carbonate of lime, contained in the kankar, and 
the muriate of soda in contact with this singular stratum. Hence the 
formation and development of carbonate of soda, in the same manner as 
observed in the Natron lakes, and beds of Egypt, by the justly cele- 
brated French chemist Berthollet, though, from his description, the ap- 
pearances in that country are more strongly developed, than I observed 
to be the case at the above place. The upper part of the kankar bed 
being undulated, it therefore frequently crops out at the sui-face, and of 
course the saline earth in proportion. This accounts for the efflo- 
rescence appearing in patches, as it were, especially when moisture is re- 
tained in the soil at all seasons, which is the case in the vicinity of 
jheels. However, as I wish to confine myself to facts alone, I leave this 
subject to be taken up by others better acquainted with geology than 
myself. There seems (as far as my observations extended) to be 
no want of materials for nature to operate upon ; for in the space 
of a few miles I found the earth to contain sulphate, muriate, and car- 
bonate of soda, with here and there the nitrates of potass and lime, 
distributed in patches through a large tract of country. 

Near the above excavation for a tank, and close by the village of Ra- 
touly, is established the largest salt factory that I had an opportunity 
of inspecting. I generally found them situated where the patches of 
muriate of soda predominated, and the following notice attempts to de- 
scribe the operations of the manufacture as it came under my own ob- 
servations during my visits to the factories for the purpose. 

The manufacture of salt is commenced on the latter part of the month 
of February, and is carried forward till the commencement of the rainy 
season ; for being upon the principle of solar evaporation, the operations 
can only be carried on during the dry hot months. 

The first operation is to scrape the surface of the soil (in the same 
manner as saltpetre is scraped off and gathered in Tirhoot), and collected 
in heaps near the filters. The latter are the same in principle, though 
different in shape and size to those used for the manufacture of saltpetre, 



38 On the Salt Works of the [Jan. 

being an oblong square of fifteen feet by five, and not more tban nine 
inches in depth. They are built with the stiff kankar clay, with the 
stalks of sugar-cane laid crosswise, to form the bottom of the filter, in- 
stead of bamboos and mats used to form the bottom of the saltpetre fil- 
ters. A few which I saw had a layer of jungle grass laid over the canes, 
which rendered the filtering process more effective. 

About fifty maunds of the saline earth is operated upon, at each charge. 
This raw material being laid on the bottom of the filter, so as to form an 
uniform thickness of about five inches, and trodden down to the desired 
hardness by the feet of the operator. Water, from a well close by, is 
then poured upon the earth to the depth of three or four inches, and the 
whole suffered to remain tranquil for the space of several hours, during 
which time, the fluid finds its way through the earthy bed, and dissolv- 
ing the salt in its passage, runs off in the form of a weak brine, by 
means of a spout into an earthen vessel used for a receiver. 

The brine thus obtained is more or less charged with a colouring 
matter from decomposed vegetable matter and oxide of iron which the 
kankar soil contains. On a subsequent examination of the brine from 
several filters, I found the average to give a specific gravity of 1.095. 

The brine obtained in the above manner next undergoes a subsequent 
process, as follows : — on the surface of the ground, near to the filters, eva- 
porating beds are constructed of about twenty feet square, and not more 
than four inches in depth. The bottom is formed of the nodules of 
kankar limestone, plastered over with a cement of the same material, 
similar to the roof of a pucka built house. These pan-like squares are 
for the purpose of solar evaporation. A thin layer of cow-dung is spread 
over the surface of this evaporatory, and the ras (as the natives term 
the brine) is poured over, till the dung is saturated. The evaporation 
goes on, and when the mixture is sufficiently dry, the saturated dung is 
collected into a large heap, in order to be burned, or calcined, in the 
same way that khiira Ion earth is burnt in Tirhoot, except that the cow- 
dung serves instead of rice-straw for fuel. 

The calcined saline mixture is then removed to a filter (formed of clay), 
of smaller dimensions than the one above, which I have attempted to 
describe, (being only about five feet long, three broad, and two deep,) 
when it is again subjected to the process of filtration. But in this se- 
cond process, no more water is used than is necessary to dissolve the 
common salt (which is known to be more soluble than most other salts) 
contained in the calcined mixture ; consequently a very strong solution 
of brine is obtained from this second operation. By the process of burn- 
ing, the colouring matter is in some measure destroyed, so that the brine 
from this second operation is less coloured than that resulting from the 



1834.] Ghdzipoor district. 39 

first operation of filterings, and its specific gravity of course is much in- 
creased. It is now sufficiently prepared for final evaporation, and is 
therefore removed again to the evaporating squares, and exposed (very 
thin) to the action of the sun and heated air, which it appears is suffi- 
ciently powerful to evaporate the saline solution to dryness, leaving a 
thin crust of a brownish white coloured salt attached to the bottom of 
the solar evaporatory, from which it is taken off by means of an iron 
chisel. 

The salt thus obtained is, however, far from being a pure article : an 
average sample which I collected, and subsequently subjected to analy- 
sis, produced the following result — 100 grs. operated upon. 

Insoluble matter (sand) 3.0 

Sulphate of soda, 37.O 

Muriate of soda, 60.0 

100.0 
A slight trace of nitrate of lime was detected during the examination. 

The quantity of salt produced, of the above quality, at the Ratouly 
factory, is twenty-five maunds for each filter, and there being seven in 
number, the total produce for three months' operations will amount to 
175 maunds, which, at the stated price of rupees four per maund, make 
a total value of rupees 700. However, as this amount is from the ma- 
nufacturer's own statement, the real produce may be one-third more. 

An average sample of the saline earth, which I carefully collected 
from the heaps merely scraped off the soil at two of the factories, beino- 
analysed, gave me the following result : 
100 grs. operated upon. 

The filtered solution made no change on turmeric paper. It there- 
fore contained no loose alkali. I obtained precipitates from the follow- 
ing re-agents, viz. muriate of barytes, nitrate of silver, oxalate of ammo- 
nia, prussiate of potass, and liquid ammonia : these precipitates, being 
carefully washed and dried, produced the following equivalent results : 
Earthy matter, insoluble in the three "1 ., 
mineral acids. J SUex 89 -° 

Earthy matter, soluble inmuriatic acid, I c ? r bonate ° f lim f • •••/••• 4 '° 

L alumina and oxide of iron.. 0.2 

("sulphate of soda 2.7 

Saline matter, soluble in water, . . . J m ? ri ? te °/ 1 ditt0 H 

] nitrate of lime 0.4 

1 moisture 2.0 

U°ss 0.2 

100.0 



40 Progress of the Boring for [Jan. 

VII. — Progress of the Boring for Coal at Jamutra in Cutch. By Capt. 

C. W. Grant, Engineers. 

[Extracted from that Officer's Report to J. Bax, Esq. Sec. to the Bombay Govern- 
ment, communicated to the Asiatic Society by the Supreme Government, 30th Jan.] 

" On the 3rd instant, I dispatched 125 maunds of coal from the vein 
at Dujapoor, agreeable to the desire of the Right Honorable the Governor. 

" I continued sinking the bore at Jamutra as mentioned in my 
letter of the 18th June, until towards the latter end of July, when the 
rain fell, and the river came down so suddenly, that I had but just time 
to save the boring apparatus, and it was of course impossible to go on 
with the work, so long as the monsoon continued. At this time also, the 
whole of my establishment, my personal servants, and the sepoy guard, 
were attacked with fever — one man only out of 3 1 escaping it, so that I 
was obliged to allow them to go into Bhooj, for a few days, for change 
of air. As soon after the receipt of your letter of the 24th July, as the men 
had regained sufficient strength to work, I commenced digging out the 
coal at Dujapoor, and by the beginning of September, had it all ready 
for shipping to Bombay; since then, we have again been working at the 
bore at Jamutra, and we have now got down 1 84 feet below the bed of 
the river, or 190 feet below the general level of the country, principally 
through the sandstone and slate-clay, with here and there an exceed- 
ingly hard stratum or band of iron stone, as will be better seen by the 
enclosed list of the numerous strata passed through. The last 22 feet 
of white sandstone consists entirely of the finest particles of white 
quartz, and is evidently the channel of an underground spring; for after 
sinking through it some feet, the water rcse, and flowed out at the mouth 
of the hole in large quantities, night and day, without ceasing, as much 
as could be conveyed away by a seven or eight inch pipe. It is rather 
brackish, it cannot be otherwise, as it has to pass through 148 feet of 
very brackish water, which is constantly flowing in from the sides of the 
hole, before it can reach the surface; but I have no doubt, but that if it came 
up through pipes, it would be perfectly sweet. I particularly mention 
this circumstance, as the boring for water is now becoming of great in- 
terest, and my meeting with a spring 1 90 feet below the level of the 
plain, shows that success in that line should not be despaired of, even 
when not found at small depths. The flow of water is constant and uni- 
form, and runs down the river in a fresh stream, and very much impedes 
our work; so much so, that added to the great depth of the bore, it 
renders the work exceeding tedious and difficult. I am only waiting to hear 
the result of the trial of the coal just sent down, to stop work here, and 
should the coal be approved of, have it in contemplation to commence a 
bore at Dujapoor, and see if any other veins lie under the present one. 



1834.] Coal at Jamutra in Cutch. 41 

In the mean time, I am about to make a long tour through the northern 
and western parts of the province, where, I think if any where, coal is 
likely to be found. I have already examined a great deal of the eastern 
side of the country, and after this trip, shall have a tolerable idea of the 
geology of the province. 

" The strata passed through in the present bore, as shown by the en- 
closed list, are such as usually denote the presence of coal ; viz. 
sand stones, slate clay, andiron ore, and iron pyrites, and bear a very strong 
analogy to the sections of some of the coal districts in England. Whether 
coal exists beneath this, the means at my disposal do not permit me to 
ascertain, except at a great cost ; but from the evident traces and pre- 
sence of coal, though in small quantities, over a large extent of country 
of which Jamutra is one boundary, still inclines me to think that it must, 
though in this instance I have not been fortunate enough to hit upon it. 

The establishment of a steam communication between Bombay and 
Europe being now I hope placed beyond a doubt, the discovery of coal 
so conveniently situated as this, appears to me to be more than ever a 
desideratum, and I beg you will assure the Right Honorable the Go- 
vernor in Council, that no exertions shall be spared on my part to con- 
tribute to so desirable an object." 

List and description of the several Strata passed through in Boring for 
Coal at Jamutra in Cutch. 

No. feet, inches. 

1 Red and brown sandstone 20 

2 Thin band of clay iron ore or stone, r 6 

3 Brown sandstone 1 6 

4 Thin band of clay iron stone, 6 

5 Argillaceous sandstone and slate -clay in thin alternate laminae, . . 4 

6 Clay iron stone, '. 3 

7 Sandstone and slate clay in thin laminae, 5 

8 Amygdaloidal rock in a state of decomposition, 2 

9 Shale slate clay containing a thin vein of coal, 1 10 

10 Sandstone slate clay in thin laminae 5 

1 1 Light red sandstone, 1 6 

12 Sandstone and slate clay in thin laminae, 5 

13 Light-brown sandstone, 1 1§ 

14 Deep red ditto, 3 3 

15 Light-brown and yellow ditto, very soft, 7 9 

16 Brown argillaceous sandstone, 3 11 

17 Reddish brown sandstone, 1 3 

18 Very argillaceous sandstone, 11 

19 Variegated sandstone, 4 

20 Deep red ditto 3 10 



42 Progress of the Boring for Coal at Jamutra in Cutch. [Jan. 

No. feet, inches. 

21 Sandstone composed of very coarse grains of quartz, &c. and color- 

ed deep red by oxide of iron, 1 2 

22 Fine argillaceous sandstone and slate-clay, 2 

23 Very coarse quartzy sandstone or breccia, deep red, 9 

24 Ditto ditto white ditto, 3 7 

25 Very argillaceous sandstone, 1 1 

26 Very coarse light-brown sandstone, 1 4 

27 Brown sandstone, fine 4 0§ 

28 Coarse quartzy sandstone, 2 10 

29 Very hard red sandstone, 1 1 

30 Sandstone and slate-clay, 1 8i 

31 Red ferruginous sandstone, exceedingly hard, 2 

32 Very coarse quartzy sandstone, 7 

33 Argillaceous sandstone, 1 5 

34 Clay iron stone, excessively hard, 1 7 

35 Deep red sandstone, 5 9 

36 Very argillaceous sandstone, strongly impregnated with iron,.. ..9 10 

37 Excessively hard rock, consisting of particles of quartzy-clay slate 

and strongly cemented in ferruginous clay 2 

38 Reddish argillaceous sandstone, 9 3f 

39 Very coarse quartzy breccia or sandstone, 3 84 

40 Very fine grained sandstone, 1 4^ 

41 Very coarse quartzy ditto, 1 10 

42 Red sandstone, 4 8 

43 Hard red clay, 8 

44 Hard brown sandstone, 2 5 

45 Blue clay or slate clay, 6 

46 Grey or pyritous iron ore, exceedingly hard, 1 6 

47 Slate clay, 1 3£ 

48 Pyriteous iron ore, exceedingly hard, 2 3 

49 Blue slate clay, with pieces of iron pyrites, 14 

50 Hard red iron stone, very difficult to cut through, 1 3 

51 Slate clay 4 

52 White sandstone, composed of extremely fine particles of quartz, 15 

53 (A few small pieces of coal were now brought up) : perfectly white 

sandstone, composed of extremely fine particles of quartz, .... 7 



54 Total depth of bore at present reached, including 42 ft.l in. in the 

height of the bank of the river 190 1£ 

N. B. Below the white sandstone is a very hard rock, at which we are 
now working, and which serves as the pavement of the water channel 
described in the letter. 



1834.] Discovery of an Ancient Town near Behut. 43 

VIII. — Discovery of an Ancient Town near Behut, in the Dodb. By Capt. 
P. T. Cautley, Sujit. Doab Canal. 
[Extract of a letter read at the Meeting of the 30th instant.] 

" I have this day despatched by dak banghy, for the museum, a num- 
ber of coins, of very great interest, from their having been found in the 
site of an ancient (apparently Hindu town,) which site is now seventeen 
feet below the present surface of the country, and upwards of twenty- 
five below that of a modern town near it. I will confine myself in this 
mere notice at present, to stating, that in consequence of the clearing 
out of the canal bed south of the Belka falls, near the town of Behut, 
north of Seharunpoor, the exposure took place ; and on the canal being 
laid dry shortly after, the coin, &c. were found amongst the shingle in the 
bed of the canal. I may mention that this line is altogether distinct 
from that which is said to be the ancient canal, and therefore even were 
there not distinct marks to the contrary, there can be no quibbling on 
the articles having been transported, which is a favorite argument of the 
day. In the present case, the section is thus ; the surface of the country 
at that point being much lower than that on which the town of Behut 
stands : — 

Grass jungle with cultivation on the surface of the country. River sand, 4| feet. 

A seam of sand with traces of shingle. 

Reddish clay mixed with sand, 12| feet. 

A A, site of ancient town, A A 

Black soil full of pots, bones, &c. in which the coin and other articles have 

been discovered, 6 feet. 

Bed of canal, 23 feet below surface. 

The line marked above " site of ancient town A A A A" is distinct in 
section for about a quarter of a mile, and were it not for the breaking 
down of banks, &c. it would be seen much further ; the soil upon which 
the town appears to have stood is very black, and full of bones and pieces 
of pots of different description : bricks of a large size, and of unusual shape, 
appearing as if they had been made to suit the circular form of wells : pieces 
of the slag of iron-smelting furnaces, (such a thing as smelting iron at Be- 
hat was never heard of,) arrow heads, rings, ornaments and beads of dif- 
ferent descriptions; in short, an Oriental Herculaneum, for there appears 
every chance of the discoveries being extended hereafter. The appear- 
ance of small pieces of kankar (amongst the shingle), of which I also 
send one or two specimens, is an extraordinary feature, as kankar is not 
known in this part of the country." 

Note. The probable date of Lieut. Cautley's subterranean city, to 
whatever cause its inhumation may be attributed, can be pretty well placed 
f 2 



44 Discovery of an Ancient Town near Behut. [Jan. 

within cognate limits through the very fortunate discovery of many coins 
imbedded in the same place with the bricks and bones. The coins belong 
to three different species already made known through Mr. Wilson's 
paper on the Society's cabinet*. 

1. The Indo-Scythic coin, or that having the figure of a man in a 
coat of mail, offering something on a small altar (Nos. 23 to 33, Plate II. 
As. Res. xvii.), whicb has been referred with much probability to the 
commencement of the Christian era : — of this only one coin is recogni- 
zable out of 26. 

2. The chief part of the coins belongs to the series No. 69, Plate III. 
of the same volume, of which nothing at all is known ; only two have hi- 
therto been seen, one of which was dug up in cutting the trench of the 
new road from Allahabad to Benares : this however was square, as was a 
duplicate in Colonel Mackenzie's collection, but all those now brought 
to light are circular : they are identified with it by the elephant on one 
side, and by one or more singular monograms. Some of them differ 
considerably in other respects, having a Brahmany bull on the reverse, 
and an inscription in unknown characters round the edgef. 

3. The third species of coin is of silver. A square lump with no regu- 
lar impression, but simply stamped with various chhdps, asmight have 
been the custom anterior to the general introduction of coined money. 
Of this ancient coin, the Mackenzie collection furnishes abundant exam- 
ples, (Plate V. figures 101 to 108,) but his researches altogether failed in 
ascertaining their date, or even their genuineness, both which points are 
now satisfactorily developed by the present discovery. They must all 
date posterior to the Indo-Scythic dynasties in Bactria, and belong to a pe- 
riod when (as in China at present) silver was in general current by weight, 
while the inferior metals (for all of the present coins are not of copper) 
were circulated as tokens of a fixed nominal value. 

This discovery alone would be of great value, but it is only one of im- 
munerable points for which we may eagerly expect elucidation from this 
Herculaneum of the East. 

The appearance and state of the tooth and bone sent down are also of 
high interest ; they are not entirely deprived of their animal matter, 
though it is in a great measure replaced by carbonate of lime. The tooth 
is of the same size, and belongs to the same animal (the ox) as those of 
the Jumna fossils, presented by Capt. E. Smith at the last meeting, but 
the mineralization in the latter has been completed, whereas in these it 
remains imperfect. J. P. 

* See Asiatic Researches, vol. XVII. 

f We shall insert drawings of these coins, and of other objects discovered on 
the same spot, when Capt. Cautley favors us with further particulars. 



1834.] System of Diving for Valuables in the Deccan. 45 

IX. — A Brief Account of the System adopted by Divers in the Deccan, for 
the Recovery of Valuables, lost in the Tanks and Rivers of that Pro- 
vince. By Lieut. G. J. Taylor, 1th Mad. Lt. Cav. 
Happening to lose a valuable diamond ring when swimming some 
years since in a tank in the Deccan, I was induced to employ a set of 
divers for its recovery : not, I confess, with much hopes of success, not- 
withstanding the confident tone in which I was assured they seldom or 
never failed in their search. I was however most agreeably disappoint- 
ed, for after seven hours' labour, the ring was found. As the mode which 
they adopted, for the recovery of the lost article, was new to me, and 
may possibly be unknown to many of your readers, I venture to forward 
the following brief sketch of their proceedings. The head of the set I 
employed, and who eventually was successful in his search, was a cele- 
brated diver in that part of India. He wore a beautiful gold bangle on 
his right arm — a present from the Peshwa Bajeb Rao for having reco- 
vered a valuable emerald from the Tapti river, which that prince had 
dropped in crossing the stream. He assured me, that although a most 
laborious and sometimes painful trade, he had usually found it a lu- 
crative occupation. 

I may add that I subsequently saw the same mode adopted, on various 
occasions, for the recovery of the nose ornament*, ear-rings, and other 
jewels lost by women when bathing on the ghats of the great rivers and 
banks in that part of the country, and almost always with success. 
Their method is as follows : 

A set of divers consists of three persons, two of whom dive by turns, 
while the third sits on the adjoining bank. The two divers wade to 
the place pointed out, if within their depth, each carrying with him a 
circular flat-bottomed wooden basin, with sloping sides, about seven 
inches deep and two and a half feet in diameter With this the diver 
descends, and having scooped into it as much of the surface of the 
mud or sand as it will contain, ascends with the platter and sends it 
ashore, where its contents are carefully washed and examined by a third 
person. If the water be not deep, when one man has stooped under 
water, he is kept down by his partner, placing one foot upon his neck 
or shoulders, until the platter is filled, on which a signal is made, the 
foot is withdrawn, and the man rises to the surface. But when the 
depth of water will not admit of such arrangement, the diver sinks 
a grapnel or heavy stone from a canoe, and then descends by the rope. 
When he ascends, the platter is lifted into the boat, and there examin- 
ed. In this way, they continue to work for hours, each diver descend- 
ing in turn, until they have examined the whole surface of the mud or 
sand around the place pointed out, and very seldom fail of success 
if ordinary information be only afforded, as to the spot near which the 



46 Register of the Weather at Futtehgurh. [Jan. 

article has been lost. They remain under water from one to one and a 
half minute at a time — oft-times more, if the water be deep. They 
adopt the same system precisely, whether in still water or in a running 
stream : only that in the latter, of course their labour is more severe — 
their success more precarious. 

Their remuneration depends solely on success ; the ordinary salary 
being one-third of the extricated value of the lost article, and which 
is divided in equal portions among the set. 

X.— Register of the Weather at Futtehgurh (Lat. 27°21'iV. Long. 79°30' 
E.)from April 1832 to October 1833. By M. P. Edgeworth, Esq. C. S. 
The thermometer was placed in the open air, on a wall fronting the 
north, until 1st January, 1833, when it was removed to an open veranda 
on the north side of the house. Up to 26 Sept. the maximum was taken 
by a self- registering thermometer, which was accidentally broken : it was 
then taken at 2^hp. m. till December, "1 

2 p. m. till April, V by a spirit thermometer, 

3 p. m. till August J 

and from August 6, by a self-registering thermometer. The minimum 
all along by a self- registering spirit thermometer. 

Note. We have endeavoured to render the abstract, into which want of 
*pace has obliged us to condense our correspondent's register, more com- 
plete by expressly numerically the number of days, windy, cloudy, fair, &c. 
in each month, as far as can be gathered from a register not intended to 
shew these points with accuracy. The columns of west and east wind 
comprehend 45° degrees on either side of the cardinal point, as it seemed 
more proper to class these winds (north-west, south-east &c.) with the 
directions generally prevalent, than with the north and south winds, 
which are of rare occurrence. 

The mean temperature of Futtehgurh seems nearly as high as that of 
Benares or Ghazipoor*, but we are not aware that the instruments used 
had been previously compared with a standard. 

For four days of 1832, Mr. Edgeworth took the temperature every 
hour during the day and night : which enables us to prove that the sup- 
position of deriving the mean temperature of a place from the means of 
• two hours of the same name will not hold good. At the foot of the hourly 
register we have given the means of the pairs thus deduced; and 
under them the errors from the mean of the whole (75°. 55), which may 
be taken as the corrections due to each pair. The mean of the extremes 
of heat and cold (7 6°. 55) is 1.00 higher than the mean diurnal range. 
In my register for Benares (App. x. As. Res. xv.) I found the excess to 
be 0.86, which is a near accordance with Mr. Edgeworth's result. — J.P. 
* See vol. i. 29, and vol. ii. 604. 



1834.] 



Register of the Weather at Futtehgarh 



47 






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48 



Note on the Botanical Specimens from Mount Ophir. [Jan. 

Hourly Observations of the Thermometer taken for four days in 1832. 



1832. 


XII. 


I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


VIII. 


IX. 


X. 


XI. 


19th Aug. 
23rd Sept. 
21st Oct... 
18th Nov. 


81 
77 
67.5 
59 


80.5 

74.5 
65.5 
57 


80.5 
74.5 
65 
56.5 


80.5 

74.5 
64.8 
55.7 


80 
74.1 
63.7 
55.3 


80 
73.3 
61.8 
55 


80.7 
73 
61 
54 


83 
77 
61.6 
54 


85.7 
79.7 
66.5 
57 


88 
84.5 
71 
62.7 


89 

88 
74 
67 


90.8 
90 

76 
72 


Means, . . 


71.1 


69.4 


69.1 


68.9 


68.3 


67-5 


67.2 


68.9 


72.2 


76.5 


79.5 


82.2 


1832. 


Noon. 


I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


VIII. 


IX. 


X. 


XI. 


19th Aug. 
23rd Sept. 
21st Oct. 

18th Nov. 


94 
92 

79 

75 


92 

92 
81 

77 


91 

92.5 

81 

78 


90 
92 

79.8 
78 


90 
91 

78 

77 


88 
90 
75 
74 


86 
86 
71 
70.3 


85 
82 
69 
68 


84 
80.5 
68 
64 


83 
79 
67.3 
62 


82.5 
79 
67 
61 


82 
78 
66.9 
60.5 


Means. . . . 


85 


85.5 


85.6 


84.9 


84 


81.7 


78.3 


76 


74.1 


72.8 


72.4 


71.9 


Do. of pairs. 


78.1 


77.5 


77.4 


76.9 


76.1 


74.6 


72.7 


72.4| 


73.2 


74.7 


75.9 


77.0 


Differences. 


+ 2.51 


+ 1.89 


+ 1.73 


+ 1.36 


+0.59 


—0.91 


— 2.80 


— 3.10 


— 2.37 


—0.86 


+ 0.39 


+1.47 



The last column shews the differences of the means of pairs (of hours of the same,) from the 
mean temperature of the whole twenty-four hours 75°. 55. The 19th August was cloudy after ten 
o'clock ; the rest were fine throughout. The greatest heat of the day occurs at 2 p.m.: the mini 
mum temperature at 6 o'clock in the morning. 



XI. — Note on the Botanical Specimens from Mount Ophir. 
[Accompanying Lieut. Newbold's Letter — Read 30th February.] 

The specimens from Mount Ophir, with which I was favored the day 
before yesterday, consist of two Ferns, three Lycopodinese, and two Phse- 
nogamous plants. They are not in a good state of preservation, and 
only one has any fructification, but they are nevertheless very valuable, 
and I feel greatly obliged to Lieut. Newbold for them. The most in- 
teresting among them is a specimen full of good sori of Matonia 
pectinata, Brown, published in 1830, in Plants Asiatics Rariores, 
vol. i. p. 16, tab. 16, from a specimen, unique in Europe, which was 
gathered in the identical locality by Col. Farquhar. The individual now 
before me beautifully confirms the generic character and general observ- 
ations relative to this remarkable fern, which were politely supplied for 
the above work by Mr. Brown ; in shape it differs in having a bifid 
frond, the pinnse being unilateral towards the bifurcation. The other 
fern may perhaps be a Blechnum. The Lycopodinese are very curious, 
and belong seemingly to new species. Of the Phamogamous plants, 
one is exceedingly remarkable. It has the habit of some members of 
the coniferous, as well as the myriceous, tribe ; the structure of the 
wood obviously brings it under the former ; the leaves are acerose, op- 
posite, and gland-dotted. Perhaps it is a Dacrydium. The other plant 
belongs perhaps to the family of Ericese. 

Botanic Garden. N. Wallich. 



1833.] Asiatic Society. 49 



XII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

Thursday Evening 30th January, 1834. 
The Rev. Principal W. H. Mill, Vice-President, in the chair. 
After reading the proceedings of the last meeting, the Society proceeded 
to ballot for the officers of the ensuing year, when Sir C. T. Metcalfe, Sir 
J. Franks, Rev. Principal Mill, and Mr. W. McNaghten, were elected 
Vice-Presidents : and 

J. Tytler, Esq. Capt. A. Troyer, C. E. Trevelyan, Esq. 

Baboo Ramcomul Sen, J. R. Col- Dr. J. T. Pearson, 

vin, Esq. D. Hare, Esq. 

Capt. W. N. Forbes, Dr. N. Wallich, 

were elected Members of the Committee of Papers. 

Messrs. Hamilton, Mackenzie, Stopford, and Beattie, proposed at the 
last Meeting, were unanimously elected Members. 

Before proceeding to the business of the meeting, Mr. J. T. Pearson pro- 
posed the following resolutions, which were carried unanimously : 

1. That the thanks of the Society be tendered to Mr. J. Prinsep, for his 
liberality in circulating copies of the Journal, edited by him, gratuitously to 
the Members. 

2. That under existing circumstances it is expedient that the Society 
pay for all copies distributed to its members for the future, as well as for 
the past year. 

Read a letter fromW. E. Frere, Esq. Secretary, Bombay Branch Royal 
Asiatic Society, acknowledging the receipt of the 17th and 18th volume of 
the Asiatic Researches, and requesting to be furnished with the 15th and 
16th volumes. Also letters from H. Harkness, Esq. Sec. Roy. Asiatic So- 
ciety, and from J. Fouhall, Esq. Soc. of the British Museum, advising re- 
ceipt of the 17th volume. 

Read a letter from J. Tytler, Esq. Sec. Oriental Translation Commit- 
tee, regretting that the state of their funds would not admit of their 
undertaking the publication of Mr. Yates' Nalodaya, in India, and proposing 
either to transmit it to the Home Translation Committee, or to subscribe for 
copies, should the author prefer printing it on his own account. To be 
referred to Mr. Yates. 

The Secretary read the following report on the accounts and proceeding 
of the past year. 

Annual Report. 

" In drawing up a report upon the affairs of the Society for the past year, I shall 
confine myself to points connected with the finances and constitution of the Society ; 
the literary and scientific objects which have been brought forward during the year 
have been already noticed in the printed proceedings of the monthly meetings, and 
are therefore well known to all the members. The mode of publishing these proceed- 
ings in detail, and furnishing lists of all the books presented, members elected, and 
papers read, has only been adopted for the last two years ; but it has already been 
G 



50 Asiatic Society. [Jan. 

of material benefit to distant members, who have become more connected with the 
main body through these means, and have frequently applied for books which they 
have seen announced, or have taken part in discussions going forward within our 
walls, and have become more active contributors of new facts in the literature and 
science of the vast country within our range. The good effect of publishing and 
spreading abroad at once all that goes forward in our Society cannot be better 
proved than by instancing the letter read this evening from the Secretary to the 
Bombay Branch of the Asiatic Society, which was before ignorant that any volume of 
Researches had been published later than the fourteenth ! That the published Re- 
Siarches are not so wellknown, or so generally distributed, as they ought to be, may 
be implied from the complaint in the third volume of Professor Heeren's Historical 
Researches, that he was only able to get access to the first twelve volumes of the 
Transactions. All this will now be corrected through the activity of our agent, the 
Boden Professor, whose interference has already been visibly productive of amend- 
ment in the despatches of books from Europe, latterly left too much at the discre- 
tion of the book -seller. 

The number of members at present on the list is 85 : the diminution during the 
past year has been, by death, 2 ; by retirement to England, and other causes, 10 : 
the addition from new elections has been 14. 

The receipts and disbursements, as abstracted from the collector's general account, 
are exhibited in the accompanying statement. They contain many items belonging 
properly to the last year ; such as the printing of the last two volumes, which have 
necessitated an encroachment on the stock of the Society to the extent of 7500 ru- 
pees. Strict economy has however been preserved with regard to the expences of 
the present year — the whole, including a remittance of £'100 to our agent in Eng- 
land, being within the sum absolutely collected in the same period, and leaving a 
balance in hand, if the outstanding quarterly bills be included, of nearly five thou- 
sand rupees. 

Payments. 
To paid Military Orphan Press, for 

printing 500 copies of the 18th 

vol. Asiatic Researches, 4,286 14 

To Bill for Repairs, Museum &c. 

passed in December, 1832, 1,023 15 1 

7'o Establishment from Dec. 1832 to 

31st Oct. 1833. 1,9,33 11 

To Contingent expences, 115 12 9 

To Orphan Press Bills, for Binding, 206 

To Dufturees, for ditto, 206 3 

To 12 copies, 1st vol. Journ. As. Soc. 144 
To Museum Collection and Cabinets, 109 

To Repairs of House, 77 13 9 

To Orphan Press for printing 500 co- 
pies, 2nd part of the 18th vol. 

Asiatic Researches, 1,962 

To engraving Maps and Plates, ■ ••• 316 8 

To Experimental Boring, 500 

To remitted to H. H.Wilson, Esq. 

£100, as Agent in England, 923 1 3 

11,804 14 10 
By Balancelof Cash in hand, this day, 20 8 5 



Receipts. 

By the Sale of Researches, 160 

By Subcriptions collected, 3,904 

By Interest on 7,500, Paper sold 243 12 5 

By Sale of Company's Paper, 7,429 10 11 

By cash from Government for the 

Burmese Image Pedestal, 88 



Sicca Rupees 11.825 7 3 



Stock and Dependencies. 
Company's paper deposited with the 

Government agents, 17,500 

Interest for one year (not drawn),- • 700 
Outstanding Quarterly Bills, reco- 
verable, 4,286 

Dividends on Macintosh & Co'sDebt 
Sicca Rupees, 11,825 7 3 of 11,964. 6. 6. 

With regard to the collection of the quarterly contributions, the late unfortu- 
nate failures have necessarily caused much inconvenience both to the collector and 
to absent members, and to this cause may be attributed the apparently large amount 
on the defaulters' list. Still there are some names against which too large a balance 
appears to stand as due, and it is for the Society to determine, whether the mem- 
bers thus continuing in default are to be allowed the privilege of calling themselves 



1834.] Asiatic Society. 51 

such, while the burden falls upon their more regular brethren. The contributions of 
eighty members (without entrance fees) would be 5 120, whereas only 3900 were collect- 
ed ; and in this sum is included 302 rupees, from the Right Honorable the Governor 
General, the Patron of the Society, who, contrary to former precedents, has liberally 
directed that he should be charged as an ordinary paying member. The Society is aware 
that an endeavour has been made, though it is not yet matured, to introduce the op- 
tion of compounding for the cmarterly subscriptions, and I cannot but anticipate that 
this measure, if adopted, will prove more productive to our finances, and more con- 
venient and agreeable to most of the members. It will also save the expence and 
delay of collection. 

It has been my desire to lessen in some degree the burthen to paying members, 
by distributing the Journal gratis to them during the past year : the result has not 
proved so encouraging as I could have wished, but with some modification I hope 
still to be able to continue the measure. 

Of the subscription for Mr. H. H. Wilson's Bust, Its. 1080 have been collected 
and remitted to that gentleman : no intimation has been yet received of the probable 
cost of the bust. 

Although it has not been thought prudent to commence a new volume of Resear- 
ches, or even the printing of the Index of the 18 volumes, sanctioned by the Com- 
mittee of Papers, the press has not been idle, and T have the pleasure to lay on 
thetable a copy just completed of M. Csoma de Koros' Tibetan Dictionary, printed 
at the expence of Government, and under the auspices of the Society, as reported on 
the 20th Feb. last. M. Csoma's Grammar will now he put in hand, and the whole 
completed in the course of the present spring. 

The plan of increasing the museum has remained uncompleted for the want of 
means, as the rooms on the ground-floor cannot be adapted to the purpose without 
terracing them anew and enclosing the arched openings to the north. Mr. Pear- 
son was induced to accept the office of gratuitous Curator in the month of July last, 
and an assistant curator had been brought on the strength of the establishment some 
months previously, who has been employed in cleaning and preserving the objects 
now in our cabinets. But it must be obvious that this branch of the Society can- 
not flourish, while those who might be expected to cherish and support it are con- 
stantly engaged in other duties and reside at too great a distance even to pay the 
rooms an occasional visit. One new cabinet has been constructed to receive a col- 
lection of shells arranged by Dr. Pearson, and the geological almirahs have become 
nearly filled with contributions from various quarters. 

With regard to the Library, it seems essentially necessary to incur some expence 
for the better preservation of the books, especially the valuable records of other 
Societies, presented periodically in paper covers. I beg to propose that some 
professional person be appointed binder to the Society, who may be entrusted 
with the binding of all new books on fixed rates, under the Committee of Pa- 
pers. 

The furash of the Museum, a very old man, who has been with the Society since 
its first establishment, has been allowed to retire on a trifling pension without caus- 
ing any additional charge to the establishment. 

We have to deplore the loss of two Members, by death, during the past year, one 
of them, Captain Herbert, is so well known by the high services he has rendered 
to science in India, that the tribute of an obituary testimony to his memory becomes 

G 2 



52 Asiatic Society. [Jan. 

his due, and I have only to regret that I am not yet provided with the materials 
for a sketch of his short but eminently useful career. 

By departure to Europe, our loss of members has been still more severe, but it 
may be hardly fair to consider that a deprivation which but changes the scene and 
sphere of their exertions and utility. 

I have purposely refrained from alluding to the labours of a more exalted nature, 
which have brightened the proceedings of the past year, because I consider it to 
be the privilege of the highest officer of the Society to review the objects and pro- 
gressive success of the institution over which he presides. Severe indisposition 
has unfortunately placed it out of the power of our President to restore the lauda- 
ble custom of an annual address on the present occasion ; which is the more to be 
regretted, as this is the jubilee anniversary of the day on which the illustrious founder 
of the Society was elected its first President. The close of that eventful period finds 
the parent Society shorn of all its exclusive honors, and forming but one, perhaps 
the humblest, of the numerous bodies associated in Europe and in India, for the 
prosecution of " inquiries into the history, antiquities, the natural productions, arts, 
sciences, and literature of Asia." The tree which was auspiciously planted by 
the great Sir William Jones, to use his own expression, has long since produced its 
fairest blossoms, and its most exquisite fruit. It has spread its roots in distant 
lands, where the arts of cultivation are better understood, and the value of its pro- 
duce can be more skilfully developed ; but we must not forget that we here assem- 
ble under the shade of the original tree, and that however decayed the parent stock 
may have become, while its more vigorous branches are taking root in France 
Germany, and England, — still it is to the Asiatic Society of Bengal that belongs 
with propriety the motto assumed by one of its illustrious scions, " Quot rami tot 
arbores." 

Library. 

The following books were presented : 

Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Soeiety, 2nd part of the 3rd volume, new 
series, and the Proceedings of the 10th Annual Meeting of the Society, with the 
Reports of the Council, Auditors, and Committee of Correspondence, held on Sa- 
turday, May 11th, 1833. — By the Society. 

Proceedings of the Geological Society, Nos. 30 and 31, with a list of its mem- 
bers for 1833. — By the Society. 

Garcin De Tassy, Appendice aux Rudimens de la Langue Hindoustani. — By the 
Author. 

Marcoz, Erreur des Astronomes et des Geometres. — By the Author. 
Journal Asiatique, Nos. 59 and 66. — By the Asiatic Society of Paris. 
Journal of Medical Science, No. 1, vol. 1st. — By Messrs. J. Grant, and J. T. 
Pearson, Editors. 

Meteorological Register for December, 1833. — By the Surveyor General. 
The following works received from the Oriental Translation Fund of 
Great Britain and Ireland. 

No. 414, Atkinson's Customs and Manners of the Women in Persia, and their 
domestic superstitions : 

Shea's Translation of Mirkhond's History of the early Kings of Persia. 
Travels of Macarius, parts 3rd and 4th, translated by F. C. Balfour. 



1834.] Asiatic Society. 53 

The following books, received from the book-sellers : 

Heeren's, Asiatic Nations, 3 vols. 

Rosen, Corporis Radicum Sanscritum Prolusio, 1 toI. P. 

Radices Sanscritse, 1 vol. 

Rig Vedse Specimen, 1 vol. 

Freytag, Arabischen Verskunst, 1 vol. 

Dictionary Arabico-Latinum, 1st and 2nd vols. 

Kosegarten, Chrestomathia Arabica, 1 vol. 
Benary, Nalodaya Sanscritum carmen, 1 vol. 
Bohlien, Carmen Arabicum Amali dictum, 1 vol. P, 
Jernour's Treatise on Languages, 1 vol. 
Tyerman and Bennet's voyages and travels, 2 vola. 
Pricbard's Celtic Nations, 1 vol. 

Upham's Sacred and Historical books of Ceylon, 3 vols. 
Malcolm on the Government of India, 1 vol. 
Brydges Dynasty of the Kajars, 1 vol. 
Fairbolme's Geology of Scripture, 1 vol. 
Historical Sketch of Sanscrit Literature, 1 vol. 
Alison's Physiology and Pathology, 1 vol. 
David's Turkish Grammar, 1 vol. 
British India, 3 vols. 

Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia, middle ages, 1 vol. 

Wilken's Mohammedi Filii Chondschahi, vulgo Mirchondi Historia Gasnevida- 
rum, 1 vol. 

Lassen, Gymnosophista, 1 vol. P. 

Physical. 

A native talwdr, and three water-fowls, from Assam, were pi-esented by Dr. 
Burlini. 

Read, a letter from G. A. Bushby, Esq. Secretary to Government, commu- 
nicating an account of the boring experiment lately conducted by Captain 
Grant in Cutch. [Printed in the present number.] 

Read extracts from the Third Annual Report of the Society of the 
Natural History at the Mauritius, presented by M. Jul. Desjardins. 
Secretaire et Membre Fondateur, dated 24th August, 1832. 

Read a note from Captain Jenkins, forwarding specimens of a rich ore 
of mammellated and stalactitic manganese, found in the Ajmir mines ; and 
also of shot manufactured on the spot by Captain Dixon from the Ajmir lead. 

Read a letter from Colonel Watson, presenting further specimens of coal, 
iron, and other productions of the Kasya hills. 

Read a note from Ensign Newbold, forwarding the specimens of granity, 
gold dust, and plants referred to in his account of an excursion to the sum- 
mit of Mount Ophir in the Malay peninsula. 

[See a note by Dr. Wallich on the plants, inserted in the present No.] 

Read a letter from Captain P. T. Cautley, Superintendant of the Doab 
Canal, announcing his discovery of the remains of an ancient city under- 
ground, in the neighbourhood of Seharanpur, and presenting two silver and 
24 copper coins found there, and a fragment of bone. 

[This announcement is printed in the present number.] 



54 Miscellaneous. [jan. 

Submitted, an essay on the land and fresh water shells of India, hy Lieute- 
nant T. Hutton, accompanied with specimens of the same. 
[This will be published in our next.] 

Submitted, a note by Lieutenant Colonel Hodgson on the use of glass for 
the balance wheels of chronometers, accompanying a pamphlet on the sub- 
ject, by Arnold and Dent, presented by the same member. 



XIII . — Miscellaneous. 
1. — Correction of an Error in Gregory's Mathematics. 
As Gregory's Mathematics is generally used as a book of reference you would be 
the means of saving many from error by correcting in the Journal of Asiatic 
Society, the following misprint at page 297. T. 

307 v^R-A) 
For V = .^/(R—^). 

si— iiog.(s+H) 

307 (t/R-rfc) 

Read V = T | (v/ R— t'o). 

Si— i log. (S-H$) 

2. — Tufa Formations in Persia. 
Having procured a party of horsemen, we proceeded over some very rugged 
ground, five miles in unE. S. E. direction, when we came to the ruins of the palace 
erected by Suliman, one of the first khalifs of Bagdad. It is a fine quadrangular 
structure, built round a natural basin of 70 yards in diameter, and presenting one 
of the most singular phenomena in nature. A small channel, of four inches wide 
and three deep, carries off the superfluous water, which appears to be considerably 
agitated by a strong spring ; on a nearer approach this is found to be occasioned 
like the smaller one of Yakout Buttak, by gas, which is only confined by the body 
of water through which it forces its way. The water flowing from this fine 
reservoir forms small pools outside the gates, and a deposit of tufa immediately 
takes place, of which the whole hill is composed, and has most probably been 
formed in a similar manner, though it has now reached a height of 300 feet. The 
water appears to occupy a greater space below than above, but all the line I 
could procure (400 feet) was insufficient to find a bottom, either at the side or 
centre, where I was able to go on a raft. The whole of the mountains about 
appear to be of a similar formation, and the brooks are almost filled up by large 
masses of light porous tufa. Madrepore is also abundant. The place is highly or- 
namented in the arabesque manner, and has been one of the best modern buildings 
in Persia. To the north, on the top of one of the highest peaks of Balkas, stands a 
strong castle, with four towers, and about 100 yards of a side. I could not ascertain 
to what era it belonged, but imagine it was far anterior to Muhammedanism, and 
probably was a fire temple of the later period. It had no Arabic inscriptions, 
which every where cover the walls of the lower building. After a minute survey 
of the palace, and getting some of the Arabic inscriptions copied, which were only 
verses from the Koran, or moral sentences, I proceeded to a remarkable peaked 
hill, about two miles to the south-west, called the zendan, or prison. With con- 



IS 34.] Miscellaneous. , 55 

siderable difficulty we scrambled up to the top of tlie hill, which is higher and 
steeper than the former, but of a similar formation. On reaching the top, 1 found 
an immense hollow of the same irregular form, with signs of water having been 
considerably agitated against its sides ; but in ether respects exactly resembling 
the crater of a volcano. The eye could not reach the bottom, so that I could not 
ascertain if there was still water; the diameter of tbis was considerably less (per 
haps forty feet). We descended with even more difficulty than we had clambered 
vip, and commenced a strict search round the base, to ascertain if water had ever 
forced its way through the mass of rock. On the western side the hill appeared 
to be less compact than in other places, and a considerable channel, in which there- 
is now no water, has been washed away apparently by a rapid current. I there 
fore think it not impossible that this hill, like the former, had once been the same 
kind of basin, gradually formed by a deposit of the water, which, at last, on 
reaching a height beyond which the sides were unable to resist its pressure, found 
a passage through the lower part. Whether this is the case or not, I leave to the 
decision of more able geologists than myself ; but the fact is undoubted, that this 
mass of mountains in the neighbourhood, 7500 feet high, appears to its very 
summit to be composed of the same light deposit. In the south-west extremity are 
extensive mines of sulphur, and a white substance was shown me, which they 
used in their sherbet, of a pleasant acid taste : they praised it as being an excellent 
tonic. — Monteith's Tour; Jour.Geoy. Sue. iii. 7. 

3. — Gigantic Natural Arch. 
At the seventeenth mile we reached the town of Makoo, and its gigantic 
cavern. The whole party were struck with amazement, and instinctively halted, 
not able to trust our eyes as to the reality of the scene before us. A vast arch, 
600 feet high, 1200 feet in span, and 20 feet thick at the top, at once presented, 
itself to our view. This cavern is 800 feet deep, but, as the sun then shone directly 
in the height and breadth alone attracted our attention. At the very bottom of this 
is a castle inhabited by a chief of the tribe of Biaut ; and at the junction of the 
limestone and lava a number of small caves have been partially excavated, accessible 
only by a ladder. From one of these a small stream of water trickles down the 
rock, but the artificial works look, in the vast space of this natural excavation, 
like ants' nests on a wall. It appears to me that this could only have been formed 
at the time of some great convulsion of nature. From the breadth of the sheets of 
lava, I do not think they came from any volcano, but by the sudden rise of a great 
extent of country. Had a number of small volcanoes at any time existed, the 
meaning of Azerdbijan (country of fire) applied to the whole province, could not 
be doubtful. The chief was jealous of a close examination of his fortress, and 
though a ladder, for which I applied, to examine an inscription at the western side, 
was promised, it never came. From the ground I could see that the writing was 
neither Arabic nor Armenian, and had some appearance of Greek or Roman 
characters. The place is a modern structure, but the upper caves have always 
been in use as places of refuge. There are about 400 houses in the town : some 
few stand under the rock, but as masses of stone have frequently fallen, the gene- 
rality are outside, and protected by a low wall ; they could easily be destroyed 
from the top of the rock. — Monteith's Tour. 



56 



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JOURNAL 



OF 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



JVo. 26.— February, 1834. 



I. — Extracts from Tibetan Works, translated by M. Alexander Csoraa de 

Koros. 
Tibetan beau-ideal qf a wife. 
[Extracted from the Bkah-hgyur, mdo kha, leaf 106-7 ; corresponding with leaf 
73-74 of the Lalita vistara, the original Sanscrit text, in the Lantsa charac- 
ter, presented to the Society by Mr. Hodgson] .* 

The required qualities in a maiden who may aspire to be united in 
marriage with Shakya are thus denned by himself : 

" No ordinary woman is suitable to my taste and habits ; none who is 
incorrect in her behaviour ; who has bad qualities, or who does not speak 
the truth. But she alone will be pleasing and fit for me, who, exhila- 
rating my mind, is chaste, young, of good complexion, and of a pure 
family and descent." He indited a catalogue of these qualifications in 
verse, and said to his father, " If there shall be found any girl with 
the virtues I have described, since I like not an unrestrained woman, 
let her be given to me in marriage." " She, who is young, well pro- 
portioned, and elegant, yet not boastful of her beauty, (lit. with her 
body ;) who is affectionate towards her brother, sister, and mother ; who 
alway rejoicing in giving alms, knoweth the proper manner how to 
bestow them on the priests and brahmans : — if there be found any such 
damsel, father, let her be brought to me. One who being without 
arrogance, pride, and passion, hath left off artifice, envy, deceit, and is 
of an upright nature : — who even in her dreams hath not lusted after 
any other man ; — who resteth content with her husband, and is always 
submissive and chaste : — who is firm and not wavering : — who is not 
proud or haughty, but full of humility like a female slave : — who hath 

* See Journal, vol. i. page 380, and page 1 — 8, where a brief analysis is given 
by Mr. Wilson, of the contents of the Lalita vistara. 
H 



58 Extracts from Tibetan Works. [Feb. 

no excessive fondness for the vanities of sound, smell, taste, (music, 
perfumes, and exquisite meats,) nor for wine : — who is void of cupidity : 
— who hath not a covetous heart, but is content with her own possessions : 
— who, being upright, goeth not astray ; is not fluctuating ; is modest in 
her dress, and doth not indulge in laughing and boasting : — who is 
diligent in her moral duties, without being too much addicted to the 
gods and festivals (or righteous overmuch). Who is very clean and 
pure in her body, her speech and her mind : — who is not drowsy nor 
dull, proud nor stupid; — but being of good judgment, doth every- 
thing with due reflection : — who hath for her father and mother-in-law 
equal reverence as for a spiritual teacher : — who treateth her servants 
both male and female with constant mildness : — who is as well versed 
as any courtesan in the rites and ceremonies described in the Shastras : 
— who goeth last to sleep and riseth earliest from her couch : — who 
maketh every endeavour with mildness, like a mother without affecta- 
tion : — if there be any such maiden to be found, father, give her unto 
me as a wife." 

Afterwards, the king (Sans. Shuddhodana, Tib. Zas-Qtsang-ma,) directs 
his brahman minister (Sans. Purohita, Tib. Mdhun-na-hdon,) to go into 
the great city of Capila-vastu, (Tib. Ser-skya-qzhi,) and to inquire there 
in every house after a girl possessed with these good qualities, shewing 
at the same time Shakya's letter, and uttering two Slukas, or verses, of 
the following meaning : " Bring hither that maiden who has the 
required qualities, whether she be of the royal tribe, or of the brahman 
caste ; of the gentry, or of the plebeian class. My son regardeth not 
tribe nor family extraction : his delight is in good qualities, truth, and 
virtue alone." 

■sS 

V < ? CN 

5>*rq'CT*r<|x T Qtar*HW 



The objections of the Buddhists to the seclusion of woman may be 
gathered from the following imaginary conversation of Shakya's wife, 
extracted from the Kah-gyur, Do, Kh. vol. leaf 120-121, (corresponding 
with the Sanscrit Lalita vistara, leaf 85.) 



1834.] Extracts from Tibetan Works. 59 

Sd-htsho-ma, (S. Gdpd,) the wife of Shakya, upon hearing of her 
being upbraided by the domestics for not concealing her face when in 
company with others, expresses herself in some verses (against the veil), 
the meaning of which is as follows : 

" Sitting, standing, and walking, those that are venerable, are pleas- 
ing when not concealed. A bright gem will give more lustre if put on 
tbe top of a standard. The venerable are pleasing when they go, they 
are agreeable also when they come. They are so whether they stand 
or whether they are sitting. In every manner the venerable are pleas- 
ing. The man excellent in virtue is pleasing when he speaks ; he is so 
also when he sits still. As an example, doth not the Kalapinka bird ap- 
pear more beautiful when she chaunteth her lovely song in your presence ? 
The venerable man who putteth on a garment made of the kusha grass, or 
whose squalid clothing concealeth not his emaciated body, still shineth 
with his own lustre. He that hath good qualities is adorned by those 
qualifications. They who have put off all vices are venerable. Fools, 
committing vices, howmuchsoever they be adorned, are never pleasing. 
Those that have malice in their heart and speak a sweet language are 
like a poisoned bowl into which nectar is poured ; or a cleft on a rock 
that is rough both inside and outside. Communion with such men is 
as though you would touch the mouth of a snake. With respect 
to the venerable, all resort to them, all reverence them. They are 
supported and cherished by all men, as the stairs descending to the 
water's edge are kept in repair by the multitude. The venerable are 
always like a bowl full of milk and curd. It is a great happiness to see 
human nature capable of such purity. Fraught with blissful conse- 
quences is the gift of such men as have renounced the company of the 
wicked, and being directed by a venerable religious guide, are become 
enamoured of the doctrine of the most perfect (Buddha). For such 
as have restrained their body, have suppressed the several defects of it, 
have refrained their speech, and never use a deceitful language ; and 
having subdued the flesh, are held in restraint by a pure conscience : for 
such, to what purpose is the veiling of the face ? They that have acunnning 
heart are impudent and shameless ; and having not the required quali- 
ties, do not speak the truth : — though they should cover their body even 
with a thousand clothes, they would go about in the world more naked 
than the unclothed. They that have concealed their passions, and have 
kept them under subjection, and are content with their own husbands, 
and think not on any other ; — such women, when not concealed 
by a veil, shin:; ^orth like the sun and moon. Moreover Drang- 
Srong, (S. R.s'hi,) the great Lord (God), who is wise in knowing the 
hearts of others, yea, also the whole company of the gods, know my 
h 2 



60 Extracts from Tibetan Works. [Feb. 

thoughts, my good morals, my virtues, my obligation, and my chastity. 
Therefore, why should I conceal my face ?" 

Zas-Qtsang-ma, (S. Shuddhodana, the father of Shakya,) her father- 
in-law, was much pleased with these expressions, and presented 
he»r with several precious things. He uttered at the same time one 
sloka, the meaning of which is this : " My son being adorned with such 
qualities as he has, and my daughter-in-law having such virtuous quali- 
fications as she describes ; to see two such pure persons united toge- 
ther, is like when butter and ghee are mixed together." 



As breathing in accordance with the virtuous sentiments of the 
above favourable specimen of the Tibetan sacred works, we may here 
extract a curious correspondence, (whether imaginary or real we will 
not pretend to determine,) stated to have taken place between a princess 
of Ceylon and the Buddhist saint. This letter is very generally known 
and admired throughout Tibet, being introduced in every collection of 
epistolary forms for the instruction of youth. 

Ratndvali's Letter to Shdkya. 

Mutig-chen, (S. Ratnavali,) a young princess of Ceylon, the 
daughter of the king of Singala, having been informed by some mer- 
chants of Central India ( Madhyam) of Buddha and of his doctrine ; 
she was much pleased with it ; and, when those merchants returned 
home, she sent some presents to Chom-dan-das (Shakya), with a 
letter of the following contents : 

" Reverenced by the Suras, Asuras, and men ; really delivered from 
birth, sickness, and fear ; Lord ! who art greatly celebrated by thy far 
extending renown, from the Sage's ambrosial portion, kindly grant me ! 
(meaning religious instruction or wisdom.") 

Shakya received this letter, and sent to the princess a picture of 
Buddha on cotton cloth, with some verses written above and below the 
image, containing the terms upon which refuge is obtained with Buddha, 



] 834.] Visit to the Kali-bheet hills. 61 

Dharma, and Sang ha ; and a few fundamental articles of the faith ; 
together with two stanzas recommendatory of Buddhism. In a letter 
to the king of Singala, Shakya prescribes with what solemnity this image 
should be received, the letter perused, and made known in Ceylon. 
The stanzas are these. See Dulva, vol. 5, leaf 30, 



C\ V c\ 



"V 



" Arise, commence a new course of life. Turn to the religion of 
Buddha. Conquer the host of the lord of death, (the passions,) that are 
like an elephant in this muddy house, (the body,) (or conquer your pas- 
sions, like as an elephant subdues every thing under his feet in a muddy 
lake.) Whoever has lived a pure or chaste life, according to the pre- 
cepts of this Dulvd, shall be free from transmigration, and shall put an 
end to all his miseries." 

The compendium, or sum of the Buddhistic doctrine in one sluka 
runs thus : 

?**r^.S T w£ T §'§ T " No vice is to be committed, 

^■q'^arSar&W^'i T Virtuemust perf ectly be practised,— 
Xirq'WV'^^N'S'SlSQI 1 Subdue entirely your thoughts. 
QV§'«VCW'§«\rzW'q'i«fa T This is the doctrine of Buddha. 



II. — Some Remarks upon the Country to the South-west of Hoshungahad, 

and of the Soil, Cultivation, fyc. of that part of the Valley of the Ner- 

budda, situated between Hoshungahad and the Fort of Mukrai, in the 

lower range of the Kali-bheet Hills. By Lieut. R. H. Miles. 

The cantonment of Hoshungahad is situated on a high kankar bank, 

on the southern side or left bank of the Nerbudda. The bed of the 

river below the bank is likewise of kankar, and presents in the dry 

season a rocky appearance. This kankar formation in the river 

extends about half way across it, and runs parallel with the bank above, 

whose length extends one mile and a quarter, uninterrupted and 

unchanged. 

The situation of the towft and fort, (which latter is of stone, quad- 
rangular in shape, and with high walls,) is in a gentle hollow to 
the westward of the cantonments. The bank of the river is not only 
low under the town, but changes its kankar nature for a loamy soil, 



62 Remarks on the Country [Feb. 

much adulterated with sand. The current in front of the town is 
slack ; and the channel both wider and deeper than opposite the can- 
tonment. 

In the height of the rains, the Nerbudda reaches barely half way up 
the above-mentioned kankar bank ; although in some seasons the waters 
have risen so high as to be on a level with the ghats of the town ; 
but such instances are of rare occurrence. 

The rains of 1826 were extremely heavy, and the Nerbudda rose to an 
awful height. In that year a very curious and singular circumstance 
was witnessed by some of the officers there. It was as follows : 
Between the fort and the race-course there were some small stunted 
shrubs, or bushes, approaching the species known by the name of byr, 
which grew not far from the river's edge; in the centre of one of which, 
some natives, who happened to be passing by the spot early one morn- 
ing, perceived a curious looking mass, apparently entangled therein ; and 
which, on a nearer approach, they much to their surprise discovered to 
be a young alligator ! — a few ropes having been procured from the can- 
tonments, they were thrown in running nooses over his tail, head, and 
body, by which means he was hauled out of his brambly resting-place, 
and lattee-mar'd to death. He measured about six feet in all. The 
river had covered the bush the day preceding, into which it is conjec- 
tured the velocity of the stream had carried him with such force, as to 
make his extrication therefrom hopeless, and the river having fallen 
during the night had left him high and dry — when taken, it was observ- 
ed, that he was minus a paw, which had been amputated at the wrist. 

At the distance of about 50 yards above the junction of the Towa 
river with the Nerbudda, there is a ledge of black lime-stone rock, 
which stretches the whole way across the Nerbudda, connecting the 
two banks by a causeway, as it were ; a fine waterfall is the result — 
while immediately below it is an exceedingly deep (koond) hole, 
which is literally alive with immense alligators. The ascent from its 
steepness and slippery nature is impracticable to them, and they con- 
tent themselves with sporting about in the deep water at its base. 

From this waterfall to the Goondry Ghat, (fordable from November 
to June,) the Nerbudda is both deep and broad : — cultivation meets the 
eve on the southern side, while a dense jungle and impervious under- 
wood skirts the very bank on its northern face. 

The entrance to the Towa, for the distance of 100 yards or so, is 
intricate on account of hidden rocks below, and also large masses and 
blocks of rock, some of a black, some of a white, and some of a reddish 
tinge, which are scattered about at different elevations above the level 
of the water. These being passed, the channel of the river is unob- 



1834.] between Hoshungabad and Makrai. 63 

structed in the rains, beyond Sindkhera ; the current flowing over a 
sandy bed and soil, between low banks, at times shelving to the water's 
edge. 

At the distance of about one hundred and fifty yards below the 
village oiBoodeny, there is another ledge of rock, which, stretching right 
across, connects both banks. This ledge, however, is neither so wide 
nor so high as the former one mentioned ; although the roaring of the 
water falling over it is heard a long way off. That obstruction being 
cleared, the river pursues its onward course in quickened speed, and 
depth, and likewise width of stream, for some distance below the village 
cf Doongurwara. 

Both the long, as well as the bull-mouthed alligator is met with in 
the Nerbudda. I recollect one of the latter having been shot by a ball, 
which perforated his brain, and which on measurement reached nine 
feet 10 inches in all. Curiosity having led us to open him, in the hopes 
of meeting in his maw with some of the silver ornaments, which had 
graced the wrists and ankles of the little children, which had been taken 
away, when bathing at the ghats, by these amphibious monsters ; our 
labours were rewarded by finding simply the hairy hide of a young 
hysena, which one of the party had ordered to be thrown into the river 
a short time antecedent to the capture of the alligator. It was conjec- 
tured, that the hairy particles with which the hide was covered had 
prevented its being digested. 

The country all the way to Seonee, where there is an old stone 
gurhee, or fort, is one fine, extended, sheet of cultivation ; the soil being 
a rich black loam. This town is situated about 34 miles to the S. W. 
of Hoshungabad, and is without exception one of the best looking and 
cleanest towns in this part of India. It possesses, moreover, a very 
wide street, which is the principal thoroughfare. The houses too are 
mostly new, and built with great regularity and neatness. I allude 
particularly to the new suburb, at the south end of the town, which has 
arisen since the country became settled and quiet under our rule. To 
the south of the town, several young mango topes were planted, and 
also several pucka boulees erected. The south-east view presents a 
range of mountains in the distance, while to the S. S. E. the fortress of 
Souleegurh, which is built on the top of a rocky isolated hill, at the 
distance of 12 or 15 k6s, is visible. There are several wealthy maha- 
juns resident in the town, besides several dookandars, who carry on a 
small trade with Hoshungabad, Boorhanpoor, and other places of less 
note in the neighbourhood. The exports are but few, and these consist 
chiefly of grain and ghee, at least they are the staple commodities of 
export. Iron smelted in the neighbouring hills forms also a small 
article of export. Seonee is a great place of resort for Brinjary bullock- 



64 Remarks on the Country between [Feb. 

men, who often arrive with a string of upwards of five hundred head of 
cattle, and after loading, depart for Mhow, Aseergurh, Boorhanpoor, 
Sagur, %c. The country all around is one uninterrupted flat, teeming 
■with cultivation, with the exception of a short patch of praus jungle, 
round Bhugwara, and the same also about Kahureea. Gram, wheat, 
peas, the different kinds of dais, bajra, and the jowar form the chief culti- 
vation : khets of sugar-cane (the thin white species) and cotton are 
occasionally met with. The herds of buffaloes and cows are also very 
large and numerous, while their subsistence is both easy and abundant. 

The strata of the country is a black soil, with the exception of some 
few parts through jungle, where the road led over a gravel bed. 

From Pugdar (a Gosain's village) to the Moorun nuddee, a thick low 
jungle of praus and underwood, with occasional stunted trees, and 
several byr bushes extends, through which the narrow and uneven 
road leads ; — a gravel soil is again met with. Doura-ghat is the site 
only of a village that once was. The Moorun is a hill torrent, varying 
from 80 to 120 yards in width : at the ford from bank to bank, it is 
about 150 yards : its channel is obstructed in several parts by ledges 
of rock, which in some places present a bluish black, and in others 
again a whitish tinge ; — not being a geologist I cannot take upon me to 
say the nature of it, but I strongly conclude it to be limestone. At the 
ford it was massive, and laid bare in the bed of the torrent. The de- 
scent from the jungle into the Moorun is trifling and gradual, (natu- 
rally) ; but the ascent on the opposite side up to the small hamlet of 
Umlara, which stands on a high bank of sandy soil (cachdr), is very 
steep. After we left Seonee, the long range of tree-covered hills, which 
bounds the prospect to the south, as well as the S. E. became more 
clearly defined, and we were approximating them fast each stage. 

The Vindhya range, which skirts the northern bank of the Nerbudda, 
is no longer visible, and the eye has one uninterrupted range to the 
N. and also to the W., over an extensive plain, bounded only by the 
horizon. The whole of this level tract is one sheet of cultivation, stud- 
ded, as it were, with occasional topes of mango trees. 

Bhadoogaon is a small town, or rather a large village, of which in 
1824, a man named Reka Set was the malgoozar. It is situated 
on the western bank of the Gunjal river, which flows at the ford in a 
shallow rippling current over a pebbly bed, but deepens considerably a 
short distance beyond the town. The north part of Bhadoogaon is 
situated on a high bank, overhanging the stream. To the S. E. is a 
dense jungle, which stretches for some way towards the hills. 

From Bhadoogaon to Rhitgaon, the country is open generally speak- 
ing ; here and there a small patch of praus is met with on either side of 



1834.] between Hoshungabad and Makrai. 65 

the road. (I have ever observed that when the soil is of a black loam, 
there I have remarked the widest extent of praus, as well as a greater 
cultivation of the cotton shrub.) Two villages only were seen near the 
road. 

Rhitgaon is a small town, less in point of size than Bkadoogaon, 
situated on the west bank of the Ajnuul nuddee : this stream flows in a 
gentle current over a sandy bed ; no rocks or stones being perceptible. 
In the centre of the place is a small dilapidated mud gurhee, or fort. 

The country from Rhitgong to Mugurduh is a black loam soil, with 
a great deal of praus jungle and byr bushes on each side of the road — 
yet, withal, there was a pretty fair cultivation, considering the paucity 
of villages and the scanty population. 

Since we left Seonee, we have been travelling over a bye-road, and 
one but very little passed, and seldom if ever used by way-farers and 
travellers. The great thoroughfare to Aseergurh, Boorhanpoor, fyc. 
branches off from Seonee through Hurda. 

Mugurduh is a small village, distant about 69 miles from Hoshungabad, 
and stands on the confines of the Company's ceded districts. It is 
situated on the northern bank of the Machuk nuddee, a small stream, 
taking its rise at no very great distance in the mountainous regions 
to the eastward, and discharging itself after a short course into the 
Nerbudda. 

This village is situated in a low ground, and there is a slight de- 
scent to it the last half mile. It is a small poor place, the inhabitants 
being either all cultivators or herdsmen — and chiefly of the same cast 
as their late patel (or headman) Ram Singh, who was a Rajpoot, and 
who, some years back, emigrated from Hindustan to settle there. The 
only trade of the place consists in the exportation of grain and ghee, 
and unwrought lumps of iron, as obtained from the neighbouring hills, 
after a coarse and rude process of smelting. The soil around is very 
rich, and the crops of wheat, (little of which is grown, however, here- 
abouts,) gram, jowar, boota, and bajra are, in consequence, both fine 
and abundant. Sugar-cane with rhur dal, and a small patch here and 
there for the cotton shrub, meet the eye occasionally ; the finest and 
best looking crops are the jowar, whose stalks have reached eleven feet 
and a half in height, although the general height is from six to eight 
feet ; while their pods are well filled with grain. Between the village 
and the nuddee, there is a very fine burghut tree, which has thrown 
out several thick branches, which descending perpendicular to the earth, 
have entered it and taken root. These ramifications, giving support to 
the parent stem, contribute to a great increase of shade. The place is 
extremely unhealthy just after the rains ; for it is literally embosomed 



66 Remarks on the Country between [Feb. 

in jungle, and save where cultivation extends, is surrounded by rank 
vegetation and underwood. The very air around is tainted by malaria, 
while the rottening foliage adds to the unwholesomeness of the place . 
The water of the nuddee is unfit to drink, for it is contaminated by 
leaves and putrid vegetable matter : — like all mountain torrents, it is 
nearly dry in the cold and hot seasons, and water is only to be seen in 
pools. I happened to be stationed on command at this village, with a 
company of sepoys and a few irregular horse, in the month of October, 
and lost two or three men from cholera, while several others were laid up 
with fevers, chiefly of the intermittent kind, with some few cases of ague. 
The water in the best and most frequented well, and which the camp 
used occasionally, if drawn up in a lota over-night, and set aside, had 
its surface covered in the morning with oily particles. 

The population is scanty about Mugurduh. The village of Indra- 
poora, (of which a Goand, named Lutteea, was paUl in 1825,) 
Sanajhar and Banspanee, fine-sounding names, are wretched ham- 
lets, buried in the jungle, and inhabited by Goands. This caste of 
Hindoos are almost jet-black, and dirty and forbidding in their appear- 
ance ; while they are short in stature, and thick-set in point of make. 
Their dialect is peculiar to themselves. The whole race appeal's wretched 
and poor — a small dhotee and a coarse chudur to wrap over their bodies 
form their outward garments. Their tenements consist of huts, whose 
walls are built of stakes cut from the neighbouring forest, entwined with 
rude wicker-work, and plastered and besmeared over with mud ; while 
the roofs consist of a thin layer or coating of dried grass, over which are 
spread some praus leaves, and a few battens made from the bamboo, 
fastened over all to prevent its being acted upon by the wind. The 
Goands are remarkably fond of swine and buffaloes ; they are fond also 
of rearing fowls. When leaving the road, and penetrating the forest's 
depths, an occasional hut is met with, completely isolated, and from 
such I have seen a Goand issue forth, its only human tenant, while a 
favorite pig has met my eye not far from the threshold. This race of 
human beings are little better in the human scale than demi-savages ; 
they are very superstitious, and like all dark minds, place great confidence 
and belief in the charms and quackery of their gooroos (or priests). 
They have rites peculiar to themselves, and tread the jungles' depths at 
dead of night, without the slightest feeling of dread or fear from tigers or 
other wild beasts. It has often been a matter of surprise to me, that 
these men should dare, both by day and night, to traverse and thread 
these deep forests, unapprehensive of danger from wild beasts (especially 
tigers) which in these parts are fearfully abundant. Habit with man is 
certainly a second nature. 






]834.] Hoshungabad and Mukrai. 67 

Dooleea is a fine village, considerably larger that Mugnrduh, at the 
distance of three miles W.by N. from it, and is (I believe) the Company's 
frontier to the westward. It is built on a rising ground at the distance 
of a couple of hundred yards from the Machuk nuddee, which is here 
both deep and wide, resembling a good-sized river rather than a nuddee. 
On the opposite bank, on the edge of the nuddee, stands the village of 
Meergaon, (associated in recollection of Shekh Dulla's visit,) in Scindea's 
district, of which a Gosain is zumeendar, holding it rent-free. 

Beyond Dooleea a good road leads nearly due west to the town 
of Charuah, belonging to Scindea, where the high-road is gained which 
leads through Cheinpoor and Ghora-puchar to Aseergurh, Boorhanpoor, 
and Bombay. 

It is time now to extend my remarks on the country beyond the Com- 
pany's jurisdiction, and as I believe those parts have seldom been visited 
by any Europeans, and that little is known thereof, I will in this place 
state what fell under my limited observation, when traversing that part 
of India in the early part of November, 1824, when in pursuit of the 
free-booter Shekh Dulla. 

The ford at the Machuk nuddee is quite dry after the middle of Octo- 
ber; for its bed, composed of large round sand-stones, is in that spot as 
elevated as the level of the water on each side of it. This nuddee for 
the distance of two or three miles on each side of the village, is filled with 
large pieces of rock and stones. 

The road, over a black soil, to Goomgaon, of which place a Goand 
was patel, was very bad and extremely confined, and only adapted for a 
rude and narrow species of carts, called Sagahs. The estimated distance 
is between four and five miles — low stunted trees, with praus jungle 
and byr bushes, skirted the road, nearly the whole distance. An occa- 
sional small patch of cultivation, barely sufficient for the population, 
near the wretched-looking villages of Kotwar, Zemineea, Parada, 
Amerkhal, and Moortalai, which were situated at a very short distance 
from off the road, was seen. The inhabitants were all Goands, black in 
colour, stunted in stature, squalid in appearance, and all poverty-clad. 
They all, however, possessed small herds of buffaloes and swine, while 
fowls were abundant. 

Goomgaon is a good-sized village ; a rivulet runs close to it — to the 
eastward of the village, and at the distance of about fifty yards, there is- 
a thick underwood, consisting chiefly of the much-alluded-to praus, 
(or dock,) and byr bushes, beyond which rise abruptly a low range of 
(sandstone, I believe,) hills, covered with foliage. To the S. W. an 
excellent road leads to the small village of Peepuria, distant about three 
miles, and beautifully situated in a fine open plain, teeming with topes 
i 2 



68 Remarks on the Country between [Feb. 

of mango-trees and cultivation. To the S. and at the distance of about 
a couple of miles, are seen the continuation of the low range of hills, 
noticed close to Goomgaon. This is the lower range of the Kali-bheet 
hills. 

The road out of Goomgaon, in the direction of Mukrai, is very good 
and very wide ; yet there is little or no thoroughfare on it : — a few 
brinjary bullocks with grain, and the Goands bringing to the plains 
their lumps of unwrought iron, are the chief, if not only people met 
with ; moosafirs (travellers) are never seen. 

At the distance of about three miles from Goomgaon, we arrive at the 
foot of a ghat, the ascent of which is by no means long, nor particular- 
ly steep. The soil appeared to be of a gravelly nature ; the whole of 
the distance from the village to the top of the ghat was skirted by a 
wood jungle, in which not a single village was visible, while the first 
mile led through large detached blocks and masses of rock; apparently 
of limestone formation, which were scattered about in great confusion. 
It had the appearance of having been caused by an earthquake. 

On reaching the top of the ghat, a fine prospect is presented on all 
sides ; in the first place, we stand on table-land, (at an elevation, I con- 
jectured, of between 15 and 1800 feet above the sea,) which stretches to 
the east, to the south, and to the west for a good distance. The southern 
aspect however was bounded, where the horizon intersected the view, by 
lofty hills, whose towering peaks rose proudly to the sky. These I sup- 
posed to be the lofty range, amongst which the fortress of Gawilgurh 
stands: facing round to the N., a splendid view of the plain below for 
miles and miles in extent, thickly studded with fine topes of trees, and 
whose face presented one beautiful sheet of cultivation, gladdened the 
eye. This magnificent view extends nearly in a half circle from W. 
to E. The soil on the table-land, I particularly noticed, was of a very 
black loam. The road was of very great width, very level, and in an 
excellent state ; the strata thereof consisted of a reddish colored gravel. 
At the distance of a mile or two further on, a miserable hamlet was 
reached, consisting of half a dozen huts, called Doomgaon. The people 
who inhabited them were of the Bhumkar caste; and in all respects, 
save the name, were the counterpart of Goands. 

From Doomgaon, we left the high road, (if such it can be called, 
being seldom, if ever, travelled,) and branched off to the left by a nar- 
row pathway into the jungle depths. The first part of the way was a 
rapid descent into a small valley, in which we found innumerable streams 
to cross, and wherein we were closely surrounded by hills and forest. At 
the expiration of two or three miles' progress, a hill was ascended, half 
way round the crest of which a narrow and dangerous footpath led : 



1834.] Hoskungabad and Mukrai. 69 

at our feet, and washing the base of the hill, flowed a respectable moun- 
tain stream, filled with fragments and detached masses of rock, and 
having but little water. There was a gradual descent on the other face 
of the hill, where this stream was crossed again. At the distance of a 
couple of hundred yards from the ford stood a Goand hamlet, a mere 
collection of five or six wretched-looking huts : at the distance of a mile 
further, we crossed a small open plain, in which the jungle was cleared 
away, and the soil cultivated. This patch, however, extended but a 
short distance, for it was bounded on the left hand by a range of well - 
wooded hills, and on the right by high grass and praus jungle, with 
hills close at hand. Another stream, a little deeper than those previ- 
ously passed, was reached, and a short and easy ascent out of its gravel 
bed brought us to the Goand village of Basigurh, which is situated on 
the crest of a small hill, covered with wood ; it was a small place, and of 
no note whatever, save being the supposed haunt of the Pindary free- 
booter Shekh Dulla. To the S. S. E., in a hollow, stood, some short 
distance off, another Goand hamlet called Kali-kho. 

Returning the same road, I remained a few minutes at Doomgaon to 
take a look at the fort of Mukrai, which appeared to be about three or 
four miles distant, nearly south. Its walls appeared very high, and were 
built of light red-colored sandstone. The front presented a beautiful ap- 
pearance, situated as it was on the table-land, or plateau, while the rays 
of the morning sun, shining right on it, increased the effect. 

Mukrai is the residence of a Goand Raja. The Sianee nuddee flows 
under its walls. On making inquiries for Kali-bheet, I was informed 
that it was only 25 miles distant from Mukrai, but I conceive its site 
further to the westward. 

The natives of this part of India appeared quiet and inoffensive, but 
sadly poverty-stricken, while the population was excessively scanty. The 
climate is fatal to the European constitution, between the months of June 
and December. Malaria rages greatly during the intervening months, 
and the water both of the running streams and wells is unfit to drink, 
without being previously boiled. Fogs and mists are of frequent occur- 
ence just after the rains. Two or three different kinds of fish are pro- 
curable in the Machuk nuddee, but chelwas (a kind of sprat) and eels 
predominate, and green pigeons are abuudant. 

If I recollect rightly, there was in Mugurduh one bunya's (or chandler) 
shop ; one blacksmith's ; one carpenter's : these two obtained a liveli- 
hood by forging and making and repairing the rude implements of hus- 
bandry, beyond the knowledge of which their skill did not extend ; and 
two or may be three korees, (Hindo weavers,) for the weaving of dhotees 
and chudurs. 



70 On the Country between Hoshungabad and Mukrai. [Feb. 

Table of Latitudes and Longitudes of Places in Central India 
( Valley of the Nerbudda) 



Names of Places. 



Latitudes. 
North. 



I Height 
Longitudes, above the 
East. Sea 



Remarks. 



Gunoorgurh, M. 



Hindiah, M 

Hoshungahad, M 

Ditto, E 

Ditto, fort, 

Baitool, Fort, E 



o ' // 

22 50 
22 26 



22 43 

22 44 58 

22 45 36 

21 51 7 



o > 
75 40 



feet. 



77 

(a mistake.) 



77 43 

77 47 45 

77 45 54 

77 51 5 



Tughdhur, Hill, E. 21 49 34 78 1 49 



Bagda, Hill, E.... 

Dhahba Deo, E... 
Alumpoor, E 



Nurwurgurh, E.., 
Neelgurh, E.. . 



Tek, E 

Black rock, E. ... 



Goradiah Hill, E 



Nemaur, M. . 
Morpani, E. . , 
Bhembhet, E. 



21 54 5 

22 5 14 
22 3 33 

22 13 45 

22 49 58 



22 30 38 
22 43 48 



22 45 4 

22 27 
22 29 34 
22 49 56 



78 5 2 

77 58 22 

77 37 58 

77 39 25 
77 49 16 



78 9 58 
77 47 12 



77 42 59 

77 
77 57 3 
77 40 34 



2854 



2852 
2643 



2722 



2879 



A fortress in Malwa (Bho- 
pal),13 miles N. W. of Hos- 
hungabad. 

A town and fort on the S. 
side of the Nerbudda, which 
is here 1000 yards broad, be- 
longing to Sindeea. 

A town and fort on the 
south bank of the Nerbudda, 
here 900 yards broad. 

A city and fort in Gon- 
dwana. The Baitool valley 
was ceded to the Company 
in 1818-19. 

A hill E. by S. from the 
city of Baitool, noted in the 
Gt. Trig. Survey. 

A high hill to the east of 
the Baitool cantonment, not- 
ed in the Gt. Trig. Survey. 

A hill noted in the Great 
Trig. Survey. 

A hill noted in the Great 
Trig. Survey. 
Ditto. 

A hill near Hoshungabad, 
noted in the Great Trig. 
Survey. 
Ditto. 

A small isolated hill of 
rocks, distant 1 m. If. 74 
yds. S. by E. from Hoshun- 
gabad. 

A hill in the Bhopaul ter- 
ritory, noted in the Great 
Trig. Survey. 

A small town on the north 
bank of the Nurbudda. 

A hill station noted in the 
Gt. Trig. Survey. 
Ditto. 



Note.— The letter M. denotes that the latitudes and longitudes are from Sir T. 
Malcolm's work ; E. that they are taken from Major Everest's data in the Grand 
Trigonometrical Survey of 1824. 

[See the accompanying map, Plate II.] 



•Jotcr. as. Sec 



K>l>W. /7. //. 




1834.] Geology of the Country between Hoshungabad $c. 71 

HI. — A Summary Description of the Geology of the country between Hos- 
hungabad on the Nerbudda, and Nagpoor, by the direction of Baitool. 

By Lieut. JohnFinnis, 5lst Regt. Asst. Exec. Offr. \Ath Divn. 
[Presented to the Asiatic Society, 15th July 1829*.] 

The route between Nagpoor and Hoshungabad presents as great a 
variety of formations and as interesting a series of minerals, as is pro- 
bably to be met with in any part of India of equal extent. 

The formations exhibited are trappean, primitive, transition, and 
secondary, frequently under a very peculiar and confused arrangement 
with regard to each other, and much intersected by veins of green- 
stone and trap. 

I regret that the circumstances of my march did not allow a more 
leisurely survey of the geology of a country so well deserving the atten- 
tion of more competent geologists, or of forming a more regular map 
of the road described ; but I shall hope that my sketches may help to 
connect the descriptions of other observers, the present route being, I 
believe, unexplored. 

The formations appear to be distinctly divided into five principal 
divisions. 

The first division includes the tract of country lying between Nag- 
poor and Baitool to the south bank of the Machna river. 

An unvaried formation of trap occurs during the whole of this dis- 
tance, and the face of the country is covered with round wacken boul- 
ders. 

The trap forms the southern and eastern boundaries of the valley, 
and it stretches away to the S. W., but its extent in this direction and 
to the E., I am not acquainted with. 

2nd Division. — The second division comprises the space within th© 
southern and northern ghats on the Machna. 

This river at Baitool is running to the west, and after winding 
round some hills it re-crosses the road, running east to join the Towa 
river at Shahpoor. The distance is about 27 miles, the intermediate 
country, hilly. 

On the N. bank of the Machna at Baitool, trap no longer appears ; it 
is followed by strata of quartz and mica schist, traversing the plain up 
to the hills north of cantonments. These are of quartz, brittle, very 

* We have taken occasion to publish this interesting account of the geology of 
the country south of Hoshungabad, in juxta position with Lieut. Miles' paper, for the 
advantage of incorporating the two route surveys furnished by these officers, in 
one map. Some apology is due to Lieut. Finnis for the delay which has occurred 
in bringing his labours to the notice of the public. — Ed. 



72 Geology of the Country [Feb. 

highly stratified, and vertically disposed ; the layers seldom exceed 11 in. 
in thickness. The specimens from this locality are marked A. 

Nos. 1, 2, and 3, are loose specimens from the plain; 2 and 3 would 
be found, I think, to enter into the hills. The superstratum of the hills 
is a sandy clay marl, which continues nearly the whole way to Neem- 
panee. [See notice at the foot of this article. — Ed.] 

No. 4 is a specimen of the only limestone found near Baitool ; it rises 
abruptly about 10 feet from the bed of a nullah of calcareous sand- 
stone. The limestone No. 5 occurs lying on the right of the road 
about 5 miles N. of Baitool, and crosses the road at the bottom of a 
small ravine. 

The pudding stone No. 6 appears about 10 miles from Baitool, to the 
east of the road, elevated above the plain a foot or so only ; it is exceed- 
ingly hard, broken with great difficulty, and chips off then in thin flat 
conchoidal pieces. After crossing the nullah at Neempanee, the trap 
rock No. 7 rises above a black alluvial soil, and rounded masses of 10 
and 1 1 are scattered about. Farther on, the road becomes full of ra- 
vines, and the gneiss, 11, is found in mass, but in intimate connection 
with the unstratified rock 10. The trap 10 in many places shows itself 
superincumbent on 10 and 11. At the top of the Neempanee ghat, 
the granite, No. 9, forms nearly the whole summit of the hill, mixed, 
however, with 10, and the northern descent of the ghat is principally 
composed of this latter. After passing the ghat at the banks of a 
nullah, is a low hill of granite and greenstone together, 12 and 13. 
This latter occurred also above the Neempanee ghat, shooting up 
through the soil in roundish masses, and near Baitool, to the N. E. of 
cantonments : the walls of the fort of Keeslah have been built with the 
same stone. It is met with occasionally proceeding north, intermixed 
with quartz, until arriving near to Shahpoor, where common trap re- 
appears, and thence the remainder of the road is over a sandy clay soil. 
3rd Division. — The 3rd division includes the country between the 
Machna river and the nullah, one and half mile south of Keeslah, and is 
bounded on the W. by the small range of Jamgurh hills, which is a 
ramification from the Mahadeo hills, after they change their direction 
to the S. W. 

After passing the Machna at Shahpoor all traces of granite are lost, 
and the sandstones B, 1 and 2, become very general. The sand- 
stone strata extend with very little interruption from Shahpoor to 
Keeslah, and to the foot of the Bhoragurh and Jamgurh hills, frequently 
showing themselves above the alluvial soil, and traversed occasionally 
by veins of quartz and trap, as at a nullah half way between Shah- 
poor and the Bhora nuddee, where a trap vein (No. 4) about 12 yards 



1834.] between Baitool and Hoskungabad. "/'i 

wide passes through the sandstone from a S. E. direction. It forms the 
bed of the nullah, and can be traced for a considerable distance. 

The trap dyke is itself intersected in various directions by No. 5 in 
veins not exceeding 3 feet. 

The specimens B, No. 3, were taken from a vertically disposed mass 
about 10 feet in width, which crosses the road on descending a low hill 
of sandstone, No. 2. The quartz runs E. and W., and is with great 
difficulty broken across the laminae. 

About 4 miles from the Machna river and 3 miles up the Bhora 
nuddee, are the seams of coal displayed on both banks of the stream 
under a thick bed ,of sandstone*. All the small nullahs run over 
sandstone beds. After crossing the Bhoi-a nuddee, trap again imme- 
diately occurs and continues for a mile and half to the base of a hill of 
sandstone. The trap is traversed by a vein of calcareous spar, No. 6, 
about 6 inches wide : no trap appears farther north, and after crossing 
the sandstone hills, the road passes over a black alluvial soil, which 
continues to the river N. of Keesla, and the only rock met with is 
sandstone grit, No. 7. 

4th Division. — The 4th division comprises the low range of hills be- 
tween Keesla and Putroda, forming the pass to the valley of the 
Nerbudda. These hills form a part of the great range of Mahadeo 
hills, which at this point form a salient angle projecting to the north 
west. 

After crossing the nullah north of Keesla, the road lies over han- 
kars or tufaceous limestones for a short distance, until reaching some 
low hills where commences a mica schist formation with and without 
garnets, and int'erstratified with whitish and greyish limestones, granu- 
lar and micaceous. The road is thickly strewed with loose limestones 
and kankars. 

Little mica slate occurs in the low ground, except passing into or 
intimately connected with micaceous limestone. 

Specimens C 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, were taken from 
the immediate vicinity of the road, and their positions are so confused 
and intricate that I could not attempt to describe the order in which they 
are arranged. Granular limestone and mica slate appear to form the 
main rocks, but the whole are intimately blended together and alter- 
nately passing into each other. 

No. 2 apparently composes the entire mass of two or three low hills. 
Nos. 3 and 4 form some undulating land near No. 2. On the E. of the 
road near these rocks are abundant specimens of a greenstone rock, in 

* See notice of specimens of the same coal received from Captain Ouseley. Journ. 
As. Soc. vol. ii. p. 435. 
K 



74 Geology of the Country [Feb. 

appearance being hornstone crystals imbedded in lime. The garnets 
in the mica slates are, as far as I have ascertained, all imperfect, soft 
and ochrey colored. 

The limestone specimens 5 and 7 occur very generally along the 
■west of the road, and 7 forms a hillock by the side of a nullah about 
15 feet high, irregular and steep; 6 and 8, specimens of micaceous 
limestone or of mica schist and limestone passing into each other, are 
found in the banks and beds of nullahs. 

10 forms the top of a small hill west of the road near the end of 
the pass towards Putroda ; it appears to repose on a substratum of 
mica slate. 

The specimens marked D, are from the neighbourhood of the Hathee- 
Doab hill and pool. 

D 1 . — is the limestone burnt for use for the works at Hoshungabad. 

D 2. — is an abundant rock extending E. and W. and up the road to 
Baitool. 

The Nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, form the hill of Hathee-Doab ; G forms the base, 
and 8 the summit of the hill. 

D 1, 2, and 4. — Compact limestones found on either side of the 
Hathee-Doab hills ; the quartz, 3 and 6, are scattered about on the road 
to Hathee-Doab ; 5 forms the foot of the hills, 9 and 10 are loose speci- 
mens met with here and there. 

5th Division. — The 5th division extends from Putroda to the 
Nerbudda at Hoshungabad. 

After passing through the hills a rich field of cultivation opens to 
view, and the rocks are lost under the deep alluvial soil of the valley of 
the Nerbudda. South of the river two insulated mounds of new red 
sandstone, rising abruptly from the plain about 1^ miles from canton- 
ments, are the only rocks which show themselves on this side of the 
river, and they are shoots from the northern or Vindya range which, op- 
posite Hoshungabad, are of this formation. 

In excavating two wells of the depth of about 70 feet at Hoshunga- 
bad, no rock was met with, but the coarse calcareous conglomerate com- 
mon in the bed of the Nerbudda. 

At the junction of the Towa river with the Nerbudda, 4 miles 
above Hoshungabad, sandstone ridges cross the river, and 60 miles 
below, at Hindia, the river is traversed by a basaltic dyke, and the inter- 
mediate rapids between those two points are formed of sandstones and 
coarse conglomerates, rising in some places several feet above the level 
of the river ; opposite the cantonments the bank is formed of the con- 
glomerate, and has all the appearance of the ruins of old uncoursed rub- 
ble work, E. 



1834.] 



between Baitool and Hoshungabad. 



75 



The specimens N and J B are from the road by Jamanee to Boor- 
da, and from Neelgurh, a hill lying to the E. of the road from Jamanee* 
Nos. 1 and 2, I B limestones lie under the trap No. 3, I B : the lime- 
stone 4, I B, is at the foot of the ghat : fine grained sandstones 5, 6, I 
B, cover the ascent, in which trap is again met, with indurated clays and 
sandstones, as 5 ; 6 and 10, IB, form the beds of nullahs between the 
ghat and the coal strata in the Bhora nuddee. 

Specimens referred to in the above account. 
A. No. 1, granite, large, irregular, of white C. 5, white granular limestone. 



quartz and silvery mica. 

A. 2 and 3, mica schist. 

A. 4, foliated tufaceous limestone. 

A. 5, a reddish brecciated limestone. 

A. 6, a silicious conglomerate. 

A. 7, compact wacken. 

A. 9, large-grained granite flakes of sil- 
ver mica, white quartz and light flesh- 
coloured felspar. 

A. 10, a dark red, small grained syenitic 
granite nearly all felspar. 

A. 11, gneiss, dark, small mica in layers. 

A. 12, grey granite, dark mica decom- 
posing. 

A. 13, much hornblende, white quartz, 
and perhaps felspar mica, one or two 
spots. 

B. 1, very fine-grained sandstone, with 
thin veins of quartz and quartz crystals 
in bunches. 

B. 4, brown wacken, containing large 
crystals of ? 

B. 6, dark aluminous shale, travers- 
ed by very minute veins of calc, spar. 

B. 3, vesicular laminated white quartz. 

B. 2, minute-grained soft sandstone. 

B. 6, pure white calc. spar. 

B. 7, hard sandstone grit. 

C. 1, mica slate. 

C. 2, ditto do. with garnets, & contorted. 
C. 3 ditto filled with large garnets ; the 

mica in the 3 above, in very minute 
crystals. 
C. 4, hornblende crystals, with specks of 



C. 6, limestone with mica. 

C. 7, granular limestone, as 5. 

C. 8, a dark -brown stone, lime andmica. 

C. 9, mica in lime. 

C. 10, a hornblende rock. 

C. 11, mica schist passing into lime. 

C. 12, a conglomerate of mica, schist 
and hornblende crystals in lime. 

D. 1, a tufaceous limestone. 
D. 2, crystallized limestone. 
D. 3, a schistose granular limestone, 

mica in strata. 
D. 4, calc, conglomerate. 
D. 5, ditto tuff. 
D. 6, quartz rock, grey. 
D. 7, ditto ditto, resembling a silicious 

conglomerate. 
D. 8, 9, ditto ditto. 
D. 1, flinty whitish limestone. 
D. 2, buff-coloured ditto. 
D. 3, common white quartz. 
D. 4, striped red and white ditto. 
D. 5, mica schist with garnets. 
D. 6, ditto striped red ditto. 
D. 7, ditto ditto. 
D. 8, a limestone conglomerate. 
D. 9, nodule of greenstone. 

D. 10, black clay, slate. 

E. conglomerate of the bed of the Ner- 
budda. 

I B. 2, 3 and 7, grits. 
Nos. 5§ and 7i conglomerates. 
No. 5, A white tufaceous limestone, im- 
perfectly crystallized, 
mica greenstone. 
[The specimens are deposited in the Museum of the Asiatic Society.] 



76 Further Information regarding the Siah Posh Tribe. [Feb. 

IV. — Further Information regarding the Siah Posh Tribe, or reputed 
descendants of the Macedonians. By Munshi Mohun Lai*. 

I had the pleasure to despatch to you a small account of Herat, which 
I hope has met your approbation. We are now at the ancient place 
called Jalalabad, which was one of the capitals of the Macedonian 
dynasty. At this spot I happened to meet the great Mufti, who often 
came to see Dr. Gerard, and has lately travelled into the country of the 
Siah Posh; or, as he called them, " Kafirs." He kindly gave us the 
following accurate though brief account of the above tribe : 

From Jalalabad he went to Karun, and from thence to " Cha Ghul 
Serai." Having passed through the valleys called Darah Nur, Da- 
munj, and Vakul, he arrived the third day at the village named Katar, 
occupied by the Siah Posh. The inhabitants, whom he called the mas- 
ters of beauty and charms, came to see him, and were surprised at some 
feats of his horse : this animal is hardly known in the country of Siah 
Posh. 

Their dress is of goat skin, and their hair hangs down to their 
shoulders. They drink wine as well as water, and never sit upon the 
ground, but only in chairs. This shows perhaps that they are the de- 
scendants of Alexander the Great. 

As to their religion, they worship idols, either made of stone or woods, 
which they call Bdruk, or Maha Dev. They wear an iron ring in their 
ears, and a string ornamented with shells, round their necks. This seems 
to be the custom of the Hindu Jogis, or red-dressed beggars in India. 
They sacrifice cows on their holidays, as the Muhammedans do in the day 
of Eeduzuha. If a stranger happens to ask them where is God, they 
point with their fingers towards the west or Mecca. They read the 
Muhammedan kalimeh to please the Musulmans, and at the same time 
confess themselves to be Kafirs ; in short, their religion is not known. 

They never intermarry with their relations, as the Hindus do ; the 
ceremonies of the wedding are very singular. They bring their 
wives unveiled on their shoulders, dance, run, and jump in the streets, 
(like a jackass, as the Mufti says,) while they are accompanied by crowds 
of men and women, who play upon drums and flutes, and make a great 
noise. The parents of the girl are exceedingly pleased to see the hus- 
band using his great endeavours in jumping, as they think him the most 
intimate lover of his wife. 

They have made a public house, where they send the pregnant wo- 
men before their accouchement, and keep them forty days there. No 

* See Lieutenant Burnes' notice on tlie tribes claiming descent from Alexander 
the Great, in the second volume of the Journal, page 305. 



1834.] Further Information regarding the Siah Posh Tribe. 77 

man is allowed either to enter the room or pass by the house, but 
only females. This custom I believe prevails among the Jews. 

The funeral of the Siah Posh people is triumphantly solemnized. 
The corpse is generally attended by young men, who sing, skip, 
dance, and play upon drums. The deceased, unwashed, is carried away 
upon the shoulders of men, in a large box, as among the Muhammedans. 
It is taken upon the top of a high mountain, and put open in the sun. 
They sacrifice a cow, and give a feast to the attendants of the funeral. 
Then they return home, and do-not weep at all. 

After sixty days, when the body is putrefied, and eaten by birds, 
the women of the family go in an assembly upon the mountain. They 
pick up the bones, and after washing them in a stream, they bring them 
home, sit round them, and then mourn for a short time ; after this, the 
men come and convey the bones to a large cave excavated in the ground. 
They throw them in it, and turning to the bones, they say, " This is 
the heaven for you." 

The language of the Siah Posh is mixed with that of Hindusta- 
ni, Persian, and Afghani. They use the word istri, which means 
either in Hindi or Sanscrit, a wife : they say, ravray, which signifies 
in Afghani to bring. They also use the word khub, which imports in 
Persian, good. 

From the instruments of war of the Siah Posh people, we imagine 
that a model of the Macedonian soldiery continues yet in this country. 
They make war with spears, and are good archers. They tie scimitars 
round their waists, and carry shields upon their backs. They fight with 
great ferocity, gnashing their teeth, and roaring like a lion. The victors 
are crowned with the chaplets made of the leaves of the mulberry-tree. 
The women, who possess an unbounded beauty, manage all the exterior 
business, while their stout and handsome husbands remain in the house, 
feeding the children in their arms. The females cultivate, bargain, and 
rove about to procure a livelihood. The men follow no employment 
except that of occasional warfare. 

The labours of the women in tillage are productive of fine rice, wheat, 
and barley. Fruits are abundantly reared : from the fine gi-apes they 
make good wine, and the syrup of the water-melon they use instead of 
sugar. They eat the flesh of every animal except that of dogs and 
jackals. 

If any stranger is found guilty of adultery, either with any body's 
wife or daughter, the Siah Posh never sentence him to death like 
Muhammedans, but extort from him a little sum of money amounting to 
12 or 13 rupees. 

At this unlawful act the Siah Posh Kafirs, (the Mufti says,) in lieu 
of getting enraged, are happy to say to their acquaintances that their 



78 Further Information regarding the Siah Posh Tribe. [Feb. 

females are such liberals as to satisfy the heart of every man, who is 
the best creature of God in the world. 

Kumbir, Save, and Kulman are the largest towns in the country of the 
Kafirs. They are well erected, having long and broad streets without 
a single shop. The Siah Posh have very few she-goats in their coun- 
try. 

I could not extend my inquiries much farther about the Kafirs, as the 
Mvfci left us soon on his route to Kabul. 

The Siah Posh claim their descent from the Arabs, and some of them 
acknowledge to be descended from the Macedonian soldiers. For my 
own part, the names of the Siah Posh males seem to be quite differ- 
ent from all nations in the world, except the Europeans, namely Shaul- 
lah and Jankken. 

The artists in that part of the country are called Pari. They are 
not civilly treated by other Siah Posh who are known by the name 
of Sahu, and they are not even allowed to sit before them. 

Many of the Siah Posh call themselves Maliks, or Princes, who use 
their force to sell the children of the Baris to the neighbouring 
Muhammedans. They call them the descendants of those slaves which 
their lion -figured fathers brought at the invasion of India ; but the Mufti 
says, that they do not mention particularly the name of Sikandar. 

In our late journey to Bokhara, we had one Badakhshdni pil- 
grim in the caravan, to whom we are highly indebted for his valuable infor- 
mation. He mentioned, that the rulers of his neighbouring regions, 
besides the chief of Durvaz, Kator Shah, Suleiman Shah, and Gha- 
zub Shah, being Muhammedans, still derive their origin from the hero 
son of the Macedonian Philip. He adds also, that the soldiers under 
them, whose nativity runs to that of the Siah Posh, extract their genea- 
logy from the warriors of the great conqueror. 

In my opinion, the Siah Posh soldiers, who claim also the same de- 
scent, were the countrymen of those of Badakhshdn ,• but when the 
violent invasion of Muhammed subverted the rich valley of theOxus, many 
of the Macedonian descendants were converted to Islam, and many, 
avoiding that religion, left the valley and chose their ground upon the 
mountains near Hindu Kush. They live there now independently, 
keeping their former principles of worshipping the idols, (as the Macedo- 
nians did their heathen deities,) and calling themselves the hero descend- 
ants of Alexander's soldiers. They put on the black skin of the 
goat, and do not believe in Muhammed ; therefore they are called 
Kafir Siah Posh (or black-dressed infidels). 

I shall remain in great anxiety till the time I either examine with my 
own eyes the customs and manners, and the renowned features of this 



1834.] Meteorological Register. 79 

curious and little known nation of Siah Posh, or we receive more authen- 
tic information from an European traveller in that country. 

If my humble and zealous endeavours are worthy of your approbation, 
I beg you to send a copy of the journal to my kind friend Dr. Macniell, 
Assistant Envoy at the court of Persia, in Tehran, who was very anxious to 
learn about the Siah Posh, and, at the same time, much interested in the 
prosperity of your journal, which he was not well aware of till Dr. Ger- 
ard shewed him some numbers of it. I have another request to make,— 
that you will be kindly pleased to transmit a copy to the Committee of 
the Dehli College, to which I owe all my advantages. 
Jelalabad, 3rd Dec. 1833, 

[We shall have much pleasure in complying with our correspondent's 
request. — Ed.] 



V. — Abstract of a Meteorological Register, kept at Mozafferpur, in 
Tirhtit, (Lat. 26° 7' 20" N. Long. 85° 24" 30' E.J, by T. Dashwood, 
Esq. C. S. 

Following up the plan already adopted with former tables, we have 
now to lay before our readers an abstract of the daily registers obliging- 
ly kept at our request by the gentleman whose name appears at the 
head of this notice, for the period of one year, in order to supply data 
for estimating the climate of Tirhut. Although unable to find space 
for the whole of these registers*, we have extended the detail in some 
degree by taking the averages every half month, instead of only once a 
month. The only point on which there appears to be some little doubt 
is, as respects the diurnal oscillation of the barometer ; which, being less 
than at places under the same parallel, leads us to suspect, that the 
instrument, being of the mountain construction, was not sufficiently 
sensible to minute impressions. 

Its agreement also with the instrument registered in Calcutta was 
not noted before dispatching the barometer to Patna. 

The prevailing wind at Mozufferpur is from the east. It blows 
strong from the west in February and March : — north and south winds 
are of very rare occurrence. 

Table I. is derived directly from the registers, with the exception of 
the barometer entries for November, which are filled in by interpolation ; 
the thermometer for that month was registered in a tent at or on the 
road to Hajipiir. 

* The registers for December, 1832, and the two following months, were printed at 
length in the April number of the Journal for 1833. 



80 



Meteorological Register kept at Mozufferpur, Tirhut. 



[Feb. 



Table I. — Half-monthly Averages of Observations of the Barometer and Thermo- 
meter in Tirhut. 



Month. 



1832. 
Dec. 1 to 15 

16 to 31 
1833. 
Jan. 1 to 15 
16 to 31 

Feb. 1 to 15 

16 to 28 

Mar. 1 to 15 

16 to 31 

Apr. 1 to 15 

16 to 30 
May 1 to 15 

16 to 31 
June 1 to 15 

16 to 30 

July 1 to 15 
16 to 31 



Barom. at 32" j ™ er ' in , Th "« out 
doors. or doors. 



mean height at 



n 

A. M. 



Aug. 1 to 15 .165 



inch. 
29.650 

.659 

.744 

.757 

.609 
.641 
.518 
.526 

.467 

.360 
.399 

.177 
.203 

.156 

.154 
.156 



16 to 31 

Sept. 1 to 15 
16 to 30 

Oct. 1 to 15 

16 to 31 

Nov. 1 to 15 

16 to 30 
Means, 



4* 

P. M. 



inch. 
.574 

.574 

.636 



.251 

.274 
.286 



.582 
.600 

.630 



29.432 



means at means of 



n J 4* 

A.M. P. M, 



65.5 67.5 



59.0 
58.6 



62.5 

61.6 

62.8 



.648 159.7 

.518 |63.2 67.0 78.8 
77.8 
85.5 



.530]65.2 69.8 
.445 71.0 |76.8 



.424 76.8 



.370 

.279 
.292 



7S.7 

82.7 
82.2 ,84.1 



80.7 90.5 



54.6 
55.6 
60.5 
67.7 



81.0 94.2 70.3 

! i 

84.1 '100. '76.0 



.143 ,83.5 !84.9 
.134 |85.8 187.5 



95.5 174.8 

94.7 78.2 
102. 79.6 



.091 84.7 86.4 195.9 

.089 81.8 ,86.3 [94. 2 

.100 

.109 



.168 



79.7 

80.7 

84.3 J86.0J91.7 80.5 

82.4 84.3 190.0 180.0 



Winds. 



W. ! E. 






Weather. 



I 'si 



82.1 



.193 82.9 
.198 84.4 



.401 I .305 



.493 
.510 

.540 



82.3 

78.6 
76.2 

72.7 



.348 76.0 



83.4 

83.7 
86.0 

84.0 

81.1 



72.6 57.0 10 5 Fogs and drizzling 
] rain. 
3 Clear; (one fog in 
morning.) 
69.5 50.6 9 6 i Fine sharp weather. 
70.3 51.2 9 7 Clear ; some hazy 
and cloudy days. 
Cloudy, showers, 
& violent W. wind. 
Fair with strong 
winds. 
Clear with strong 
winds. 
3 I Cumuli ; (more W. 
I wind than usual ;) 
I 1 storm. 
11 Clear; var. winds ; 
1 storm. 
7 | Clear ; fine weather. 
§ 14i ( Flying clouds ; gale 
from E. 
Fair ; one day rain. 
E. morn. W. even., 
| 2 north-westers. 
i\ 14| Hazy sky ; 1 north- 
\ | wester, 3 rain. 
3 12 Fair; 3 days rainy. 
I 16 Showery and fair. 
6 9 jl N., 1 S., heavy 
rain and storms. 
.7)79.3 2 14 Heavy rain ; 8 days 
I fair. 

89.3 [79.2 1 14 Fair ; 3 days rainy. 
91.2 80.3 1 14 | IS. ; fair; 1 storm; 
3 showers. 



9 
9 

11 

10 

14 

13 

4 
8 



1 I 15 
fi 141 



89.7 



77.5 

71.3 

83.6 185.0 i64.0 



1.5 



81.0 83.5 



60.7 



69.1 



132* 



15 

10 
13 



232^ 



Cloudy without 

rain ; fair. 
Calms ; fair ; 2 strs. 
Fog. morn. ; fair 

day; strong winds. 
Ditto ; earthquake 

on the 26th. 

Moist mild climate. 



79.0 87.0 

Table II. is deduced from the foregoing, according to the form adopt- 
ed for other localities. The range both of temperature and of pressure 



1834.] 



On the Land Shells of India. 



81 



is a little less than that observed at Benares, but the mean temperature 
agrees almost precisely with the quotation for that place. 

Table II. — Summary of Pressure and Temperature. 





Barometer at 32°. 


Thermometer. 












^ 


i i _£ 


i o> i n h 


, 








a 
o 


Average 

monthly al 

titude. 


Monthly 

deviation 

from annua 

mean. 


Mean diur 
nal oscilla 
tion eac 
month. 


Average 
height with 
in the hous 


Meanofdai 

ly extreme 

in the ope 

air. 


Monthly 
deviation 
from annu 
al mean. 


u 

B 

S3 

a 


q) — 

^ a 
2 S 
2 « 

4i 


nS 

d 

5 




inches. 


inch. 


inch. 





• 












Jan. 


29.698 


+.308 


.111 


60.6 


60.4 


—17.6 




19.0 


e.w. 


Feb. 


.575 


+ .165 


.101 


66.4 


66.7 


—11.3 




23.2 


W. 


Mar. 


.479 


+ .089 


.087 


76.3 


76.1 


— 1.9 




23.9 


W. 


Apr. 


.369 


—.021 


.089 


81.6 


85.2 


+ 7.2 




24.1 


WE. 


May 


.252 


—.138 


.071 


83.7 


85.3 


+ 7.3 




19.5 


E. 


June 


.146 


—.244 


f .068 


86.0 


89.2 


+11.2 




19.1 


E. 


July 


.125 


—.265 


.060 


84.6 


86.7 


+ 8.7 




12.3 


E. 


Aug. 


.173 


—.217 


.070 


83.2 


84.5 


+ 6.5 




9.8 


E. 


Sept. 


.237 


—.153 


.085 


84.3 


85.0 


+ 7.0 




10.5 


E. 


Oct. 


.445 


+.055 


.093 


81.5 


81.5 


+ 3.5 




14.7 


E. 


Nov. 


.570 


+.180 


.090 


78.4 


73.8 


— 4.2 




21.9 


E. 


Dec. 


.614 


+.224 


.080 


63.6 


61.6 


—16.4 




17.7 


W. 


1 


29.390 | 


range 573 


.084 


77.5 


78.0 


rang.28.8 


17.9 





VI. — On the Land Shells of India. By Lieut. Thomas Hutton, 37th Regt. 

Native Infantry. 
To the Editor of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

I have the pleasure to send you a few observations on the land and 
fresh- water shells of India, which I have had the good fortune to col- 
lect since January, 1832, accompanied by specimens, which will serve 
better than drawings to shew you the species described. 

I am sorry I cannot at present offer you a greater number of each, 
as my collection is not very numerous, but should any of those sent be 
desirable, I shall have pleasure in collecting for you whenever opportu- 
nity may occur. 

The same offer I would also extend to the Society, did I think I could 
be of any use in swelling the treasures of their museum. 

Being as yet but a tyro in natural history, and having no works of 
any great authority by me, I have hesitated in affixing even a generic 
name to my descriptions, and should these be wrong, I must crave 
your indulgence and correction*. 

* We have received Lieut. Hutton's Specimens in safety, but have not been yet 
able to make drawings of them to illustrate his valuable notice : neither have we ven- 
tured to alter the generic or specific names given to them by the author, which 
would require greater knowledge of the subject than we possess. They remain, 
however, open to any future correction. — Ed. 



82 On the Land Shells of India. [Feb. 

Part 1 .• — Land Shells. 
Genus Cyclostoma, (torquata ?) 

Animal unknown to me. 

Shell. — Diameter about 1^ inch ; spire, prominent and pointed ; 
whorls, rounded and six in number ; umbilicus, well denned and disco- 
vering to the third whorl ; aperture circular, margins united, thickened, 
and reflected : slightly inclined to be angular at the point where the 
right lip comes in contact with the body whorl ; interior of the aper- 
ture with a red or deep orange-coloured ring. 

Colour of the shell dingy white, with irregular tortoise-shell coloured 
patches and transverse broken lines on the upper side of the whorls ; 
the under side with longitudinal bands of the same colour, leaving a 
broad longitudinal white stripe down the middle of the body whorl ; 
operculum horny ; concentric lamellar. In some shells the colours are 
more vivid than in others ; I have one in my possession of which the 
colour is a pale yellowish brown or buff throughout, the markings be- 
ing very little darker than the ground colour : this however does not 
appear to have been caused by exposure, as the shell exhibits a very 
healthy appearance. This is the only specimen with an operculum. 

These shells I found at Rajmahl, lying dead among the loose bricks 
and rubbish by the side of pathways leading among the ruins of the 
ancient palace. It is probable that they may be found living on the 
rocks in that neighbourhood, and among the ruins themselves ; I had 
however no time to spare, and was obliged, though reluctantly, to pro- 
ceed without making farther discovery. 

No. 2. — Genus Cyclostoma, (fasciata ?) 

Animal unknown to me. 

Shell. — Diameter little more than half an inch, or 5\ lines ; whorls 
five in number, and flattened on the upper side ; spire depressed and 
flattened, even with the whorls ; mouth horse-shoe shaped, (not circular,) 
the margins reflected and partially interrupted by the body whorl, a 
thin plate alone joining them ; colour white, with four or five longitudinal 
stripes of reddish brown : the first* or upper stripe being generally 
the broadest and darkest, and following the whorls from the apex 
to the margin of the mouth. Umbilicus discovering the third whorl. 
I have seen no operculum. 

These shells I have often found in diy ravines and on the banks of 
the Ganges, where they were no doubt left by the subsiding waters 
after the rainy season. 

On account of the aperture being horse-shoe shaped, I have placed a 
mark of doubt to the generic name. 

* In gome the second (not the first) stripe is the darkest, &c. 



1834.] On the Land Shells of India. 88 

No. 3. — Genus Helix ? 

Animal. — Dark brown or blackish, with four tentacula-, the two superior 
ones being longest, and bearing the eyes at their summits ; tentacula 
clubbed or forming a button at the tips, retractile ; body elongate, with 
a hooked process on the extremity or tail, pointing backwards : from 
the right side of the animal proceed two narrow, flat, gradually-pointed 
filaments or tentacula, which, when the animal is in motion, are kept 
constantly playing over the surface of the shell, and in all probability 
give it the high polish it possesses. 

Shell. — Thin, fragile, pellucid, with a small pillar cavity, not disco- 
vering the previous whorls ; whorls six or seven in number ; colour 
pale brownish ; shell very glassy, with fine smooth polish ; aperture 
lunated, margins edged and disunited, being interrupted by the body 
whorl ; diameter about one inch ; spire flattened, as are also the sides 
of the shell more or less. 

I have placed a mark of doubt to the generic name, because I do not 
find in the description of the genus Helix any allusion made to the 
process on the tail of my specimen, nor to the two tentacula proceeding 
from the right side of the animal. I found specimens of these shells, 
dead, in dry ravines, and on the banks of the Ganges. 

They live however in rocky situations, so that their being found in 
the above-mentioned places must be owing to the mountain streams 
having carried them off during the rains. 

I procured living specimens at Tara, in the range of rocky hills near 
Mirzapur, in the month of August, 1832. In wet weather, or more 
properly speaking, during the rains, they sally forth from their retreats 
in quest of food, which consists chiefly of vegetable matter. They pre- 
fer the early hours of morning to feed in, before the sun has sufficient 
power to become distressing to them ; they appear to require a great 
deal of moisture, while in motion, without which the slimy matter, which 
exudes plentifully from their bodies, becomes so thick as to impede the 
progress of the animal : I observed this to be the case with several 
which I kept alive for some time ; when a few drops of water were 
sprinkled upon it, the animal put itself in motion, and continued so to 
do, until the slimy matter became too thick to allow it to proceed 
without evident exertion. I never found these shells in motion, except 
on very wet days, and the above circumstance may probably be the rea- 
son. At the close of the rainy season, they deposit their eggs in the 
ground, and retire to some secure retreat, where they remain during 
the cold and dry seasons of the year, protected from the weather by the 
dark caves or blocks of stone among which they conceal themselves, 
shutting up the aperture of the shell with a viscous fluid, which soon 
l 2 



84 X)n the Land Shells of India. [Feb. 

hardens, and becoming like a thick coating of gum, effectually excludes 
the external air. 

The ova are deposited in long strings, and are white. 

No. 4. — Genus Bulimus. 
Species. B. acutus? Drap. Moll. 77. Also, vide Flemming's British 
Animals. 

Animal. — With four tentacula, bulging and rounded at the summits, 
and the two longest having the eyes at the tips ; body elongate and 
tapering posteriorly, of a pale colour ; the tentacula inclining to pale 
brown. 

Shell. — Ground colour white, with a longitudinal brown band on 
the lower side of the body whorl, and many irregular small spots of the 
same colour ; markings of increase distinctly seen ; the smaller shells have 
a tinge of very pale brown in the ground colour ; margin of the mouth 
slightly reflected on the small pillar cavity ; whorls eight in number ; 
length 5 £ lines ; shell turretted ; spire acute ; whorls gradually tapering ; 
mouth ovate, longer than broad ; right lip edged. 

This elegant little shell I first found at a place called Dhuni, in 
the Jypoor territory, on some large banian trees* (burgut) overhang- 
ing a tank. They conceal themselves during the dry seasons in holes, 
and beneath the bark, shutting up the mouth of the shell with a brittle 
gum-like substance, which enables them to adhere to the wood. I 
found some of this species also at Neemuch during the late rains, on a 
khujoor treef, and also on vines in a garden. 

No. 5. — Bulimus ? 
Animal. — Furnished with four tentacula, retractile, the two upperones 
being the longest, and bearing the eyes at the summits ; foot elongate, 
rather rounded posteriorly, truncated before ; colour pale yellowish. 

Shell. — Transparent, thin, and pale coloured, or rather colourless ; 
spire gradually tapering ; whorls 12 ; body whorl equal to the two pre- 
ceding ones ; length 6| lines+ ; aperture longer than broad, semi- 
ovate ; pillar lip straight and slightly reflected ; right lip edged. 

This delicately formed shell I found beneath a flower pot at Mirza- 
poor, in September, 1832. They were in great abundance, particularly 
among the grass growing at the base of the outer walls of my Bunga- 
low. I afterwards found them beneath stones at Futtehpoor Sikra, in 
December, and also buried deep in the earth with Pupae at different 
places in the rocky hills, between Agra and Neemuch. They feed on 

* Ficus Bengalensis, vel Indica. 
f Phoenix Sylvestris ? 

J I have only one of this length, the generality being about five lines. It has 
also 12 whorls, while the others have about 9 or 10. 



1834.] On the Land Shells of India. 85 

vegetables, but appear to have no objection to animal matter also. They 
bury themselves in the earth, descending foot foremost after the manner 
of the Pupae, and remain torpid during the dry season. 

I had lately a great number of living specimens in a torpid state, 
buried in a large glass jar full of earth, in which they had lived eight 
or nine months ; most of these I find however to have died, leaving a 
string of whitish ova in the shell. 

No. 6. — Genus Pupa. 

Animal. — With four tentacula, the upper pair being longest, and bear- 
ing the eyes at the summits ; animal blackish ; tentacula bulging 
at the tips. Ova- viviparous. 

Shell. — About 1\ or 8 lines long, cylindrical, spire blunt ; whorls 
9 or 10 ; aperture roundish or sub-quadrate; margins thickened, and 
slightly reflected, interrupted by the body whorl, a thin plate inter- 
vening. Colour of living specimens, very pale brownish. 

The exuvia of these shells is very common in ravines and on banks 
of rivers, and in these situations the shells are always white from ex- 
posure. 

They are to be found in abundance in the range of hills between 
Futtehpoor Sikra, and Neemuch, and it is probable that they are to >>e 
met with in the hills near Mirzapoor, and indeed all along that range. 
They bury themselves deep in the earth, beneath huge masses of 
rock, the roots of trees, &c. in immense numbers together. They ap- 
pear indeed to have formed a community, so thickly do they lie upon 
each other, and to have buried themselves by common consent in a 
chosen spot. They do not appear to be scattered indiscriminately 
over the whole rock, but only in selected spots here and there. The 
aperture of the shell is generally closed with a very thin coat of har- 
dened viscous matter, considerably thinner than fine silver paper. 

They appear to be ova- viviparous ; I found one shell with four or five 
young ones in it, all dead, and having 2 or 2| whorls. Another with 
three young ones of three whorls each. 

No. 7.— Pupa. 

Animal. — With four tentacula, buttoned at the tips, the upper pair 
longest and bearing the eyes at the summits ; colour blackish. 

Shell. — About 2^ lines in length; whorls 8 ; spire rather obtuse; 
colour brown ; aperture rounded, margins reflected and interrupted by 
the body whorl. 

The shell is covered over with a coating of mud. These little shells 
I found at Beana ; they were adhering to the face of a bare and very 
steep rock ; the mouth of the shell is stopped up with a viscous fluid 
similar to the foregoing descriptions, and this enables them to stick to 



86 On the Land Shells of India. [Feb. 

the rock with such firmness as to render it difficult to detach them 
without breaking. 

I found one or two buried in the earth, among the preceding 
species. 

From their being covered with clay, I was at first inclined to pass 
them, thinking they were the nidi of some small species of fly. They 
were scattered over the bleak face of the rock in great numbers. 

The " Bulimus Obscurus" is said to cover itself with mud in the man- 
ner as here mentioned, but it also changes the materials of this coating 
according to circumstances ; for instance, if on a tree, it makes use of 
bits of lichen to conceal itself, or if on rocks, it uses clay and so on. 
Perhaps the above species may be found to do likewise. 

No. 8.— Pupa. 

Animal. — With four tentacula, retractile, clubbed at the tips ; the 
superior pair longest, and bearing the eyes. The upper pair of tentacu- 
la and a line along the back leading from them are vermilion coloured ; 
the lower tentacula minute, and with the rest of the animal very pale 
yellow ; body elongate, inclining to a point posteriorly. 

Shell. — Thin, vermilion-coloured when living, but diaphanous and 
colourless when cleared of the animal, cylindrical, obtuse at the sum- 
mit ; whorls seven or eight ; aperture rather subquadrate, with four 
teeth, and corresponding indentations externally ; length about three 
lines ; margins of the mouth reflected. 

These shells I discovered first at Mirzapoor beneath garden pots, and 
at the base of the walls of my Bungalow, in company with " Bulimus" 
No. 5, in September, 1832. Their habits appear to be the same ; they 
were however very scarce, and I could only find one or two buried with 
Pupa No. 6, in the rocks between Agra and Neemuch. 

No. 9. — Genus Succinea. 

Animal. — With four tentacula, short and thick ; the superior pair 
bearing the eyes at their posterior summits. Colour greenish. 

Shell. — Thin, fragile, diaphanous, and colourless ; aperture longer 
than broad, and ovate ; margins edged ; lines of increase delicate and 
distinctly seen ; spire prominent ; whorls twisting rapidly and four in 
number. The body whorl forming nearly the whole shell. Length of 
my largest specimen half an inch. 

In form these shells are very like the Lymnese. I found them ad- 
hering to the face of the rocks at Beana in December, 1832, along 
with Pupa No. 7. There was a thin coat of a hard gum-like substance 
closing the mouth of the shell. 

I also found a few buried with Pupae in the earth. 



1834.] On the Land Shells of India. 87 

No. 10. — Genus Amicula. 

Species. — A. Scarabceus. Lam. 

Animal. — Unknown to me. 

Shell. — Ovate, flattened ; aperture with seven teeth ; right lip edged 
and white ; left lip pale coloured and partially reflected ; whorls eight 
or nine ; close. Colour pinkish chesnut, with a few darker marks here 
and there. Spire short ; body whorl large and forming more than two- 
thirds of the shell ; aperture longer than broad and flexuous. Length 
about seven lines. 

I found this specimen on the banks of the Ganges in 1832. But I 
do not recollect the place, and I made no memorandum of it at the time. 
It was lying, however, a very little above the water line, on a sand 
bank. It is the only specimen I have seen. 

In " Burrow's Elements of Conchology," this shell is described and 
figured under the Linn^ean name of " Helix Scarabseus," in the follow- 
ing manner. 

" Shell ovate, two edged, sub-umbilicate ; aperture toothed." 

" Specimen brown, variegated with pale spots, outer lip and teeth 
horny, white ; whorls contiguous double convex ; aperture narrow, 
compressed and flexuous ; each lip with three teeth ; inhabits Asia." 

The plate accompanying this description, and taken from a specimen, 
at once shews it to be identical with the shell in my possession ; but the 
author errs in saying " each Up with three teeth," inasmuch as his plate 
and my specimen have only one large tooth on the inner lip, three on the 
right lip, and (in the plate) two large teeth on the body whorl ; my 
specimen has, besides the two on the body whorl, a very minute one 
arising near the base of one of them, and which, although not noticed 
by that author, is still nevertheless a distinct and decided tooth. 

La Marck says, it is " seven-toothed." 

Having now given a slight description of each species of land-shells 
in my collection, I shall, before concluding my letter, mention a circum- 
stance connected with most of them, for which I have not been able 
satisfactorily to account, nor indeed have I as yet had an opportunity 
of ascertaining, whether the fact, hereafter mentioned, may be consider- 
ed as one of the constant habits of the animals, although from the ob- 
servations I made at the time, I am strongly inclined to think, it may. 
My attention was first called to the subject, while searching for Pupa? 
No. 6. 

When proceeding in December, 1832, to join my regiment, my route 
lay, from Futtehpoor Sikra to Neemuch, chiefly through a range of 
low rocky hills, and observing great numbers of these Pupae, dead, in 
ravines and on banks of nullahs, I naturally concluded that living 



88 On the Land Shells of India. [Feb. 

specimens might be found in the hills, and accordingly whenever our 
encampment lay within a moderate walking distance, I set forth, after 
breakfast, with sundry apparatus for digging up and securing whatever 
prize I might be lucky enough to meet with. 

For the first day or two my search for shells was ineffectual, and I 
returned to my tents tired, and puzzled to account for my bad success, un- 
til at last, we encamped between two detached hills. Here I once more 
commenced a search, which for several hours proved as unsuccessful as 
before ; but the day being cool, and the surrounding scenery very beau- 
tiful, I climbed up the rocks and crossed over to the eastern side, where 
I again commenced a search, which in a very short time was rewarded 
with a more abundant supply of living Pupae than I had ever thought of 
obtaining. 

These were buried deep in the earth, where they might undoubtedly 
have remained, safe from prying eyes, had not a little mouse, fortunate- 
ly enough for me, selected that very spot, whereon to sink its subter- 
ranean retreat, and thus unconsciously betrayed the hidden treasures. 

The circumstance of these shells being found only on one side of this 
rock, induced me to go and examine the one on the opposite side of our 
encampment, and there also I found Pupae deeply buried in great num- 
bers, but only on the eastern aspect. 

From this time I made a point of inspecting the neighbouring hills, 
whenever within easy distance, sometimes finding no shells, while at 
others I found them in abundance, and invariably facing towards the E. 
or S. E. In company with these, I found at different places a few spe- 
cimens of Bulimus (No. 5), Pupae (Nos. 7 and 8), and Succinea (No. 9). 

I now began to recal to mind the situation in which I had found 
Bulimus No. 5, and Pupa No. 8, at Mirzapoor, and they also were de- 
cidedly only to be found on the S. E. side of my Bungalow ; and 
moreover, I am nearly certain that Helix, No. 3, found at Tara, was 
also on the eastern aspect. Pupa No. 7, and Succinea No. 9, as also 
numbers of Pupa No. 6, were found on the rocks at Beana, facing to 
the same direction ; and Bulimus No. 4, although a few were found 
elsewhere, were by far more numerous on the eastern side of the trees, 
than on the others ; and this also I observed at the commencement of 
the rainy season at Neemuch. 

Having therefore satisfied myself that all the living species of land 
shells, which I have collected, were found on or nearly on the same as- 
pect, viz. eastern or S. E. ; it only remains to ascertain the cause of such 
partiality, and as this is most probably connected with the welfare of the 
animal, it maybe concluded that the all-wise Director of nature has imparted 
an instinct to these tender beings, which enables them to choose the 



1834.] On the Fresh-water Shells of India. 89 

situation most favourable to their wants and safety. May not, there- 
fore, the fact of their being found on the eastern aspect of the rocks and 
trees be accounted for, by supposing it to originate in a desire to find 
shelter from the western blast during the dry heats of summer, and to 
be in a situation to enjoy the first refreshing and invigorating showers 
of the rainy season ? 

I have put the above as a query, because I am not certain that the 
rains prevail from the eastward or south-eastward, although at this sta- 
tion they have certainly done so this year. I shall however take every 
opportunity of ascertaining, whether the above is a constant habit of 
the land shells or not, and in this I hope I shall be assisted by others of 
your correspondents who may be willing to pay attention to the subject. 

Part .2. — On the Fresh-water Univalves. 
No. 1. — Genus Ampullaria. 

Ampullaria. — Found in jheels; Mr. Benson's description of the ani- 
mal, as far as I have been able to ascertain, is perfectly correct. 
Operculum calcareous ? 

Var. With longitudinal brown bands ; found with the last, in jheels 
at Mirzapoor. 

I have one large specimen with stripes, which is indeed the only one 
I have seen, but the young ones are very commonly met with. Oper- 
culum calcareous. 

No. 2. — Paludina, Bengalensis? 

This is a very common shell, occurring plentifully in most jheels and 
stagnant nullahs. In the Jegu nullah at Chunar they are in abun- 
dance, but the first specimens I procured at Humeergurh near Nee- 
much, in a large jheel. The animal is beautifully studded over with black 
and orange coloured spots. It is ova- viviparous ; from one I obtained 
102 young ones. Length of the shell from 1§ to 2 inches. The young 
have a ridge or keel on the body whorl, which makes the aperture sub- 
triangular ; this is lost in the mature shell. 

The umbilicus of the shell varies much in different spicimens, some 
shewing scarcely any, while others have it very well defined and rather 
deep. 

The shell is covered with an olive-green epidermis and longitudi- 
nally striped with brown ; on the body whorl these stripes are nine in 
number, and are placed alternately, a narrow one and a broad one. 
Operculum corneous. 

No. 3. — Paludina. 

In jheels and stagnant nullahs. 

This has a broad brown band running longitudinally from the apex 
to the aperture. 

M 



90 On the Fresh-water Shells of India. [Feb. 

The young are keeled like those of the last species. Length about 
one inch — aperture with a bleak horny rim. Operc. corneous. 

No. 4. — Paludina. 

Found in a large jheel near Chunar. 

The spire very much corroded. Colour pale olive-green. Aperture 
with a black horny rim. One of these produced 27, and another 87 young 
ones; they have the ridge and the sub-triangular aperture when young. 
Length from nine lines to an inch. Animal orange and black. Operc. 
corneous. 

No. 5. — Paludina. 

Found in the Jegu nullah at Chunar. 

Shell solid and thick, pale green, interior white. Little more than 
an inch in length. Operc. corneous. 

No. 6. — Paludina. 

Found in a very large jhil near Chunar. Colour dark olive-green, 
and longitudinally striped with 10 black stripes, alternately narrow and 
broad. Spire corroded ; margins of the mouth with a horny rim. This 
shell is more globular than any I have seen, belonging to the Genus 
Paludina. I have only two of them, and the animal is unknown to me. 
Operc. corneous. 

No. 7. — Valvata ? 

This is the shell of which a description appeared in the 9th No. of 
the Journal, under the head of Notes on the Habits of the Paludina. 

These shells differ much in the development of the umbilicus, some 
having it well defined, others having scarcely any. Operc. calcareous. 

This I found at Mirzapoor, at the foot of trees, in puddles of water. 

No. 8. — Valvata? 

These I have seen in abundance on the banks of the Ganges and 
nullahs, but always dead and injured from exposure to the sun. The 
only living ones I have seen, I found at Dhuni in the Jypoor terri- 
tory, under a wall enclosing one side of a dirty tank. The spire of 
these is not corroded like the last species, nor has it any umbilicus ; aper- 
ture angular above and below. Operc. calcareous. 

No. 9. — Valvata ? 

Found with No. 7, at Mirzapoor. 

The aperture only angular above. 

No umbilicus. Operculum calcareous. 

No. 10. — Planorbis, Corneus ? 

These may be found in almost every jheel or stagnant piece of water. 
Like all the fresh-water univalves, they bury themselves in the mud, as 
the water evaporates during the hot seasons of the year. I brought a 
lump of dry clay from the bed of a jheel at Mirzapoor, to Neemuch, and 



1834.] On the Fresh-water Shells of India. 91 

having kept it for a year, I found on immersing it in water, that the 
shells imbedded in it, were still alive and healthy. Diameter f inch. 
No. 11. — Var.? Planorbis. 

These I brought from Mirzapoor, and have marked them as a variety, 
on account of their form being more regular, than the last ; they were 
found plentifully, and may probably prove the young of Planorbis 
No. 10. 

No. 12. — Planorbis. 

The whorls in this species are very much flattened. — The aperture 
opening obliquely and oval — shell thin and diaphanous — whorls 4 or 
5 in number — diameter 3| lines. 

The exuvia common on the Ganges. — They are found in stagnant 
waters — more frequently in nullahs than in jheels. 

No. 13. — Planorbis. 

Animal blackish. The shell minute, 'of three or four whorls, which are 
rounded ; aperture oblique ; diameter about 1^ line. 

These very small shells I found during the hot winds of 1833, in 
the earthen pans containing the water for my tatties. They were 
drawn from a well in my compound, [the bottom of which is hard trap- 
rock, and also from one other well near my house. How they got into 
these wells I cannot conceive, as there is no nullah or pond near them. 
They were not abundant. 

No. 14. — Melania. 

These I found on the banks of the Ganges among exuviae. They are 
injured by exposure to the sun. They inhabit rivers. 

No. 14. 

A smaller size. These appear to be the same as the foregoing. I ob- 
tained them during the hot winds, from the same well in which the 
small Planorbis, No. 13, was taken. This is a curious fact, as the bot- 
tom of the well is hard trap-rock, and unless the animals burrow into 
the sides of the well, they cannot possibly find protection at the bottom 
of it. In this well there is no true spring, it being supplied merely by 
the water soaking down from the surface during the rains. 

No. 15. — Melania. 

I have one specimen, which was given ne by a friend of Mr. Ben- 
son's, from whom he obtained it. The epidermis is dark olive green. 
Shell 2 inches long. The body whorl longitudinally tuberculated. 

No. 16.— Melania. 
^ This species, of which I have only one specimen, is of a blackish colour. 
Transversely wrinkled on the whorls. Length 1| inch. 

This I found in a nullah at Chunar, which with the exception of the 
rainy season, at which time it joins the Ganges, is strictly "stagnant 
water." The animal was alive, and in soft mud. 



92 On the Fresh-water Shells of India. [Feb, 

I mention this circumstance, because Mr. Benson has said in No. 13 
of the Glanings in Science, when speaking of Melanise, " I have never 
met them in jheels or standing waters, so that they may be strictly 
called fluviatile." 

I have not yet had an opportunity of procuring any of these shells 
alive, from rivers : the only two living specimens in my collection were 
taken — the one from a muddy nullah, the other from a well. 

No. 17 — Lymn.ea. 
Shell thin, fragile, diaphanous. 

Found in abundance in the Jegu nullah at Chunar, also in most 
jheels. 

Fresh-water Bivalves. 
No. 18.— Unio? 
Found in nullahs at Chunar ; also in tanks. Length of my largest 
specimen 2| inches ; epidermis greenish brown ; beaks decorticated. In- 
terior, beautifully nacreous. 

No. 19.— Unio? 
Found at Chunar in nullahs and tanks. Beaks decorticated ; epider- 
mis dark-brown. These shells are generally tuberculated interiorly, pre- 
senting an appearance of small pearls. The pearly texture of the inte- 
rior is often coloured with a pinkish tinge. 

No. 20.— Unio? . 
In rivers, nullahs, and tanks. Plentiful in the Jegu nullah at Chu- 
nar. Epidermis yellowish or pale brownish green. Beaks naked. 
More solid than the preceding, and the interior lustre more brilliant. 

No. 21.— Unio? 
Can this be the young of Unio No. 18 ? 

I found them frequently in small pools of water, left in the hollows of 
sand-banks on the Ganges ; they are easily traced by the tortuous fur. 
r ows which they leave on the sand. They are very slight, and the inte- 
rior appears to be satiny. 

No. 22. — Cyclas. 
Epidermis olive-brown, and in some, of different shades of olive-green. 
Transversely furrowed; beaks sometimes pale purplish, sometimes de„ 
corticated. 

Found in the Ganges and other rivers. 

No. 23.— Var. 
Epidermis pale yellow, or dirty straw-colour. 
In the Ganges at Mirzapoor. 

No. 24.— Var. 
Some specimens brownish, others pale yellowish, with longitudinal 
rays or stripes of brown. 

At Mirzapoor in the Ganges, 



1834.] On the Land and Fresh-water Shells of India. 93 

No. 25. — Novaculina Gangetica — Benson. 

Found at Mirzapoor in the Ganges. 

On stormy days, I generally found plenty of them. 

Note to the Editor. 

These are all I have yet collected. 

I have sent a few of each kind, except Nos. 10 of the Land Shells, 
and 6, 15, 16, and 25 of the Fresh-water Shells. Of some of those 
sent I have so very few that I could only spare one or two, without 
making my cabinet very bare. The poorness of the specimens there- 
fore I hope you will excuse for the present, and should you not already 
possess sufficient, I shall have pleasure in sending more whenever lucky 
enough to fall in with them. 

Should any part or the whole of the present communication be too 
trifling for the pages of your Journal, do not hesitate an instant in re- 
jecting it. My object in writing, not being for the sake of seeing my- 
self in print, but for the purpose of communicating facts, in the cause 
of truth. 

Neemuch, Wth October, 1833. 

List of Land and Fresh-water Shells*. 



Land Shells. 

1. Cyclostoma, (mihi) torquata? 

2. ? (mihi) fasciata ? 

3. Helix, (mihi) petrosa ? 

4. Bulimus, acutus ? 

5. ? .. (mihi) gracilis? 

6. Pupa, (mihi) cylindrical ? 

7. , (mihi) coenopicta ? 

8. , (mihi) bicolor ? 

9. Succinea ? oblonga ? 

10. AuriculaScarabseus, Scarabseus^Lam. 
Fresh-water Univalves. 

1 . Ampullaria, 

Var (mihi) striata ? 

2. Paludina, Bengalensis ? 



8. Valvata? 

9. ? 

10. Planorbis, corneus ? 

11. Var. ? var. 

12. , ... (mihi) compressus. 

13. 



3. 

4. , 

5. , 

6. , 

7. Valvata? 



14. Melania, 

15. , 

16. , .... (mihi) 

17. Lymnsea, limosa ? 

Bivalves. 

18. Unio? 

19. 

20. , 

21. 



22. Cyclas, 

23. , 

24. - , 

25. 



NovaculinaGaneetica, ] ~ , . 
Benson,... g ....') Gangetica. 



The specific names are given in my cabinet to enable me to distin- 
guish them, and I have here inserted them, for the sake of reference 
should you notice them. Those marked (mihi) I have myself given. 
The others are those of Authors, and given where I thought they be- 
longed. 

* When we are able to furnish a plate of these shells, the present figures of 
reference shall be preserved. — Ed. 



94 Catalogue of Moon-Culminating Stars, [Feb, 

yj A Catalogue of Stars to be observed with the Moon, in March and 

April, \8ZA,with the view of determining the difference of longitude of the 
places whereat they may be observed. By John Cumin, Esq. F.R.A.S. 

Of all the methods which have hitherto been devised for the determi- 
nation of the difference of longitude of any two places on the surface of 
the earth, it is now agreed on, that that dependent upon the observed 
interval of time which elapses between the transit of the moon's limb 
and of a star, having the same declination as the moon, is the most 
accurate, certain, and expeditious. 

It is the most accurate, because it involves no data but the rate at 
which the moon's right ascension increases in the interval between its 
passing over the two meridians : it is the most certain, because it can 
be put in practice, at least twelve times in each lunation : it is also the 
most expeditious, because as many stars as may be agreed upon, and as 
are especially fit for this purpose, may be observed at both observatories 
on each night ; each of which, if a corresponding one has been made at 
the other observatory, being independent of the others, serves to give 
an independent estimate of the longitude. 

It does not seem necessary that I should give a detailed account of 
this method of determining the longitude, because that has been ably 
done by Mr. Baily in the Memoirs of the Astronomical Society ; nor 
that I should insist on the accuracy and value of this method, as both 
seem to be attested by the fact, that for tbe first time a catalogue of 
moon -culminating stars has been inserted in the Nautical Almanac for 
this year : but inasmuch as I have ventured to insert some stars in the 
accompanying catalogue, which are expressly rejected in the report 
made by the Committee of the Astronomical Society, relative to the 
improvements to be introduced into the Nautical Almanac, I feel it 
necessary to insert here that portion of the report, in order that it may 
be compared with my reasons for deviating from its implied injunction, 
and which, I trust, will be deemed sufficient by resident observers in 
India : 

" The Committee strongly recommend the insertion of the list of mo on -culminating 
stars, given in the late Supplements to the Nautical Almanac, as affording one of 
the best modes of determining the longitude of distant places, when the navigator, 
furnished with a transit instrument, can obtain a landing. As it is absolutely- 
essential, however, that only one list of such stars should be published for the use 
of navigators of all nations, and as Professor Encke proposes to discontinue his list 
as soon as he is assured that the British Government will permanently adopt one, 
the Committee trust that they may be excused for entering rather more minutely 
into the mode in which those stars should be selected. They recommend, there- 
fore, that notmore than four stars should be selected for one day, two of which are to 



1834.] Catalogue of Moon-Culminating Stars. 95 

precede and two to follow the moon: that the stars thus forming each pair be chosen 
so as not to be very distant from each other in right ascension, and nearly midway 
between the right ascension of the moon at the time of her transit on two conse- 
cutive days: that the two stars chosen to follow the moonon onedaybeadoptedas the 
two to precede the moon on the subsequent day : that no star be selected below the 
5th, but on no account below the 6th, magnitude : that the stars so chosen should 
not be situated more than five degrees from the path of the moon's true orbit : and 
that the list should be continued through each lunation within four days of the new 
moon: that the apparent right ascension (in time) of the star to two places, and the 
mean declination of the star to the nearest minute, be given." 

In the first place, those stars recommended by the council are intend- 
ed for universal use, and as being the most likely to be visible in ordi- 
nary states of the weather in places having variable climates. The 
number of these stars seem to me to have been selected with reference 
to fixed observatories, wherein a few observations being made on each 
night of every lunation for a considerable interval of time,would even- 
tually assign the difference of longitude between them with the utmost 
accuracy: whereas, those in India, with one exception, may be aptly 
called flying observatories. It has seemed to me to be desirable that we 
should be enabled to determine the difference of longitude of these, in the 
shortest interval of time; and therefore, for this reason, and from the 
consideration that the climate will interpose no serious obstacle to their 
being observed, I have inserted those stars which are so expressly 
repudiated by that report. 

Another motive for forming this extended catalogue has arisen from 
this consideration, that those stars inserted in the Nautical Almanac 
have been selected with regard to observatories wherein astronomers or 
their assistants are expected to spend their nights, and who, therefore, 
are supposed to endure no pain and to forego no pleasure to be prepared 
to make those especial observations at all hours ; whereas, with the 
exception already referred to, observers here have other duties of a civil, 
political, or military nature to fulfil, and may, therefore, however willing, 
be unable at all times to attend at the proper hour of the night to 
make those observations, and those correlative ones whereby the error 
of their time-pieces, and the deviation of their instruments from the 
meridian, may be determined. 

For these reasons, and for others, which will easily suggest themselves, 
I have ventured to draw up the accompanying extended catalogue ; but from 
which it will be observed, that the interval of time necessary to devote 
to the transit will seldom exceed one hour. If, however, gentlemen 
would observe those stars which are inserted in the Nautical Almanac, 
and which I may have omitted, they would essentially promote our geo- 
graphical knowledge in India, as their observation, combined with those 



96 Catalogue of Moon-Culminating Stars. [Feb. 

which are sure to be made in Europe, would enable us to fix the longi- 
tude of places here relative to the principal observatories in Europe. 

With the view of holding out every possible inducement to gentle- 
men to make these observations, I have inserted the apparent right ascen- 
sion of the stars, although so far as this method of determining the 
longitude is concerned, the mean places would have answered equally 
well; and if inserted, would have saved me much trouble. But as gen- 
tlemen in India, for whose use this catalogue is intended, may not have 
accurate time-pieces, nor sufficient leisure to determine the errors of 
them, or the deviation of their instruments from the meridian, I have 
inserted a few stars which it appeared to me could be observed 
without in any manner trenching upon the time necessary for the other 
observations, and which if observed would enable us to determine the error 
of the time-piece and the deviation of the instrument from the meridian 
at the time of making these observations, and thus to render the kind 
of watch employed but a matter of secondary consideration. 

The certainty with which the longitude can be deduced by this me- 
thod appears to me so great, as to induce the conviction that many 
gentlemen would gladly make an extensive series of such observations, 
if they saw the chance of corresponding observations being made to 
confer a value upon their labours : and, as they may rest assured that 
those observations will be cheerfully made by Mr. Taylor of the Madras 
observatory, they will be sure of having at least one point of reference 
besides those which their own labours will create. With the view then 
of affording all the aid which circumstances at present place at my dis- 
posal, I send you the accompanying catalogue, and will continue to pre- 
pare others for circulation in succession through the same channel, till 
experience shall have convinced me of the propriety of discontinuing 
them. 

I have but one more remark to make — and that is, that it appears to 
me to be most desirable that gentlemen should transmit their observations 
as they are made, which you could arrange in the form of a table, and 
publish for general information. In this manner all parties would be ena- 
bled to compare their own observations with those of others, and assign 
a cause for any anomaly which these comparisons should point out. To 
make these observations of permanent value, I shall, I trust, be excused 
for stating, that it appears to me to be very desirable that the spot 
whereon they are made should be more accurately defined than similar 
observations made in other places have hitherto been : — that, in short, 
an exact measurement of the distance of the observatory from some re- 
markable and natural objects should be given, so that the position of 
these, and of the observatory, should be permanently preserved. 



1834.] 



Catalogue of Moon Culminating Stars. 



97 



Catalogue of Stars to be observed with the Moon in March 1834. 



id 



Names of 
Stars. 



119 Tauri, 

121 , 

123 , 

125 , 

a Columbae, 
132 Tauri, 
30 Aurigse, 
136 Tauri, 
j8 Columbae, 
139 Tauri, 
) 1 Limb, 
141 Tauri, 
2 Geminor. 

3 , 

6 , 

2 Lyncis, 
k Columbse, 
13 Geminor. 



19 54 Aurigse, 
27 Geminor. 

1(834) 

jo Can. Maj. 

J36 Geminor. 

137 , 

) 1 Limb, 
42 Geminor. 

43 , 

23 Can. Maj. 
47 Geminor. 

52 -, 

64 Aurigse, 
(897) 



21 



20 <r Argus, 
74 Geminor. 

\77 , 

181 , 

82 , • 

83 ,. 

85 , 

> 1 Limb, 
X Argus, 
9 Cancri, 
16 Cancri, 
7 2 Argus, 
19 Cancri, 
1 Ursse Maj. 
28 Cancri, 



Mag 



Decn. 



(5.6) +18 27 

6 
(3.4) 

6 

2 

5 

5 
(4.5) 

3 
(5.6) 



6 

(6.7) 
6 
(6.7) 
(4.5) 
(4.5) 
3 



23 55 

21 2 
25 48 

—34 10 
+24 30 
55 39 
27 34 
—35 50 
+25 55 
23 4 

22 30 

23 39 
23 8 
22 56 
59 4 

—35 5 
+22 36 



6 +28 24 
3 25 17 

5 77 10 
1 —16 29 

(6.7) +21 57 

6 | 25 34 

23 49 

24 27 
20 49 

—15 23 
+27 8 
j 25 10 
! 41 10 
—44 53 



4 
6 
4 
6 
7 
5 
(6.7) 

3 
6 
6 
2 

6 

(4.5) 



—42 58 

+18 3 

24 47 

18 55 

23 33 

27 12 

20 20 

23 4 

—52 32 

23 7 

18 9 

—46 50 

+24 33 

61 17 



A. R. 



(6.7)i 24 42 



33 Cancri, 
3<j t 

(1058)--, 

47 , 

5 Argus, 
(1086)(Can.) 
N 



6 ! 

6 I 
7 

(4.5)| 

3 

7 



21 1 

20 36 

20 28 

18 46 

—54 5 

+18 



m. 
22 
25 
27 
29 
33 
38 
40 
42 
45 
47 
49 
51 
56 
59 
2 
4 
10 
12 



s. 
28.02 
18.14 
42.68 
25.81 
37.74 
48.6.^ 
55.44 
52.97 

6.21 
41.03 

39.38 
40.82 
38.38 
14,08 
57.34 
38.68 
54.32 



29 
33 

35 

37 

41 

45 

48 

52 

54 

56 

7 1 

4 

6 



4.31 

42.41 
43.91 
49.73 
35.85 
5.21 

17.25 
15.33 
14.61 
4.56 
32.08 
28.49 
15.31 



23 
29 
34 
36 
38 
43 
45 
50 
52 
56 
2 
4 

10 
16 
18 



57.86 
53.15 
24.41 
30.14 
37.09 
19.39 
58.24 

34.15 

27.66 
41.06 
25.88 
39.18 
24.35 
45.33 



23 
30 
32 
35 
40 
43 



6.06 
32.92 
17.42 
14.52 

8.32 
50.48 



21 


Names of 
Stars. 


Mag 


Decn. 


63 Cancri, 


I 6 


' 

+ 16 14 




) 1 Limb, 




20 45 




b2 Arg. Car. 


5 


—58 26 




77 Cancri, 


(5.6) 


4-22 43 




(1117) 


6 


21 58 




wArg. Car. 


5 


—58 16 




83 Cancri, 


6 


+ 18 25 




(1135) 


5 


+82 3 




(1141)(Leo.) 


7 


20 31 


22 


4 Leonis, 


(4.5) 
(6.7) 


23 42 


8 Leonis, 


+ 17 11 




h Arg. Car. 


5 


—58 28 




16 Leonis, 


6 


+ 14 47 




18 , 


6 


12 35 




<(> Argus, 


4 


—53 45 




> 1 Limb, 




+16 54 




30 Leonis, 


(3.4) 


17 35 




34 , 


6 


14 12 




(1220) — 


6 


18 35 




41 , 


2 


20 41 




42 , 


6 


15 49 




r Arg. Car. 


(4.5) 


—40 47 




36Urs. Maj. 


5 


+56 50 


23 


46 Leonis, 


6 
6 


15 


49 Leonis, 


+ 9 31 




p Arg. Vel. 


5 


—47 20 




37 Sextantus 


6 


+ 7 16 




(j. Argus, 


3 


—48 31 




46Leo.Min. 


(4.5) 


+35 7 




56 Leonis, 


7 


7 5 




63 , 


(4.5) 


8 15 




y 1 Limb, 




11 47 




52Urs. Maj. 


(3.4) 


45 25 




(1322) (Leo.) 


(6.7) 


8 59 




(1326) 


6 


13 46 




7r Centauri, 


4 


—53 33 




78 Leonis, 


4 


+ 11 27 




1 Draconis, 


(3.4) 


70 16 


24 


1 Virginis, 


(6.7) 
6 


9 4 


89 Leonis, 


4 




1 Virginis, 


(6.7) 


9 4 




3 , 


(4.5) 


7 28 




Hyd. & Crat. 


i « 


—25 48 




64 Urs. Maj. 


2 


+54 38 




(1383) 


7 


4 25 




8 Virginis, 


5 


7 33 




> 1 Limb, 




5 47 




11 Virginis, 


7 


6 45 




(1404) 


5 


78 33 




4 Corvi, 


3 


—16 35 




16 Virginis, 


(5.6) 


+ 4 15 




17 , 


6 


6 15 




(1434) -, 


7 


5 20 



A. R. 



h. m. 

8 48 
53 
55 
59 

9 4 
6 
9 

12 
15 
22 



J 2 



s. 
18.22 

21.29 
48.57 
7.79 
37.18 
42.75 
47.20 
25.30 
14.77 



9 27 
29 
34 
37 
51 
56 
58 
10 2 
7 
10 
12 
15 
19 
23 



51.84 
39.47 
41.45 
26.67 
4.30 

16.78 
42.31 
13.14 
48.97 
54.74 
14.39 
59.61 
20.56 



10 26 
30 
37 
39 
44 
47 
56 
57 

11 
5 
7 

13 
15 
21 
29 



19.82 
22.14 
27.05 
39.97 
1.26 
24.62 
27.40 

19.72 
24.56 
17.92 
28.94 
16.47 
31.17 
54.57 



11 25 
29 
37 
40 
45 
49 
52 
56 
1 
4 
7 
11 
14 
19 



52.78 
54.55 
20.23 
21.47 
5.38 
44.10 
22.79 

36.92 
25.81 
17.45 
55.39 
5.79 
51.62 



98 



Catalogue of Moon-Culminating Stars. 



[Feb. 



Catalogue of Stars to be observed with the Moon in April, 1834. 



< 



1; 



Names of 
Stars. 



iMag Decn. 



10 Cancri, 

i-6 , 

(1013) 

20 , 

24 , 



(6.7) +22 

6 
(6.7) 



18 



e Argus, 
33 Cancri, 
4Ursae Maj. 
}) 1 Limb, 
43 Cancri, 
o Argus, 

5 , 

(1088) Can. 

69 , 

77 , 



19 



81 Cancri, 

82 , 

83 , 

i Argus, 
(1441) Can. 
1 Leonis, 
N Arg. in Car 
D I Limb, 
(1173) Leo. 

20 , 

cp Argus, 
(1200)(Leo.) 
30 Leonis, 



20 



32 Leonis, 

34 , 

37 , 

42—, 
r Arg in Vel. 
45 Leonis, 

46 , 

3) 1 Limb, 
p Arg. inVel. 
52 Leonis, 

53 , 

v Arg. Car. 
a Ursae Maj. 
63 Leonis, 
70 , 



63 Leonis, 
52Urs. Maj 
(1322) Leo. 
77 Leonis, 

78 , 

1 Draconis, 
19Hyd.Crat. 
J 1 Limb, 
1 Virginis, 



4 
18 9 
21 16 
18 52 
25 5 
—58 58 
+ 21 
64 54 



A. R. 



5 


' 22 5 
22 4 


4 


—52 19 


3 


—54 5 


7 


+ 17 52 


6 


25 7 


(5.6) 


22 43 


(6.7) 


+ 15 40 


6 


15 38 


6 


18 25 


2 


—58 33 


7 


20 31 


(4.5) 


23 42 


5 


—56 17 




+ 18 55 


7 


20 57 


7 


21 58 


4 


—53 45 


7 


+ 12 26 


(3.4) 
1 


17 35 


+■12 47 


6 


14 12 


6 


14 34 


6 


15 49 


(4.5) 


—40 47 


6 


+ 10 37 


6 


15 




14 30 


5 


—47 20 


6 


+ 15 5 


6 


11 26 


5 


—57 57 


2 


+62 39 


(4.5) 


8 15 


3 

(4.5) 


16 21 


+ 8 15 


(3.4) 


45 25 


(6.7) 


8 59 


4 


6 57 


4 


+ 11 27 


(3.4) 


70 16 


4 


—30 55 




+ 8 58 


(6.7) 


9 4 


5 


9 12 



11 



11 



m, 
57 
2 
10 
13 
16 
19 
23 
25 
29 
33 
35 
40 
46 
53 
59 



s. 
58.66 
40.61 
38.79 
51.18 
46.66 
6.22 
5.64 
37.88 

39.77 

32.79 

7.47 

1.15 

0.93 

48.19 



3 
6 
9 
12 
15 
22 
26 
29 
34 
40 
51 
55 
58 



12.08 
3.36 
42.37 
37.69 
24.87 
14.35 
10.17 

4.15 
32.10 

3.58 
14.76 
16.50 



59 
2 
7 
12 
15 
18 
23 
28 
30 
37 
40 
46 
53 
56 
5 



31.62 
42.07 
46.21 
54.47 
14.00 
52.98 
20.33 

21.72 
37.65 
31.99 
49.26 
26.64 
37.25 
31.66 



56 

5 
12 
15 
21 
24 
27 
29 
36 



27.25 
19.45 
24.43 
34.77 
16.36 
31.21 
51.45 

54.49 

43.46 



20 



21 



22 



23 



Names of 
Stars. 



4 Virginis, 

6 , 

9 , 

8 Centauri, 



10 Virginis, 
5 Cruris, 
13 Virginis, 

17 , 

(1434) 
7 Cruris, 
j) 1 Limb, 
(1458) Virg. 
7I Virginis, 
# Cruris, 
37 Virginis, 
77 Urs. Maj. 
44 Virginis, 
HCan.Ven. 



44 Virginis, 

48 , 

14Can.Ven. 
51 Virginis, 
1 Centauri, 
66 Virginis, 
) 1 Limb, 
79 Virginis, 
e Centauri, 
82 Virginis, 

I Centauri, 
(x Centauri, 
3 , 

10 Dracoriis, 
93 Virginis, 

II Draconis, 
99 Virginis, 



Mag 



(5.6) 
6 

(4.5) 
3 



10 Draconis, 
v2 Centauri, 
(1601) Virg. 

94 , 

96 , 

98 , 

16 Bootis, 
100 Virginis, 
2 Librae, 
3) 1 Limb, 
27 Bootis, 
(1651) (Lib.) 
a Lupi, 
34 Bootis, 
7 Librae, 

13 , 

/3 Lupi, 
18 Librae, 



6 
3 
6 
6 

(2.3) 

7 
4 
2 
6 
3 
6 
5 



Decn. 


' 

9 11 

9 23 

9 40 

—49 46 


+ 2 51 
—57 48 
+ 09 
+ 6 15 



A. R. 



6 
6 

5 

(4.5) 
3 

6 

4 
3 

(5.6) 

5 

4 

(4.5) 
(4.5) 
(4.5) 
(3.4) 

4 



+ 5 20 
—56 9 

+ 2 48 
+ 2 47 

— 30 
58 45 

+ 3 59 
56 52 

— 2 53 
+36 42 



12 



m. s. 
39 23.09 
46 32.61 
56 45.87 
59 49.25 



1 
6 
10 
14 
19 
21 
25 
29 
33 
37 
43 
46 
51 
57 



11.54 
22.81 
10.53 
5.77 
51.68 
54.70 

55.57 
15.84 

7.69 
10.83 
43.58 

7.57 
59.38 



(4.5) 

5 

7 

6 

(6.7) 

4 

1 

4 

6 

(3.4) 
(6.7) 

3 

(4.5) 
(5.6) 

6 
(3.4) 

7 



— 2 

— 2 
+36 

— 4 
35 

— 4 

— 3 
+ 
—52 

— 7 
—32 
—41 
—32 
+ 65 
+ 2 
+ 65 

— 5 



53112 51 

44 55 
421 57 
37 13 1 
11 



15 
22 
26 
29 
32 
36 
39 
42 
46 
53 
59 
11 14 7 



+-65 33 
—44 46 

— 8 26 

— 84 

— 9 31 

— 9 28 
+•20 4 
—12 34 
—10 55 

9 43 
+39 3 
—11 34 
—46 39 
+27 15 
—13 26 
—11 11 
—42 26 
—10 27 



7.57 
22.22 
59.38 
22.37 
19.53 
55.95 

15.58 
27.90 
55.44 
18.90 
40.69 
18.32 
36.04 
13.24 
56.46 
20.19 



13 46 
51 
55 
57 

3 



14 



10 
14 
20 
25 
28 
30 
36 
40 
45 
47 
49 



36.74 
26.24 
35.61 
31.80 
11.31 
44.19 
6.42 
9.29 
30.59 

24.93 
13.63 
58.12 
8.33 
14.83 
23.54 
43.47 
56.54 



1834.] Miscellaneous. 99 

VTI. — Miscellaneous. 
Anniversary Meeting of the Royal Asiatic Society, Saturday, Wth May, 1833. 

The Report of the Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting of this prosperous 
Institution has just reached us, and we hasten to put our readers in possession of 
such parts of it as must he interesting to those engaged in kindred researches and 
pursuits in the country whence the literary food of all Asiatic Societies is alike pro- 
vided. The proceedings themselves are as usual on such occasions but a string of 
unanimous thanks for services, great or small, rendered during the past year. We 
are sorry to see that Mr. Graves C. Haughton had been obliged to resign the 
office of Secretary, from ill health ; he has been succeeded by Captain Henry Hark- 
ness. The Right Honorable C. W. W. Wynn continues to be President, and 
Lieut. -Col. J. Tod, Librarian. 

Economy has been the standing order in the financial department, not without 
good effect, since a debt of ,£160 has been cleared, and a balance accumulated of 
nearly ,£400 from the contributions of the year, after a payment of £300 for print- 
ing, and £900 for house rent, taxes, and establishment. 

The Society has 232 paying members, at 2 and 3 guineas per annum ; it admitted 
23 new members in 1833, paying five-guinea admission fees. We observe among 
the sources of income a yearly donation of one hundred guineas from the Court of 
Directors, besides many valuable presents, and a hundred pounds from the Orien- 
tal Translation Fund : — a lamentable contrast all this to the state of things in the 
parent Society of Bengal, which has received, at least in these latter days, but lit- 
tle indeed of the fostering aid and patronage either of the local Government or of 
the Honorable Court ; and has itself subscribed (from the contributions of only 
about fifty paying members) a hundred pounds yearly to the Translation Fund ; 
and yet cannot even attempt to print a volume in promotion of the professed objects 
of that useful institution on the responsibility of a resident committee of the fund ! 
We remark that the composition for the subscription of an elected resident member 
of the Royal Asiatic Society is thirty guineas, and for a non-resident, twenty : the 
same scale might, we think, be advantageously adopted into our own rules. 

There is another new rule equally worthy of imitation ; namely, " that the re- 
signation of no member shall be received until he has sent in a written declaration, 
and has paid up all his arrears of subscription." 

We remark with pleasure the acknowledgment of several literary contributions 
from native corresponding members in the Madras presidency, the result we would 
hope of the extension of English education in the peninsula : the same good effect 
is already visible in our own pages, and it is a part of our ambition, as it is of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, " to become an active and useful instrument in calling forth 
the great but almost dormant talents of the natives of India. It is by urging the sin- 
gularly intellectual races of that country to make known through themselves the 
result of their ancient and steady civilization, that it hopes to make manifest to 
the philosophic inquirer into human nature the character of the remarkable and 
interesting people who have not merely been the authors of their own improve- 
ment, but who have steadily preserved, by the force of primeval institutions, their 
sacred language, their literature, and their laws, in spite of the anarchy and mis- 
rule consequent on the invasions of many barbarous nations by which they have 
been either subjugated, or their country laid desolate." 

The obituary list of 1832 is of melancholy extent, it comprises many of the elite 
of the Orientalists of Europe : their memory and their achievements belong to 
India, and we cannot render a pleasanter service than in extracting at length from 



100 Miscellaneous. [Feb. 

the Report before us, the epitome of the deeds of those among them who were 
the most conspicuous for their learning and talent ; passing by such names as the 
Raja of Tanjore, whose merits, however great, were those of a patron rather than a 
labourer in the field of Oriental research. 

" Dr. Adam Clarke was born in the county of Derry, in Ireland, about the year 
1760, and commenced his studies as a minister in the Wesleyan connection, at the age 
of eighteen. It was not till long after this period that his attention was turned to 
the study of Oriental literature : but he eventually acquired a profound knowledge of 
the Hebrew language and its sister dialects, ample proof of which is afforded by his 
highly esteemed commentaries on the Old and New Testaments. This was his prin- 
cipal work, and it extended to eight volumes quarto. Another work of great research 
and value has been published since the death of Dr. Clarke, with a continuation by 
his son, the Rev. J. B. B. Clarke, containing a view of the succession of sacred liter- 
ature, from the invention of alphabetical characters to the year 1300. 

" On the return of Sir A. Johnston from Ceylon, in the beginning of 181 8, he brought 
with him two young priests of Budd'ha, who were anxious to increase their knowledge 
by a visit to England ; and on their arrival in this country, they were placed by that 
gentleman under the care of Dr. Clarke, who had very liberally offered to receive them. 
They remained with him for two years, when they returned to their native country. 

" The life of Dr. Adam Clarke has been so fully detailed in the auto-biography 
which has been recently laid before the public, that it is unnecessary to dwell more 
particularly on it in this place. He continued attached to the study of Oriental liter- 
ature to the latest years of his life, which was brought to a termination in the autumn 
of last year, by an attack of cholera. 

" As Secretary to the Madras Auxiliary Society, the connexion of Mr. James Ltjsh- 
INGTON with this body was of an intimate and important character. When, on the 
arrival of the late Governor of Madras at that Presidency, he proceeded forthwith to 
carry into effect the suggestions with which he had been furnished by this Society for 
the re-organization of the Literary Society of Madias, his private secretary and second 
son, the subject of this notice, was selected for the situation of Secretary to the Asia- 
tic department of the Institution ; and the manner in which the duties of that office 
were performed amply proved the propriety of the choice. To the possession of ta- 
lents of no common order, he united great industry and zeal. The active share he 
took in the promotion of an object which this society had much at heart, namely, the 
continuation and completion of the Historical and Antiquarian researches of the late 
ColonelMACKENZiE, cannot easily be forgotten ; and the Council has to regret that by 
his death an interruption has occurred in the prosecution of this design. He expired 
at Laulpettah, near Vellore, on the 12th of September 1832, after a tedious and pain- 
ful illness, at the early age of twenty-eight years. 

"The late Lieutenant-Colonel John Baillie entered the service of the Ho- 
nourable the East-India Company in the year 1790, and arrived in India in 1791. He 
applied himself with great diligence to the study of the learned languages of the East; 
as a proof of which, it may be mentioned, that in the year 1797, at the desire of the 
then Governor-General, (Sir John Shore, now Lord Teignmouth,) he undertook the 
translation from the Arabic of a copious digest of Muhammedan Law, so arranged as 
to comprise the whole of the Imamea code, as applicable to secular matters. This 
work it was originally contemplated would extend to four volumes in quarto, but of 
these the first only was ever published, and that without the preliminary discourse or 
table of contents. It comprehends only the laws of commercial transactions. 

"On the establishment of the College of Fort William, Colonel Baillie was appoint- 
ed professor of the Arabic and Persian languages and of Muhammedan Law, a post which 
he filled with high credit until the year 1807, when he was appointed resident at the 
court of the Nawab Vizir of Oude, in place of Colonel^COLLiNS. During the period 



1834.] Miscellaneous. 101 

ofhis professorship, Colonel Baillie was twice called into active service as political 
agent to the Governor General in Bundelkhund, and for the zeal and ability displayed by 
him in this capacity, he was honoured with the public thanks of the Government. In 
the year 1801, he published a series of sixty tables, elucidatory of the first part of his 
course of lectures at the college, on the inflexions of Arabic grammar ; and in 1802, 
he published the two first volumes of his edition of the original texts of the five most 
esteemed works on Arabic grammar, namely, the Mint Amil ; Shurhu Miut Amil ; 
Misbah ; Hedayet un Nuhvi ; and the Kafeea of Ebn Hajeb. In consequence of his 
employment in Bundelkhund, the work was not completed till 1803; and his intention 
of publishing an English version of the third volume, and indeed all further literary 
exertion, appears to have been put a stop to by his appointment to Lucknow, where he 
remained till 1815. In 1818, he retired from the service, and in 1823, succeeded the late 
Mr. Cotton as a Director of the East-India Company. 

" M. Abel Remus at was born at Paris on the 5th of September, 1788, and was 
consequently in his fifty-fourth year at the time of his death. He was originally de- 
signed for the medical profession, and applied himself successfully to the requisite 
studies ; but at the same time he indulged in a taste for Oriental literature, and se- 
lected as his principal object of pursuit in this direction ths almost inaccessible lan- 
guage of China. He was unassisted in this task either by grammars or dictionaries, 
for none at that period existed in print ; yet, in spite of this disadvantage, he persever- 
ed, and succeeded in overcoming the difficulties opposed to his progress ; for it was 
not until after he had published his Essays on the Chinese Language and Literature 
that he became possessed of the Dictionarium Latino-Sinicum, in manuscript, of the 
French Mission at Peking. The talents thus signally displayed at this early age by 
M. Remusat secured him exemption from the law of conscription, so rigidly enforced 
throughout the French empire. In connection with the Chinese, M. Remusat studied 
the Mandchu and Tibetan langxiages ; and when in the year 1S14, at the suggestion 
of the Baron de Sacy ; two professorships were founded in the Royal College of 
France, for the more effectual cultivation of the Sanscrit and Chinese languages, M. 
Remusat was nominated to fill the latter, and this hoaourable post he maintained till 
the period ofhis decease. In 1820, he published the first volume of his Recherches 
sur les Langues Tartares, a work in which the literature of these nations is ably dis- 
cussed. The sequel to this work, intended to contain the original texts of which 
translations had appeared in the first volume, has never been published. In 1822, he 
produced his Grammar of the Chinese Language : a work arranged in a lucid and 
methodical manner, which has reflected high credit on his abilities and acquirements. 
M. Remusat contributed many papers of value to the Memoirs of the Academy of In- 
scriptions ; and the notices of and extracts from the Oriental MSS. in the Biblioth£- 
que du Roi. A few years back, he published his translation of the Chinese novel en- 
titled Yukiao-li ; or, the Two Fair Cousins. He has left behind him three import- 
ant works in MS., two of which, however, are unfinished : one of these is a Philo- 
sophical Dictionary of the Budd'hist Religion, translated from one published at Pe- 
king, in Sanscrit, Tibetan, Mandchu, Mongol, and Chinese : the second is a trans- 
lation of the Travels of the two Chinese Priests of Budd'ha, inTartary, India, and 
Persia, which he had undertaken to prepare for publication by the Oriental Translation 
Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, when death, from a disease in the stomach, in- 
tervened, and prevented the fulfilment of this intention. The third is an account of 
the Natural History of the eastern countries of Asia ; and in this laborious enter- 
prize he was to have been assisted by the powerful aid of the first naturalists of 
France, and indeed of Europe, for among them may be recorded the names of Cuvier, 
Brown, Correa de Serra, Petit Thouars, Jussieu, Valenciennes, &c. &c. 
" On the retirement of the venerable and illustrious Baron de Sacy from the 
President's chair of the Asiatic Society at Paris, he was succeeded by M. Remusat, 
who retained it until his decease ; and the Baron de Sacy has since resumed the 
office thus left vacant, at the earnest solicitation of the Society. 



102 Miscellaneous. [Feb. 

M. Remusat possessed a mind of the highest order. Every thing he produced was 
done with facility, and was remarkable for its luminous and profound character. His 
loss cannot easily be supplied, and Oriental literature will long have reason to deplore 
the untimely death which carried him off, when his judgment and acquirements might 
he supposed to have only just reached their highest maturity. 

"One of the most illustrious scholars reared under the auspices of M. Remusat was 
Jean St. Martin, who, from an attack of cholera, followed his former master to the 
tomb at the brief interval of thirty-seven days. 

" While Abel Remusat devoted himself to the investigation of the philosophy, his- 
tory, antiquities, and natural history of China, Tibet, and in general of all those countries 
where Budd'hism and Chinese manners prevail, St. Martin occupied himself with 
researches into the ancient history of Persia and the adjacent countries. He had for 
this purpose studied particularly the Semitic family of languages, the difficult idiom of 
Armenia, and the Zend and Pahlevi. The extent and value of his investigations may 
be judged of from the Memoirs on Armenia, which he published in two volumes : they 
are full of erudite and ingenious mattev,*and their appearance fully established his cha- 
racter as an Oriental scholar and critical antiquary. 

" The chronology of ancient nations was his favourite object of study, and he aimed 
at elevating it to the rank of one of the exact sciences. Unfortunately but few of his 
works in this path are printed, and the same remark applies to several valuable essays 
on the ancient history of Africa, and other subjects, which were read before the Acad£- 
mie des Inscriptions. In February, 1822, he published his opinion, that the Egyptian 
tablet, generally known under the name of the Zodiac of Dendera, was a work of com- 
paratively modern date, and but few months had elapsed when the discoveries of 
Champollion proved it to be even more recent than the era assigned to it by M. St. 
Martin, the monument itself, with the other erections of Esne and Dendera, being 
referable to the reign of the Emperor Claudius. 

"To M. St. Martin must be attributed the suggestion of an archaeological journey 
into the East, which was subsequently undertaken by that able and lamented scholar, 
Dr. Schultz, at the expense of the French Government. His design was to collect Zend 
and Pahlevi MSS., antiquities, and medals, and to make fac-similes of all the cunei- 
form inscriptions. The specimens he had succeeded in obtaining previous to the 
melancholy termination of his existence by assassination were placed in the hands of 
M. St. Martin, and enabled him to complete an alphabet of the cuneiform character, 
published a few months before his decease, by M. Klaproth, in his " Apercu des 
diverses Ecritures," &c. Besides the literary labours noticed above, and many others 
which the Council is precluded from mentioning here, M. St. Martin was the principal 
conductor of the journal published by the Asiatic Society at Paris; and to his care 
and exertions its high character, as a repository of Oriental literature, must be in a 
great measure ascribed. In conclusion, it may be said of M. St. Martin, that he was 
not less respected for his strict integrity and ardent adherence to truth, than admired 
for the composure of his mind tinder the trials of adversity. 

" Scarcely had the dreadful scourge which had spread from Asia to Europe removed 
St. Martin, ere it struck another eminent Orientalist, of whom Fiance might be just- 
ly proud ; in the latterg|M>f the month of August, M. Antoine Leonard Chezy 
fell its victim in the'^ftieth year of his age. To Monsieur de Chezy belongs the 
glory of having attempted and succeeded in laying open the rich stores of Sanscrit 
literature, at a period when no assistance was to be derived from grammars, or even 
the communications of others who had been tempted to explore the same path. Be- 
fore the studies of Mr. Wilkins and Sir Willi am Jones were known in Europe, M. 
de Chezy had penetrated, with no other key than the imperfect outlines of P. de St. 
Francis Barthelemy, into the closed portals of Brahminical lore. The principal 
work which he has left behind him, is an edition and translation of the well-known Sans- 
crit drama entitled Sacountala. A short time before his death he finished transcrib- 
ing another called the Dhourtta Samagama ; the MS. of which is in the hands of 
the Baron de Sacy, and will probably be printed. An analysis of the celebrated 



1834.] Miscellaneous. 803 

poem of the Ram£yana is also spoken of as having been prepared by him : this, with 
a small essay on the theory of the Sl6ca, or Sanscrit heroic metre, comprises his prin- 
cipal productions. He also published the poem of Mejnoon and Leila, from the 
Persian, which was remarkable for the elegance of his diction ; and in 1831 an ab- 
stract and translation of the century of erotic verses by the poet Amru. That the 
productions of his intense and unremitting study were not more numerous is deeply 
to be regretted, and must be ascribed to the unfortunate state of his health for many 
years, exasperated by the occurrence of some mortifying circumstances. M. Chezy 
was remarkable for the amiability and gentle playfulness of his disposition, qualities 
which ensured him the devoted attachment of his friends and pupils. 

"The two professorships left vacantby the death of MM. Remusat and Chezy have 
beenfilledbyM. Julien and M. Burnouf. Both these able scholars are foreign mem- 
bers of this Society, and would satisfy every wish that could be formed for these 
important chairs being worthily filled, if we could forget the rare endowments of the 
eminent men whose loss we have had to deplore. 

" At the general meeting of the Society, held on the 1st of December, a donation of 
an edition of the Fables of Locman, and two small works on the language of Iceland 
was laid on the table from Professor Emanuel Rask ; and it Avas then announced 
there was reason to fear, that the highly distinguished scholar from whom they were 
received had died since he had despatched them to this country. This intelligence was 
shortly afterwards confirmed ; and in the death of Professor Rask the study of Orien- 
tal literature has lost one of its most able and indefatigable adherents. The peculiar 
branch of research to which he had devoted himself rendered his investigations parti- 
cularly interesting ; and his numerous publications illustrative of the languages and 
literature of the ancient inhabitants of Northern Europe, combined with the 
knowledge which he had acquired of the most important languages and literary anti- 
quities of the East, fully attest his qualifications for the task of comparing, showing 
their agreement and distinction, and illustrating them. 

" Among his numerous philological works may be mentioned graramai-s of the Italian 
Spanish, Anglo-Saxon, and Icelandic languages, treatises on the Phonics of India 
and the Literals of Europe ; tracts on the Zend language and the Zend Avesta and 
many others. 

"In the course of the session of 1832, a communication addressed by Professor 
Rask to the Bombay Literary Society, containing his remarks on the last-mentioned 
subject, was read before this Society, and has been ordered to be inserted in the 
Transactions. 

" Professor Rask was remarkable for the facility he evinced in the acquisition of dif- 
ferent languages. In the year 1822, it is stated that he was acquainted with no less 
than twenty-five. His knowledge of English was extensive and correct. He spent 
some years ona literary missioninPersia, India, and Ceylon, where he procured many va- 
luable manuscripts, and acquired much sound information on those points to which his 
attention was more especially directed. From his temperate habits of life, approaching 
indeed to abstemiousness, the vicissitudes of climate and season had no apparent 
effect on his frame, and he gave promise of many years' continuance in his favourite 
pursuits, when the insidious effects of consumption prematurely terminated his useful 
and laborious career. His mild and gentle manners endeared him to his friends and 
acquaintance ; and he combined, with an extent of acquirements not often equalled, a 
remarkable diffidence and modesty. 

" Professor Rask was keeper of the Oriental MSS. in the Royal Library at Copen- 
hagen, and had recently been appointed a commissioner to prepare measures for the 
amelioration of the condition of the Danish colonies in Guiana. He was elected a 
Foreign Member of the Royal Asiatic Society in the year 1826." 

Dr. Alexander Turnbull Christie, and M. Victor Jacquemont are also 
honorably mentioned in the Report ; but we observe nothing more than is already 
known to our readers in the sketch of their career. 



104 



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JOURNAL 



OF 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



No. 21.— -March, 1834. 



I. — A Description, with Drawings, of the Ancient Stone Pillar at Alla- 
habad called Bhim Sen's Gadd or Club, with accompanying copies of 
four inscriptions engraven in different characters upon its surface. By 
Lieut. T. S. Burt, Engineers. 

[Read at the meeting of the 26th December 1833.] 
In compliance with your request made some time since, that I would 
prepare copies of the characters engraven on an ancient pillar lying in 
the Fort of Allahabad, I have much pleasure in forwarding them, 
together with a geometrical and an explanatory drawing of the stone, 
(Plate III. et. seq.), which shew the situations occupied by each of the 
characters on the upper surface, as well as sections and elevations of 
the capital, which lies detached near to the top of the shaft. 

The column tapers from the base to the capital from a diameter at 
the former of three feet two and quarter inches, to two feet two inches 
at the latter ; the circumference of the first mentioned part is about ten 
feet one inch, and of the last, six feet six and a quarter inches. This was 
about the size of the Delhi lath of Firoz Shah, which is stated to "be ten 
feet four in circumference, and thirty-seven feet long, [see As. Res. vol. 
VII. p. 178 ;] the shaft of this one being thirty-five, and its total length, 
'including the base, forty-two feet seven inches. 

It appears to be a hard kind of red sandstone, nearly approaching to 

freestone, (and not granite,) and bears a kind of silvery bed in it, which 

accounts for its having peeled off at several places as hereafter noticed. 

The common legend of the natives states the pillar to be the gadd 

or staff of Bhim Sen. It may be hardly necessary to state, that Bhim 



106 Description of the Ancient [March, 

Sen was the second brother of Raja Yudhisthira, or Judisthir, 
(Shakespear's Hindoo Dictionary, page 149, of the year 1817,) whom 
Kishn or Bishn protected ; now Krishna, the Apollo of the Hindoos, 
appears from page 599 to have lived, according to Colonel Wilford, 
about 1300 years before Christ. 

It is said to be the staff, with which he ground his bhang, and 
that the bundi or vessel in which the bhang was ground, was thrown 
into the Jumna on our taking possession of the fort. It is reported that 
this pillar was formerly standing near to its present position inthe circular 
ring facing the gateway on the inside of this fort, and that it was taken 
down on the Fort undergoing alterations, which appears to have occur- 
red in the 44th year of the reign of Shah Aulum, when the plan 
of the fort is stated to have been altered by the English ; [see page 
34 of Shakespear's Hindustani Selections from the Kheldsat-ul-taiva- 
rikh, or Abridgment of History ;] Shah Aulum the second, came to the 
throne in A. D. 1761 (Hamilton's India, volume I. p. 410) so that by 
adding 43 years we shall bring the date of the transfer up to 1804, r 
which was then the period of alteration of the Fort, and as is reported, 
of pulling down the pillar, but I have lately heard that this took place 
in 1798 or 99. 

The capital of the column (shewn in the accompanying drawings) appears 
to have formerly borne a four-footed animal sitting upon it, and the slight 
traces remaining have the appearance of the Bull which is generally at- 
tendant upon Mahadeva. The animal mast have been evidently " cou- 
chant," for the remains of the body as well as of the legs are connected 
to the stone itself. 

The capital has a circular hole in it, probably to allow of the entrance 
of a point bar for fixing it on the top of the shaft, in the centre of which 
a similar hole is cut for that purpose. 

The base of the shaft has a couple of projections similar to the trun- 
nions of a piece of ordnance, intended probably as a place of fixture for 
the ropes which might be used in erecting it, or otherwise as a hold 
when built into its bed of masonry. 

Taking the specific gravity of the block at less than that of marble 
and hard stone, 2.650, the weight of it will be found on calculation to be 
about 17 tons, 12 cwt. or 493 mans. 

It is to be regretted that so handsome a column should be allowed to 
lie as it now does " unnoticed and unknown," when the outlay of about 
two thousand rupees would place it upon a neat pedestal in a more ap- 
propriate position, as it is represented to have stood formerly in the sketch 
in the Asiatic Researches. The pedestal should of course be constructed 
entirely after the native method of architecture, and have nothing Eu- 



1834.] Pillar at Allahabad. 107 

ropean at all in its composition, unless an incongruous effect were the 
desideratum of architectural beauty*. 

My brother of the 64th regiment, was kind enough (for it was a 
work of labor) to make a copy of so much of the various characters as is 
situated on the present upper surface of the stone (or gadd as it 
is named by the natives). Lieut. Burt having to rejoin his corps 
before the stone could be removed, I have employed a moonshee 
in effecting a copy of the part which remained under ground, for the 
stone was buried about a foot in the soil, partly from the effect of its 
weight, and partly from the pathway having been added to from 
time to time with road material. I have examined each of the copies 
(with the stone ?), and corrected the shapes of those letters which appeared 
to require it both in the first copy and in its transcript. 

The Persian inscription is so far peculiar, that in reading it upon the 
stone, the lower, or second line, is to be read first, so as to preserve 
the gradation of the nine Emperors of Delhi mentioned in it, Timu'r 
being the first, and Jehangir the last, in whose time it would seem to 
have been engraved. The year mentioned is 1014 (see compartment 2 
from the left, vol. VII. page 180, Asiatic Researches), which appears on 
reference to Mr. Smith's Chronological Table, at page 447 of the same 
volume, to have been the year in which Jehangir was crowned at Agra. 

I do not send an exact copy of the ornament surrounding the Persian 
inscription, as that shewn in the volume referred to is so much more 
neatly done than any I could obtain that I beg to refer you to it : only 
one or two of the Persian letters differ from the copy now sent; they 
are in alto relievo, beautifully cut, and still appear as if newly executed 
upon the pillar. 

The Persian letters being in alto relievo upon the central band of the 
stone, induced me to think that they must have been cut or left upon it on 
its first removal from the quarry, or in A. H. 1014 (A. D. 1605), as above 
noticed ; but subsequent inspections induced me to think differently, 
for although the letters themselves are in alto relievo, or projecting far 
beyond the belt or zone upon which they rest, yet the plane of that 
belt or zone is excavated so deeply in the periphery of the stone 
that its depth is exactly equal to the height of the letters themselves ' 
which shews without contradiction that the Persian inscription could 
have been engraved subsequently to the writing in the Sanscrit charac- 
ter, every letter of which is cut into the stone, and consequently has no 
projection whatever, excepting what the surface of the periphery pre- 

* Major Irvine, Engineers, C. B. states that in 1826, he sent in an estimate to 
put it up for about 1800 rupees, but the Governor General, Lord Amherst, ob- 
jected to the expence on the grounds of its inutility I 
o 2 



108 Description of the Ancient [March, 

sents at the interstices of the letters, whereas ; if the sunken zone did 
not exist upon which the Persian characters stand prominently forth, 
and if the letters stood out beyond the general surface of the column 
itself, it might he reasonably assumed that the projecting Persian cha- 
racters were coeval with the extraction of the stone from the quarry, 
or at least with the date of its receiving the final smoothing and polish- 
ing from its rough hewn state. 

Measuring with a string I have perceived that the writer's name in 
Persian, Abdullah, in alto relievo in a separate compartment is likewise 
situated below the general surface of the stone : moreover, that it has 
been cut out at a part where the ancient inscription No. 2 had evidently 
peeled off before the Persian was written. This establishes the prior 
existence of the engravings Nos. 1 and 2, of which however, and without 
this proof, there could be no doubt. The same remark applies to the 
whole of the Persian inscription. 

The Persian inscription runs thus, in the original, and rendered into 
Roman characters ; each compartment of letters being read first from 
the lower line, as before explained. 

J&* ^J * t_f jUlj * hjk* A*sr* ^tklwu ( ^j) * ^ybJJo^j.'l 

fir* ^ylli!^ £i\yc * *U,^^& 

Allah Akbar — Nooruddin Muhammed Jehanglr Badshah Ghazi — ya hafiz — Ibn 
Akbar Badshah Ghazi — ya hqfeez — Ibn Humayun Badshah Ghazi — ya hay — Ibn 
Babar Badshah Ghazi- — ya kayum — Ibn Umar Shaikh Mirza — ya Muktadir — Ibn 
Sultan Abu Said — ya nur — Ibn Sultan Muhammed Mirza — ya hadi — Ibn 
Miran Shah — ya badia — Amir Timur Sahib-kiran — ya kadir — ahad illahi, sahr — 
yur mah muafik rabiussani, 1014 (A. H.) 

Translation. 

(God is great !) — The light of the religion of Muhammed, the Emperor Jehan- 
gir, victorious over infidels ; — (Oh! Preserver) — son of the Emperor Akber, con- 
queror of infidels; — (Oh! Protector) — son of the Emperor Humayun, victori- 
ous over infidels ; — (Oh ! Giver of Life) — son of the Emperor Baber, victorious, 
&c. ; — (Oh ! Eternal) — son of Umar Shaikh Mirza ; — (Oh ! Almighty) — son of 
Sultan Abu Seid ; — (Oh I Light) — son of Sultan Muhammed Mirza ; — (Oh ! 
Guide) — son of Miranshah ; — (Oh I Wonderful) — son of Amir Timur, Lord of 
happy destiny ; — (Oh ! Omnipotent) — In the month shahr yur, in the 1st Ilahl, 
corresponding with Rabiussani A. H. 1014*. 

* The Ilahl year should be 49, for the sera of Akber commenced with his reign, 
in the 5th Rabi-ussdnl 963 (= 1 March, 1605) ; therefore the word J&l must be a 



1834.] Pillar at Allahabad. 109 

"With respect to the specimen of the inscription on the pillar at Alla- 
habad (shewn at page 180, volume VII. As. Res.) I beg to say that, that 
part which originally, or when it was copied in June 1797, was adja- 
cent to the Persian writer's name " Abdullah," no longer exists, and 
has evidently peeled off ; some of the letters I can find to agree, both of 
the stone and the specimen, but only a few, as most of the others are 
manifestly incorrect, as may be seen by comparing the specimen with 
the full copy now sent ; the former should therefore be only looked 
upon as a partly correct and partly incorrect specimen of the character 
chosen here and there, and not as an exact copy of any part of the in- 
scription ; indeed, the line in this character which is situated above the 
Persian in Captain Ho are's specimen, does not now appear upon the 
column at all. 

The inscription No. 1 , (which is evidently of the same character with 
that upon the latji at Delhi,) is in many parts illegible, chiefly because 
the outer surface of the stone has peeled off to the depth of one- 
eighth or one-fifth of an inch from those parts, caused probably in the 
first instance by the effect of the hammer and chisel, or other instru- 
ment used in engraving the inscription, so as to have either cracked or 
loosened the general surface to the depth of the letters cut ; which 
surface, although not at the time apparently injured, might have become, 
in suffering frequent alternations of heat, cold and damp, so loose in 
some parts, as at last to peel and fall off in flakes. 

The natives state, some that the unknown character is Marhatta, 
others that it is Punjabi, and that although no one at this place can now 
read it, a traveller from Bombay took a copy of it some years ago, and 
said that he could read and decipher the character ; I requested my 
brother to make inquiries at Benares, and I have also written to 
Cawnpur, near to which the Mahratta Prince Bajee Rao is stationed, 
with a hope of procuring information, but without effect. 

The size of the letters of the ancient Sanscrit character No. 2, was 
about an inch in height and an inch more or less in breadth, and of the 
unknown character No. 1, nearly the same. 

One part of the unknown character No. 1 similar in every respect to 
to that on the Delhi lat,h, is situated above the Persian writing on the left 
hand side of the drawing No. 1. and consists of but a small portion of the 
different letters engraven on the stone. 

wrong reading for |*^ . Shahryur is the 6th month, and falls in August. The Hijri 
also, Rabi-uss&ni 1014, corresponds with the same month. Akber died on tbe 13th 
of Rabi-uss ni 1014, (= 21 August, 1605 ;) he inscription therefore must have 
been cut within a few days of this event ; — the coronation of Jehangir did not 
take place till Jamddi 2, or two months later. — Ed. 



1 1° Description of the Ancient [March, 

Sir C. Malet, at page 384, vol. vi. As. Res. speaks of Hindoo sym- 
bols in Bombay, does he thereby refer to the characters of the inscription ? 
It is not impossible indeed thatthey maybe of a numerical or astronomical 
character, as hidden to our knowledge as are the Egyptian hieroglyphics, 
for the square, triangle, circle, mercury, are to be frequently met with in 
the characterNo. 1. 

My brother in passing Benares sent a specimen of the character 
No. 1, to the secretary of the Hindoo College there; but that officer 
was unable to give any assistance in deciphering it. Lieut. B. from 
Benares says, " I have made every inquiry regarding the inscription, 
No. 1, on the pillar, a specimen of which I took with me from Allaha- 
bad ; but neither the head pundit of the Patsala here, nor any others 
to whom I have shewn it, are able to decipher it, or to tell me of what 
character it is composed." 

It is very evident that the inscription, No. 1. is of exactly the same 
kind as that shewn in Plates X. XI. XII. XIII. and XIV. of the 7th 
volume As. Res. p. 180, as existing on the Delhi pillar, the translation of 
which will not I trust be considered as hopeless ; but of No. 2, to which 
the Gya inscription is so near an approximation, Dr. Mill, Mr. Csoma de 
Koros, or any other Sanscrit scholar, will most probably be kind enough 
to supply the translation. 

The Devanagari character, No. 3, has been also copied and is sent here- 
with, but it is by no means so neatly engraven on the stone as the other 
characters, nor is it in many places at all legible, although as an assist- 
ance in the operation we threw common red soorkee or brick-dust 
into the hollows which compose the letters, and then wiped off the par- 
ticles that rested on the projections, between them, with a wet or rather 
a damp piece of cloth, which rendered the letters more distinctly visible. 

This third inscription, No. 3, occupies the greatest part of the 
surface of the stone, and lies above the Persian. It is supposed 
to have been written by various persons, who in paying visits to 
the pillar from distant countries, left impressions of their names 
and actions upon the face of it. This is the native idea on the subject, 
but the point may be set to rest upon the character being trans- 
lated. I have not made much inquiry about the legibdity of the 
last mentioned character, as the native account took away from 
the interest that it would have otherwise occasioned : the letters are 
badly cut, and in many places almost illegible. This character, No. 3, 
contains some dates which I have marked : one of the year Samvat 
1562, which as this is 1890 of the same era of Vikramajit, must have 
been written 328 years since ; another of Samvat 1663, or 327 years ; 
another 1515, or 368 years ; another Samvat 1639, 261 years; another 



1834.] Pillar at Allahabad. Ill 

1640, or 250 years; another 1762, or 128 years ; another 1863, or 27 
years ; another Samvat 1638, or 252 years since. 

On examining all the 18 volumes of the As. Res. I am happy to 
say I have found, or at least partly found a key to the character No. 2 ; 
in the transcript and interpretation of an ancient inscription at Gya, by 
Dr. Wilkins, vol. I. page 279. This will evidently serve as a guide, by 
which nearly half of the letters can be made out, as is evident on inspec- 
tion ; and it may therefore be assumed as likely that Dr. Wilkins at 
home, or any Sanscrit scholar in this country, has in his possession means 
of reading and translating the whole of this at present unknown inscrip- 
tion, No. 2 ; which from what the Doctor says as applied to the Gya in- 
scription will probably prove to be composed of fine Sanscrit, and to be more 
than 1 800 years old. It may indeed have a still greater age, because 
some of the letters of the character No. 2 appear of a more illegible na- 
ture than those of the Gya sculpture, although manifestly of the same 
description. It must therefore have been engraven upon the column 
long before the two Persian lines before spoken of, which bear a date 
no farther back than 228 years, or A. H. 1014. 

In the description of the Ellora Caves, in the 6th volume As. Res. no 
specimens of the inscription are given, but on reference to the fac similes 
of some of these in the 5th volume, I find that a few letters correspond 
with No., 2. 

There is also I think a resemblance to the character No. 2, on a pillar 
at Buddal, which has been translated by Dr. Wilkins in the 1st volume 
As. Res. page 131, and a still greater similarity strikes me in the Mon- 
ghir inscription, also translated by the same learned scholar in that 
volume. 

I have thought it necessary to send a copy of part of the Gya inscrip- 
tion, which has been translated, together with the modern character 
written beneath it, as given by Dr. Wilkins in page 178, in order that 
it maybe compared with the inscription No. 2, of this pillar. It seems to 
me to be exactly the same character, but perhaps less antique. Mr. 
Harington says, the pundits at Benares could not read the Gya inscrip- 
tion, but Dr. Wilkins has read it. Mr. Harington observes, that ano- 
ther inscription of one line only exists there, of a different character, and 
unintelligible. Perhaps this may be similar to No. 1, and it would be 
interesting to ascertain the fact through the aid of some of the corre- 
spondents of the Journal. Query. Has it any connection with the Greek 
character, to which No. 1 bears some similitude, in the Greek letters 
\v a e at F some of which are mentioned by Mr. Stirling, at page 312, 
As. Res. volume XV. viz. the " ou, sigma, lambdu, chi, delta, epsilon, and 



112 Description of the Ancient [March, 

a something closely resembling a figure of the digamma*." The Khandgir 
inscription appears to resemble the Allahabad character exactly in my 
opinion. 

Dr. W. says of this inscription No. 2, "The character is undoubtedly 
the most ancient of any that have hitherto come under my inspection ; — it 
is not only dissimilar to that which is now in use, but even very mate- 
rially different from that we find in inscriptions of eighteen hundred 
years ago ; but though the writing be not modern, the language is 
pure Sanscrit, written in a long verse called Sardoola vikririta, 
and consists of four pauses of nineteen syllables each, in this form," — 
(which the Doctor gives) — they appear to be feet consisting of a mo- 
lassas, a pyrrhic, a trochee, a tribrach, a molassas, a bacchias, and an 
iambus. The Doctor states that the metre was no small help in deci- 
phering the words, and this will probably be found to be the case in the 
Allahabad inscription, as the letters composing the character, are chiefly 
equidistant from one another, without the appearance of stops. I have 
strong reason for thinking No. 2 to be verse, because several lines end 
with the same letter, which appears indicative of rhyme. It is probably 
of a mythological character. See also p. 357, recording the translation 
of a partly similar inscription found at the fort of Tanna. 

The character at page 500 of this volume (xv. As. Res.) is not far dif- 
ferent from the one line of inscription, No. 5, copied, as it appears, on 
the stone, viz. at right angles to the rest of the character, for both bear 
a peculiarly square appearance. See Alphabet of the same at p. 506, 
furnished by Mr. H. H. Wilson, from which this also may perhaps be 
decipheredf. 

In the As. Res. vol. vi. page 447, Captain John Mackenzie 
sends a copy of the inscription found by him at Ceylon on a block of 
stone much corroded by time, but which he made out by tracing chunam, or 
lime water on the hollow characters indented in the rock, which render- 
ed them legible on the dark ground of the stone. I think it would be 
a better plan in a similar case to pass a cloth or brush damped in lime- 
water, rapidly over the general surface of the stone, for when the lime 
dries white, every dark letter will appear distinctly contrasted with the 
white surface, because the letters themselves are not to be wetted, but 
only their projecting interstices. 

The Ceylon inscription is probably old Sanscrit also, as it resembles 
No. 2 in some of the letters. 

* See note at the end of this paper. — En. 

t See Plate vi. at the right hand near the bottom. 



1834.] pillar at Allahabad. 113 

In the inscription atMahabalipuram*, As. Res. volume v. p. 75 to 80, 
a very few letters correspond with those in No. 2. Captain Wilford, 
p. 135, says he was shewn a Sanscrit book containing many ancient 
alphabets, qr. at Benares ? 

Captain Colin McKenzie states that there are unknown inscriptions 
on the pagoda at Perweettun, page 314, volume iii. Page 167, et seq. 
contain two translations, by Dr. Wilkins, of inscriptions from the Vind- 
hya Mountains, but no specimens. Page 383 of ditto, is an inscription in 
the Malaga language engraven upon a silver plate, which was found in a 
cave near Islamabad by John Shore, Esq. (now Lord Teignmouth) but 
no specimen appears, which is to be regretted. 

Volume iii. page 39. contains a specimen and translation, by Sir 
William Jones, of a Sanscrit inscription from the Carnatic, not much 
like No. 2. 

Mr. Colebrooke says at page 401, that Mr. Wilkins ascertained the 
date and scope of a Sanscrit inscription at Cintra in Portugal : see page 
422, also, where the Canara language is stated to be mixed with Sans- 
crit in an inscription found in the Upper-Carnatic, some of the stanzas 
being supposed to be Pracrit ; also that the junction of the three lan- 
guages, Telinga, Mahratta and Canara, takes place some where about 
Beder. It is strange that a few of the natives here should say that 
No. 1, is Mahratta, and some that it must be Carnatic writing. 

Page 224. "The ancient Canara has gone so much into disuse, that 
it was with difficulty I could get people to read it. An Alphabet will 
be yet communicated, as several books and ancient inscriptions are 
written in this character." Page 398 et seq. 

The No. for August, 1833, of the As. Soc. Journal, shews in pages 387 
et seq., several characters of the Kah Gyur similar to No. 2 ; see also vol. 
i. Journal Asiatic Society, page 276, where some Tibetan characters as- 
similate with it. 

I have thus endeavoured to afford as much information as was in my 
power on the subject of the Allahabad pillar and inscription, and wish 
it could have been more satisfactory or ample ; but I trust my endeavours 
will be considered in a favourable light, should the opinions I have 
expressed differ from those of others who must be so much better 
acquainted with the subject than I am. 

A specimen of the stone accompanies. 

* See note by Capt. Troyer : the Mahabalipur inscription is in the same cha- 
racter nearly as No. 2, and was of great use in deciphering it. — Ed. 



114 Note on Inscription of the Allahabad Column. [March, 

II.— iVofe on Inscription No. 1 of the Allahabad Column. By James 

Prinsep, Sec. %c. 
When I requested the author of the preceding description to under- 
take the task, which he has so faithfully and carefully executed, I had 
but little anticipation of the valuable historical information that would 
reward the labour of transcribing the almost illegible inscriptions covering 
the surface of the Allahabad lath. Aware indeed that the only accu- 
rate data we possessed for adjusting the chronology of Indian princes 
were those derived from ancient monuments of stone ; inscriptions 
on rocks and caves ; or grants of land engraven on copper-plates, 
discovered accidentally in various parts of the country ; — I could not 
see the highly curious column lying at Allahabad, falling to rapid 
decay, without wishing to preserve a complete copy of its several 
inscriptions: for the specimen of them, published in the seventh volume of 
the Researches, comprised but two or three lines ; and was professedly 
intended to give only an idea of the different characters of the three (or, 
with the Persian, four) inscriptions. It is indeed greatly to be regretted 
that the task was not accomplished twenty or thirty years ago ; for the 
ravages of time, or rather climate, have probably in that short period 
committed greater injuries on its surface, than during an equal number 
of centuries antecedent : — " The line in the printed specimen, near the 
Persian name Abdullah, is no longer to be seen on the stone," says Lieut. 
Burt. The horizontal position of the pillar allows the rain to settle in 
the cavities of the letters, and soak into the stone itself, and this action 
alternating with the fierce heat to which it is exposed from the sun's 
rays,has caused the outer surface of the stone to split and peel off in many 
places. Lying half buried in the ground also, the saltpetre, or other salt 
with which the soil is impregnated, must have had its share in the ruin 
of the prostrate monument. Many of the sandstone buildings in Benares, 
and indeed all over the country, exhibit the influence of this destructive 
agent; at the height of a few feet from the ground their surface is seen to 
peel off in thin flakes*, while the higher parts remain sharp and uninjured 
for ages. The Moghul emperor J ehangir was contented to engrave his 
name and proud descent in a belt through the middle of the most ancient 
inscription ; — the English would rightly deprecate such profanation, but 
their own passive neglect has proved in a few short years even more 
destructive than the barbarous act of the Muhammedan despot. 

* The effect may be produced by the crystallization of the deliquescent salt lodged 
on the stone at that height, and marked by a zone of damp ; the heat of the day would 
evaporate the moisture, and cause tbe salt to crystallize, -which would split the stone 
just as the freezing of water in cold climates produces the same injury to buildings. 



1834.] Note on Inscription of the Allahabad Column. 115 

We have however before us what remains at this time of its interesting 
contents, and must hasten to make them known for the satisfaction of 
the antiquarian and the Sanscrit scholar. There are, as Lieut. Burt has 
fully described, three principal types of inscription, exclusive of the 
modern Persian sculpture. 

The two first and most important I have carefully reduced from the 
facsimiles presented to the Asiatic Society, so as to suit the pages of the 
Journal. — The third, No. 3 of Lieut. Burt, consists merely of detached 
names and dates in modern Nagari, Bhaka, Marhatta, &c, and though the 
longest, is the least interesting, and is not worth the trouble of tran- 
scribing. A few of the dates are enumerated in the foregoing account. 

No. 2, as pointed out by Lieut. Burt, is identical in character with the 
Gya inscription decyphered by Dr. Wilkins. It was made over at the 
meeting of the Society to Captain Troyer, Secretary of the Sanscrit 
College, who has been fortunate enough, with the aid of Madhava Ray 
Pandit, the librarian, to decypher many parts of it : and their examina- 
tion has developed the names of several princes, and particularly of 
Chandragupta, perhaps the one most earnestly desired by the Indian 
antiquarian, because of its connection with an epoch in the histories of 
the western world. Dr. Wilkins had imagined the Gya character to 
be as ancient as the Christian era, which will be confirmed, if the 
Chandragupta spoken of be the same of whom Arrian speaks. Some 
doubt may again arise from the discovery of his name on a monument at 
Allahabad, with regard to the position of his capital, a point that has only 
lately been considered to be set at rest by the identification of Palibothra 
with Pataliputra or Patna. The name of Samudragupta as a fourth de- 
scendant of Chandragupta is not found in the Hindu catalogues of the 
Maurya dynasty, although there can be no doubt of the reading on the 
column. I have extracted the name and titles of Chandragupta, and 
placed them in the plate under the alphabetical key, to shew that it 
has been faithfully rendered by the pandit. 

One other Raja of the same name occurs among the Ajmeer or Raj- 
putana princes in the seventh century, but here also the descendants 
are of different appellations. The only argument which occurs to me 
as favoring the latter date, is tbe great similarity between the 
Sanscrit character of the inscription and the Tibetan, (noticed also by 
Lieutenant Burt) : the alphabet of which, according to Mr. Csoma de 
Koros, was adopted from the Sanscrit in the seventh century. Many 
letters are indeed identical and of the same phonic value, as will be 
evident on comparing the following with the alphabet in plate VI : — 

(Z kh, K\g,Z ch, & ch '^ j, ^ t, x^ d, *j n, y p, TQph,-!^ b,^v,^h,Xif y, 
Qi I, s\ sh ; also the whole of the vowel marks tt i, u, * e, v o : the sub- 



116 Note on Inscription No. \ of the Allahabad Column. [March, 

joined letters r and y; as, 5 dra and upya, and the vazur or sub- 
joined w or v, as ^ efo or do. 

Other similarities might be pointed out, but these are the most strik- 
ing : the mode of expressing the long a also at that period, by a short 
dash at the top of the letter, may explain the omission of this character 
in the Tibetan alphabet. Captain Troyer notices the omission of many 
letters* (gh,jh,$c.,) which are equally wanting in the Tibetan alphabet. 
However, the identity here noticed does not necessarily detract from the 
antiquity of the inscription, or prevent its applying to the earlier 
Chadragupta ; since the same character was probably in use for many 
centuries. When or where it gave place to the more modern Nagari 
would be a curious and interesting subject of investigation. 

However ancient the inscription No. 2 may be, it is very certain that 
the character No. 1 boasts a still higher antiquity. This may I think 
be proved — first, by the position it occupies on the Allahabad column, as 
well as on that of Delhi, called Feroz's lath : in both it is the principal, 
and as it were the original inscription, the others being subsequently ad- 
ded, perhaps on some occasions of triumph or visit to the spot. Secondly, 
the simplicity of this character and the limited number of radicals, denote 
its priority to the more complicated and refined system afterwards 
adopted ; while thirdly, the very great rarity of its occurrence on ancient 
monuments, and the perfect ignorance which prevails regarding its origin 
in the earliest Persian historians, who mention the lath of Feroz 
Shah, confirm its belonging to an epoch beyond the reach of native 
research. The only other inscriptions identical in character which have 
been met with in India, are I believe that of the lath of Bhim Sen in 
Sarunf, and that of the Khandgiri rocks in Orissa, of which a facsimile 
is given by Mr. Stirling in the Researches, vol. xv. page 314. The 
Ellora and other cave inscriptions appear to be considerably modified 
from it, and in fact more to resemble No. 2 of the Allahabad column ; 
and the latter inscription has so many points of resemblance, that it 
may be fairly traced to a derivation from the former. 

It is not yet ascertained, whether the language this character, No. 1, 
expresses is Sanscrit. The rare occurrence of double letters, the omission 
of the initial Sri; the want of any symbol with a subjoined y to correspond 
with m, the inflexion of the possessive case which occurs so repeatedly, 
and is so distinct, in the Sanscrit text No. 2 ; are arguments against the 
supposition : but the similarity of the character and of the vowel marks 
are as much in its favor. 

* See page 118. 

+ Has any copy of this inscription been published ? Mr. Stirling mentions it, but 
I do not find it in the Researches. 



1834.] Note on Inscription No. 1 of the Allahabad Column. 117 

Mr. Stirling has suggested as a remarkable circumstance that many 
letters of the No. 1 type resemble Greek characters, and he instances 
the " ou, sigma, lambda, chi, delta, epsilon, and a something closely 
resembling the figure of the digamma." This resemblance is, however, 
entirely accidental, and the genus of the alphabet can I think be satis- 
factorily shewn to have no connection whatever with the Greek. To 
enable us to determine this point, I have taken the trouble of analyzing 
carefully the whole of the inscription from Lieut. Burt's manuscript, 
classifying those forms which seemed to be derived from the same radix. 

Proceeding in this manner I soon perceived that each radical 
letter was subject to five principal inflections, the same in all, corre- 
sponding in their nature and application with the five vowel marks of 
the ancient Sanscrit No. 2. This circumstance alone would be suffici- 
ent to prove that the alphabet is of the Sanscrit family, whatever the 
language may be. In the accompanying plate (PI. V.) I have ar- 
ranged the letters and their inflections so as to exhibit every form which 
occurs on the column, placing numbers against each, expressive of 
the frequency of its occurrence. From a cursory inspection of this plate 
it will immediately be seen that the supposed sigma is but the first inflec- 
tion of the 13th letter : the epsilon and digamma, are the same inflections 
of the 1 8th and 1 1 th characters : while the ou and lambda ( 1 and s>) are 
themselves subject to all the inflections like the rest, and are conse- 
quently primitive or simple letters, of a system quite different from the 
Greek. 

The number of alphabetical symbols is small, compared with those 
of modern systems founded on the Sanscrit : of the thirty, several have 
not been found subject to inflection ; these may be initial vowels. The 
circle, square, and triangle are of a smaller size in general than the 
rest, and may be affixes : but of this and of the powers of the letters, 
I cannot pretend to offer any conjectures at the present moment. 
Many of the literal forms undoubtedly bear a close resemblance to those 
of No. 2, and to those of the Mahabalipur alphabet, decyphered by 
Dr. Babington ; and one might almost be tempted to point out succes- 
sively the s, d, dr, v, b, ch, j, g, t, I, from their analogy to the known 
letters in the foregoing scheme. It is better however to say no- 
thing on this head, until we are prepared to apply the scheme to the 
unravelling of a portion of the legend. For this purpose, one word offers 
a very convenient test: it is the initial word of both parts of the Allaha- 
bad inscription (see pi. V.) ; — of all the four inscriptions on the Delhi 
column ; and it also occurs a second time on the east side. I have insert- 
ed it at the foot of Plate VI. It will probably be found to be some term 
of invocation, though essentially different from the Sri of the Hindus. 



118 Remarks upon the second Inscription [March, 

As one mode of aiding the investigation of the powers of the un- 
known alphabet, supposing the language expressed to be Sanscrit, I 
had the letters in a page of the Bhatti Kdvya classified and counted, to 
compare with the enumeration in Plate VI. They were as follows : 



7T 


93 times 


*T 


33 times 


■sr 


9 times 


*T 


3 times 


S 


times 


V 


57 


T 


30 


T 


9 


T 


3 


* 





"5T 


51 


^ 


25 


^ 


6 


^ 


2 


? 





* 


51 


'ST 


22 


^ 


6 


^ 


2 


^g" 





3f 


45 


•q 


15 


*T 


5 


13 


1 


W 





^ 


44 


^ 


14 


V 


9 


<?> 


1 


^ 





^ 


43 


3i 


12 


W 


5 


^ 


1 


^T 






*? 41 vf 11 ST 3 ^ 1 

I also made the same classification of one page of the Feroz lath 
inscription, which I found to agree pretty well with the table prepared 
from that of Allahabad. There is one marked difference, which may be 
due perhaps to the copyist : — I allude to the separation of the words in 
the former, which does not appear to be the case in Lieut. Burt's tran- 
script. 

It would require an accurate acquaintance with many of the learned 
languages of the East, as well as perfect leisure and abstraction from 
other pursuits, to engage upon the recovery of this lost language ; but 
when its simplicity of vocables is compared with the difficulties of the 
Persepolitan, or cuneiform character, lately deciphered by Grote- 
fend and St. Martin, or the more abstruse hieroglyphics of Egypt at- 
tempted by Young andCHAMPOLLiON, it seems almost a stigma on the 
learned of our own country that this should have remained so long an 
enigma to scholars ; and the object of the present notice is to invite fresh 
attention to the subject, lest the indefatigable students of Bonn or 
Berlin should run away with the honor of first making it known to the 
learned world. 



III. — Remarks upon the second Inscription of the Allahabad Pillar. By 
Captain A. Troyer, A. D. C. Sec. Sanscrit College, fyc. 
[Read at the Meeting of the 20th March.] 
An alphabet of the inscription No. 2, copied from the Allahabad 
pillar, compared with the Deva-nagari, was compiled by Madhava Rao, 
the head Librarian of the Sanscrit College. It will be seen from the 
annexed copy of it, (Plate VI.) that eight of the consonants, namely, 
*T (g'h), w (j'h), ST (n), S (t'),V (t'h), ^ (d'), ^ (d'h,) and three of the 
vowels T T ^ 0> h u,) could not be found. 



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1 834.] of tie Allahabad Pillar. 1 1 9 

The alphabet of the Allahabad inscription offers certainly a great 
apparent similarity to that of a part of the Gya inscription, examined 
by Dr. Wilkins, [As. Res. vol. i. page 279,] as pointed out by Lieut. 
Burt, of the Engineers. It almost entirely coincides with that of some 
inscriptions on the rocks of Mahamalaipur, (vide Trans, of Royal 
As. Soc. vol. ii. part 1, Plates 13, 14.) Notwithstanding this 
similarity common to a great number of Indian alphabets, it is not yet 
easy to fix the value of each letter of an ancient writing, in such a 
manner as to preclude the possibility of a doubt. 

It was principally the alphabet of the Mahamalaipur inscriptions that 
enabled Madhava Rao to transcribe in Devanagari characters, the 
remains of the inscription copied from the pillar at Allahabad. This 
consists of 30 lines. More than a moiety of the first 13 lines is entire- 
ly pealed off ; the other 1 7 are fuller, but evidently more or less cut off 
at the right extremity, and all with many intervening chasms. 

An even slight examination of the transcript made in Devanagari 
characters is sufficient to find a number of Sanscrit words, and the 
whole inscription may without hesitation be pronounced to be San- 
scrit. In the accompanying paper, the translation of the Sanscrit 
words, which could without difficulty be found in each line, is given. 
Scarce any change has been made in the words of the transcript, except 
in a few instances, such a correction as is too often indispensable even 
in not inaccurate manuscripts. These few changes are marked above 
the lines. 

As the frequent and wide disjunction of words, the terminations of 
which are mostly wanted, renders it impossible to fix the relative sense 
of each word, as well as to determine the general purport of the whole, 
any conjectural labour in changing vocables and supplying deficiencies 
w r ould have been hopeless. 

So much only appears indubitable from the words themselves, that 
they are encomiastic epithets of a Raja, the name of whom, if satisfac- 
torily made out, might furnish an historical datum of no small import- 
ance. 

Names are really found in the 17th, 18th, and 21st lines which seem 
insignificant; not so those in the 25th and 26th line, which happen to be 
more complete and connected than the others : thus we have in the twenty- 
fifth line ; — " of the great-grandson of Sri Chandragupta, the great 
Raja, of the grandson of the great Raja Sri Yagnakacha, of the son of 
the great Raja, the first (supreme) Raja (Adhiraja) Sri Chandragupta •" 
and in the twenty-sixth line, " of the son of the daughter of Lich-ch'ha 
Vikriti of the family of Mahadivva Kumara. — of the great Raja, the 
supreme Raja Sri Samudragupta, whose fame caused by the conquest 



120 Remarks on the second Inscription [March, 

of the whole earth, increasing and expanding throughout the whole 
ground of the earth, was equalling Tridasapati (Indra)." 

The name of Chandragupta repeated here twice, as that of the great- 
grandfather, and that of the father of a Raja, cannot fail to excite atten- 
tion. 

According to the Hindee genealogies of the Vishnupurana and other 
books, Chandragupta, a son, or at least a relative, of Nanda, founded 
a dynasty (called by his name, and also the M miry a dynasty, from his 
mother Mura), of 10 kings, who reigned during 137 years from the year 
1598 to 1735 of the Kaliyug, (from 1504 to 1367 before our era,) in 
Magadha, the capital of which was Palibothra. It needs scarce be 
repeated that the Indian name Chandragupta (the moon-protected) was 
found to be the same with Sandra-cottus, or Sandrokuptos mentioned 
by the Greek historians. It is also known that from the similarity of these 
names, an identity of the persons of the contemporary of Alexander 
and ally of Seleucus Nicator, and of the before-mentioned founder of 
the Indian dynasty of that name was supposed, and that a whole system 
of Indian chronology was made dependent upon this supposition. 

No disquisition upon this important and extensive subject will here 
be expected, so much less as the imperfect remains of the inscription 
here examined furnish no vestige of a date, nor any other data which 
may lead our conjectures towards, if not fix, a historical fact. It would 
be adventurous to assert that the Chandragupta of line 25th, was the 
founder of the Maurya dynasty : all that appears in the inscription is, 
that a Raja Samudragupta (the sea-protected) was a descendant in the 
4th generation of a Chandragupta. 

It is further to be remarked, that the name of the second Chandragupta 
and that of Samudragupta are joined with the title Adhirdja, supreme 
Raja, and not with that of Chakrctvartti, or emperor of the world, always 
assumed by the ruler of India. We may therefore infer that the 
Adhirajas of the inscription did not pretend to universal, although but 
titular, sovereignty ; but may have been only counted among the many 
Rajas who at all times divided India among themselves. It was pro- 
bably by their flatterers that the conquest of a few provinces was made 
the conquest of the whole world ; in which expression, found entire among 
the ruins of so many others, nothing else but a monument of empty vanity 
was preserved. 



Translation of Sanscrit Words of the Allahabad Inscription. 
Line I. 

II. — 1. minding sacrifice of the gods. 2. for the sake of a better state. 

III. — 3. counting the low. 4. knowing good qualities. 5. in heaven. .. 

6 and 7. enjoying a poet's fame and a kingdom. .. .. .. 



1834.] of the Allahabad Pillar. 121 

Line IV 8. with servants and family 

V 9. said by his son 

VI. — 10. in his actions of a never changing mind 

VII. — 11. Most valiant, whose foot approaching duly I salute. 

VIII. — 12. in the battle, with his own arm vanquishing always. 

IX. — 13. with high. . . . expanded — minds 

X. 

XL 

XII. — 14. fame as seen by men (illumed) by the rays of the moon.. . 

XIII. — 15. active in the road, a poet's intellect and power proceeding. . . 

XIV. — 16. of Brahma. ... of the dextrous in hundred avatars — his own 

arm's mighty strength praised. 

XV. — 17. arrow 18. family .... 19. good name 

XVI 20. Mahendra's worshipper. . 21. Mahendra's mountain. 

XVII. — 22. Nilaraja to be known by words. . preserverofelephant'sarmor 

Ugrasena, Devarashta. . 23. from Dhananjaya down all southern char 
tered kings taking. 

XVIII. — 24. Vamatilana gadatta Chandra Vasu .. 

. . 25. all giving rent. 

XIX. . . . . . . 26. by neighbouring kings. 

XX. — 27. destroyer of Prachanda sasana (of a terrible commander) 

28. Destroyer of a kingly family,. . 29. whose fame is spread 

throughout all countries, son of a god. 

XXI. — 30. all governing his own humble faith. 

giver of one hundred thousand. 

XXIL— 31. ground of battle, fame of kings, 32. Of 

unpararelled faith, . . who by the strength of his own arm conquered more 
than one king. 

XXIII. — 33. Lord of the unfortunate. . .. 34. of him who was 

inaugurated the most eminent of poets. 

XXIV. — 35. sharp intellect, high understanding. . Gandharva — Tridasapati 

(Indra) 36. By heavenly poetical works composed by learned 

men of him who was inaugurated the most eminent of Rajas . . 37. of a mag- 
nanimous conduct. 

■ XXV. — 38. of him whose mind is formed by time and action only in the 

palace of the world .. of the great-grandson of Chandragupta, of the 
grandson of the great Raja Sri Yagnakacha, and of the son of the great 
Raja, the first (supreme) Raja (Adhiraja) Sri Chandragupta. 

XXVI. — 39. of the son of the daughter of Lich-ch'ha Vikriti, of the 

family of Mahadivya Kumara . . . . of the great Raja, the supreme 
Raja (Adhiraja) Sri Samudragupta, whose fame caused by the conquest 
of the whole earth increased and expanded throughout the whole ground of 
the earth was equalling Tridasapati, (Indra.) 

XXVII. — 40. going to the house 41 gift by arm's strength, 

favor, weapons, words increase over and over, all-serving, jewel desiring fame 

XXVIII. — 41. Pasupati (Siva) purifying the three worlds. 

XXIX 43. Of the son skilled in peace and war young 

prince. 

XXX. — 44. the supreme king 45. the chief of punishment 

(literally the chief of staffs, perhaps police-officer )' by Tilabhadanta. 



122 Remarks on the second Inscription [March, 



Transcript of the Allahabad inscription, No. 3. in Deva-Nagari characters. 

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f*W 3T*ft 3J**W*T<T^T*^ 

44 45 

30 <Hty«M TTCW? T^T TOJ* WR ^51*1*1+ fa <?!*<** I 

[The figures in the interlineations point out the words (beneath them) 
translated in the foregoing page : the letters similarly situated are suggested 
corrections of the text.] 



124 Journal of a Tour [March, 

IV. — Extracts from a Journal kept by Captain F. T. Grant, of the 
Manipiir Levy, during a Tour of Inspection on the Manipur Frontier, 
along the course of the Ningthee River, fyc. in January 1832*. 
Marching Stations and Distances. 

Tuobal, 11 miles ; a depot of grain. 

Huerok, 8 miles; inhabitants came from Tiperah 100 years ago. 

Muchi, 9 miles ; a Naga village on the most western range of Mu- 
rung hills. 

Kolbang, 12 miles; hence three roads lead to the Kuboo valley. Violent 
hoar frost on the 15th January. Lieut. Pemberton has described this 
road from actual survey. 

Kwatobee, 10 miles; good road. Supari nut and cocoa nut trees were 
planted here by the raja's grandfather. 

Khondong, 5 miles ; very good road. The people of Kuboo escaped from 
the opposite side of the Ningthee. 

Maylung nala, 9 miles; road passes through a forest of keoo, teak, saul, 
cotton, and other trees: innumerable and recent tracks of the wild 
elephant, tiger, rhinoceros, bear, boar, cattle, and deer of vari- 
ous descriptions. Six wild elephants came to the nala together to 
drink; they were of a very large size. 

Numphookam nala, 7 miles, east of the first range of Angoching hills. 

Num-sing-yeet, 8 miles; a nala east of the second range. 

Source of the Helaoo nala, 1 3 miles ; road good : crossed the highest 
range of the Angoching hills. 

Helaoo, 12 miles ; on the banks of the Ningthee. 

The foregoing route across the Angoching hills, I consider equally 

good with those to Mulphoo and Sunayachil, and it might with very 

little trouble be made practicable for every description of cattle. Not 

having been travelled for many years, and never before by Europeans, 

it is at present impeded by large trees, which have fallen across it, and 

also by bamboos which unite from both sides in many places, at about 

* The above journal was some time since placed in our hands by Mr. George 
Swinton, late Chief Secretary to Government. The new facts which it communi- 
cates to the geography of Ava and Manipur, are, the journey along the bank of the 
Ningthee for a space of about 40 miles between two points already well known ; 
viz. Mulfoo, on the north, and Saway Chit, opposite to the Burmese post Gendah, 
on the south, which place is connected with Ava by Dr. Richardson's route, pub- 
lished in the second volume of the Journal, page 59. The navigation of the river 
between the same points is also new, and the return route through the Moflong 
nala, which connects the Kubboo valley with the banks of the Ningthee, finding 
its way through the Angoching hills, which form the eastern boundary of the val- 
ley, separating it from the Ningthee. — Ed. 



1834.] along the Manipur Frontier. 125 

seven or eight feet high above it ; and through which my elephants 
were obliged to break a passage for themselves. It possesses an ad- 
vantage over the before-mentioned routes in a more abundant supply 
of water. The whole of the hills throughout this route to the Ning- 
thee are covered with a dense bamboo jungle, which grows to an im- 
mense size. In that part of the last day's march where the road runs 
along the bed of the Helaoo nala, there is a second road on the 
bank just above, which is at present so overgrown with forest and 
jungle as to be impracticable. Just opposite Helaoo, a large nala 
called the Moo, Num-moo, or Muwa, falls into the Ningthee, in the 
bed of which the Kubos tell me, gold is more abundant than in the lat- 
ter : the Kubos also say that gold is found in the sands of all the small 
streams which join the Ningthee on its eastern side. The road from Tum- 
moo direct to Helaoo joins this one at about two miles distance from 
the latter village : it is much shorter, but so very bad as to have ob- 
tained the name of the " Noong-chongbi Lumpee," (stone-leaping 
road:) loaded coolies can however manage to travel it. Some who left 
Tummoo, the day after I left Khondong, with grain, arrived the day 
before me at Helaoo, being only three days on the road. 

Halted the 23rd, 24th, and 25th January. Visited the cultivation, 
which is extensive in proportion to the number of inhabitants. They 
are now busily employed in transplanting their cold- weather crop : they 
have two crops in the year, one in the rains, and one in the cold sea- 
son ; the former is close to the hills, to which the annual inundation of the 
Ningthee does not extend : the latter in the valleys, (if I may so call 
them,) formed by the bends of the river, by which they are annually 
overflowed, leaving large jheels on its retiring, that at the present time 
of the year are sufficiently dried up to allow of their being cultivated. 
On the evening of the 25th, went to see the process of washing the 
sands of the Ningthee for gold: it occupied two men for about a quar- 
ter of an hour, and the quantity found was about a grain troy- weight. 

The road from Helaoo to Mulphoo, about 36 miles, or four marches, 
runs along the valley of the Ningthee, and might also be made available 
for all military purposes : elephants have travelled the whole way from 
Manipur. 

31st January. Sent my elephants and coolies round to meet me at 
Sunayachil, intending to proceed myself to that place by water, as no 
boats larger than canoes are procurable ; two of these fastened at about 
four feet apart by small timbers, and a bambu platform laid over 
the whole, form a raft sufficiently large to hold sixty men ; on which I 
mean to proceed. A raft of this description would answer well to cross 
troops, were boats not procurable. The current of the Ningthee, at the 
q 2 



126 Journal of a Tour [March, 

present season, is very slow, certainly not much more than a mile 
an hour. 

1st February. — Kneesung, which I reached in five hours. A short 
distance below Mulphoo a small range of hills crosses the river, compos- 
ed of a reddish sand, with layers of pebbles running across it : in the 
rains the river saps the bottom, and carries away portions of the whole 
face annually ; the greater the portion of the hill thus carried off, the 
more abundant is the gold found at Chanda-sneek (ghat), a short dis- 
tance below it. A number of Kubos were busily employed in washing 
for gold, when I passed the latter place. Gold is only found in the sand, 
where mixed with pebbles and gravel. For the number and names of vil- 
lages passed this day, see the sketch. 

2nd — Halted. Received a visit from the Burmese command- 
ant of the stockade on the opposite side of the river ; his object was 
to see the English Bo-meng, never having seen such a monster before ! 
He was very inquisitive as to the object of Captains Jenkins and Pem- 
berton's trip. I made him a few presents, with which, particularly a 
couple of bottles of brandy, he was delighted and took his leave. Ano- 
ther chief passed down during the day with two boats and about thirty 
followers ; he had been called up to Sumjok in consequence of my visit 
to this quarter : there were piled in the boats a number of what I at 
first took to be muskets, but which I, with the assistance of my tele- 
scope, discovered to be nothing more than branches of trees and bam- 
boos made to resemble them ; the actual number of muskets being only 
three. My coming it appears has created considerable alarm, and given 
rise to the most exaggerated reports ; amongst others that I intended to 
place Manipur thanas at the Noajeri hills : on my trip up to 
Mulphoo, I could hardly discover a soul on the opposite side of the 
river ; they appear now however to have got over their alarm, and I am 
visited by persons from all the villages as I pass down. A dozen large 
boats, which were detained above Mulphoo for some days, until my in- 
tentions were ascertained, also passed down in full sail. A considera- 
ble traffic is carried on between the capital of Ava and the villages on 
the Ningthee up as far as the Sing-Phos ; the latter giving grain in 
return for bunats, coral beads, &c. &c. 

Whilst some of my people were in the village on the opposite side of 
the river, a woman was carried off from the centre of it by a tiger : 
the inhabitants say it is the fourth occurrence of the kind which has 
taken place within the last two months. The Kubos do not appear at 
all alarmed at the vicinity of these animals, as they say the instances 
are very rare of their attacking or destroying human beings ; if however 
such once happens, it is almost certain to be continued, and the only al- 



1834.] along the Manipur Frontier. 127 

ternative is to quit the vicinity of the place where it occurs ; they do 
not attribute the recurrence to a relish for human flesh required from 
having once tasted it, but to the displeasure of the " Laee" (Deity) of 
the place ; they endeavour to deprecate his anger by offerings on the 
first occurrence, but on a second taking place, they conclude he is im- 
placable, and take it as a warning to remove. The village in question 
is only waiting to collect in the crops now on the ground and flit. 

3rd — Mung-ya, two and a half hours. Passed a small nala on 
the Burmese side of the river, called Khywook-ma-Kywoong, at the 
mouth of which a number of people were employed washing the sand 
for gold. Was visited during the day by nearly the whole of the in- 
habitants, men, women and children, of the village, on the opposite 
side of the river ; who came, as they said, to see the wonder ! an Eu- 
ropean. Much cannot be said in favour of the modesty of the Kubos. 
I saw both this day and yesterday numbers both of men and women 
bathing at not ten paces distant from each other, with not so much 
covering even as a fig leaf. Unmarried girls observe, I am told, some 
little decorum in dress ; married women, none ! 

4th — Helaoo five and a half hours. The current in one or two 
places somewhat more rapid than yesterday. — Passed three parties wash- 
ing for gold, one at a place called Nan-yen-sneek on the Burmese 
side of the river, and two on the Manipur one, near Eng-da-baoong. 

5th — Maloo, seven hours. Immediately below Helaoo the Ningthee 
is joined by a river of considerable size, called the Moo, Nummoo, or 
Muwa, coming directly from the east and Neojeri hills. Gold is 
said to be more abundant in it than in the Ningthee, in this neigh- 
bourhood ; but not equal to the quantity found in the more northern 
parts of the latter, in the Sing-Phos country. The Kubos say that 
gold is not sought for in the Ningthee itself, below Helaoo, but only 
in the different hill streams which fall into it on the eastern side. As 
usual, since I left Mulphoo, I was visited by numbers of the inhabitants 
from the different villages as I passed down : my communications with 
these people leave not a doubt on my mind but what they would be 
happy to change their masters: indeed many of them took opportunities 
of slily telling me so, and expressed disappointment at my not proceed- 
ing to the Neojeri hills to place thanas. 

6th — Brought to at a small nala called Khywook-kan-khywoong, six 
hours, no viDage. The current generally very slow, in some places al- 
most still. Passed but one village during the day, and that on 
the opposite side of the river; it belongs to the knight of the " bran- 
ches and bamboos," who passed down whilst I was at Knesung. At 
a short distance below this village is an extraordinary hill called Swe- 



128 Journal of a Tour [March, 

ba-leng, the residence of a Laee or Deity, and. by the Kubos's account a 
most jealous one he is : on approaching it, my Kubo boatmen put on 
their dhoties, being previously literally naked ! and warned my Ma- 
nipurees against making use of improper or obscene language, or 
spitting in the river whilst passing the precincts of his godship's resi- 
dence. The infringement of these warnings they assured them might 
be attended with the most serious consequences to the whole party, 
and many were the instances of ship or rather boat wreck which they 
adduced to prove it. They also requested the Manipurees to give 
over a game, at which they were amusing themselves, as continuing it 
would doubtless be offensive. The Manipurees, who are not a jot 
less superstitious than the Kubos, implicitly followed the advice given, 
and put on the most serious countenances ; indeed the greater part of 
them had previously heard the fame of Swe-ba-leng. The hill, on 
which are several small temples, rises abruptly from the bed of the 
river, forming a natural wall of about three hundred feet perpendicular 
height, and is of a yellowish sand formation, based on rocks of hard 
grey sandstone : it appears the sudden commencement of a range, differ- 
ing from the other hills in its vicinity, being free of trees, with which 
the others are overgrown, and running in a succession of cones to the 
south-west, as far as the eye could reach. No continuance of any of a 
similar appearance to the south-east. The face of the hill turns the 
river suddenly from a southerly to a westerly direction, in which it 
does not continue for above two hundred or three hundred yards, when 
the hills cause it again suddenly to resume its former course. The ri- 
ver is here very narrow, and just previous to its resuming its course to 
the south, a tremendous block of rock juts nearly half across, which 
repels the stream backwards and causes in the rains a whirlpool, which 
the Kubos say may be heard roaring at some miles distance, and 
which they attribute to the pranks of the " Laee ;" not the sudden 
checks which the current meets. In the rains the navigation past this 
spot must be very dangerous to any but a Kubo acquainted with its lo- 
calities ; at the present season, however, it is a perfect mill pond. Some 
lime kilns were in the neighbourhood, but whether the lime-stone is pro- 
cured from the Swe-ba-leng hill, or where, no person in the boat could 
inform me. I did not land to examine them, they being on the Bur- 
mese side of the river. No visitors during to-day, which is owing no 
doubt to my having now entered Ningthee-Rakha's jurisdiction. The 
village just above Swe-ba-leng is called Tan-beng-goong ; the chief of it 
is evidently very anxious to appear formidable in my eyes : he had has- 
tily run up a loose fence of bamboos, plantain trees, and such like along 
the river front of his village, which he no doubt thought I would take 



1834.] along the Manipur Frontier. 129 

for a strong stockade, he also made a tremendous hubbub with songs, 
trumpets, &c. whilst I was passing; the village is a good-sized one, con- 
taining about eighty houses. 

Eleven hours more brought me to Sunayachil. At this season the 
current is very trifling. On the eastern side sand-banks extend for 
four hundred yards into the bed of the river, offering favourable points 
for the crossing of troops, which at this season of the year might be 
effected on rafts, were boats not procurable. Both sides of the Ningthee 
are overgrown with dense forests, except on the sides of villages : the 
high road from Gendah to the present capital of Sumpok runs to the east 
of the small range of hills, which skirts the Burmese bank of the 
Ningthee. 

10th February — Embarked in my dingy, accompanied by two 
others, to return up the Ningthee to Yuwa, where it is joined by the 
Maglung. I was rather confined for room ; indeed, regularly packed, 
being unable to move hands or feet after once being seated in the boat. 
Reached Wegadza in six hours, where my people ran up a covering, for 
me to pass the night, of branches and leaves : a precaution rendered 
necessary as a protection against the heavy dew which soaks through 
every thing exposed to it. The fogs which continue till 9a.m. are also so 
heavy as to render indistinct, objects at fifteen or twenty paces distance. 

11th — Reached Yuwa in three hours, being in all nine hours from 
Sunayachil ; or only two hours more than it took the boat to go the 
same distance with the current. Two men were all that rowed the boat 
up. This will give an idea of the slackness of the stream. After 
proceeding up the Maglung for three hours, put to for the night. The 
Maglung discharges itself with some force into the Ningthee, and as 
before observed, a boat or raft coming out of it would be carried with- 
out any exertion nearly to the opposite side of the latter, in which 
there is no perceptible current. After once getting fairly into the 
Maglung, the current is moderate, and the waters shoal, not more than 
two feet in depth ; its course during this day nearly from west to east. 
Put to for the night on the sand-bank and enjoyed a coal fire, of which 
mineral there was abundance lying about. The tracks of wild beasts 
of every description were numerous and recent in the sand. 

12th — At day-light this morning, was roused by a loud but 
not very harmonious concert, the performers being elephants, ti- 
gers, bears, boars, and deer. About three hours after starting reached 
the site of a village named Yang-num, at which was formerly a Ma- 
nipur thana ; near the site of the thana is a peepul tree, planted, 
the Kubos say, by the Manipurees, another proof that Kubo belong- 
ed to them at a former period. I landed for the purpose of examin- 

R 



130 Journal of a Tour [March, 

ing salt wells in this village : the springs are copious and in full play, 
sufficiently so to feed a small stream which flows from them into the 
Maglung ; the water in the centre of the well is nearly as salt as brine, 
and on the sides, where it has been exposed to the sun for any time, 
fully so : in the bed of the river, immediately opposite the village, are 
also salt springs, which rise in bubbles to the surface of ^the water. 
The village, though not inhabited for many years, is perfectly free of 
grass and jungle, the salt wells rendering it a favourite resort for wild 
animals. In two hours from the village, reached the site of the second 
Num-mo, where also are salt springs ; and in another hour, the junc- 
tion of the Tadoi Khynong nala, where I put to for the night ; from 
hence to where the road to Sunayachil crosses the Tadoi Khynong is 
five hours' journey. The current during the day generally very slow. 
Passed three rapids, each of about thirty yards continuance, but the fall 
so trifling as not to render it necessary to unload the boats : some of 
my people were generally walking and amusing themselves in search- 
ing for turtles' eggs, which are so abundant that the boat might have 
been almost loaded with them. In several places found an ore con- 
taining a light-coloured metal, of what nature I have not skill enough 
to determine, but have kept specimens (iron pyrites) ; coal also abundant. 
The Kubos say it is petrified charcoal of teak, in which opinion I am 
inclined to agree, as I saw several blocks of that wood, which were un- 
dergoing the change, parts of which were burnt and appeared the" same 
as the coal : total time travelling this day six hours. 

13th — Roused by a concert similar to that of yesterday morn- 
ing ; a bear, which had been growling nearly the whole night on 
the opposite side of the river, came in the morning to have a look at 
us. Before I could get my gun ready to salute him, he walked off. 
Three hours after leaving yesterday's halting place, reached a rapid 
called Khyuk-taeeng, where the boats were obliged to be unloaded ; 
and after about three hours more, a second, where a like precaution was 
necessary. Neither of these rapids is of a greater length than 40 yards : 
the last which is named Chum-ka-te, is the worst, being, as far as I 
could judge, a fall of about 10 feet; its difficulties are increased by large 
and loose rocks, over which it rushes. The obstacles offered to the na- 
vigation of the Maglung by these rapids might I conceive be overcome 
by digging small canals, for which there is sufficient room : even as it is, 
however, the river is perfectly practicable for dingees, such as the one 
I am embarked on, and would be more so were the rocks in the bed 
removed, which I understand the raja intends doing : the only precau- 
tion necessary is to unload and carry the loads for about 40 yards. Im- 
mediately above and below the rapids the river is as still nearly as a 



1834.] along the Manipur Frontier. 131 

pond. A short distance above the last rapid, reached the site of a village 
called Chum-ka-te, and put to for the night: here also are salt springs. 
Total time moving this day, eight hours. 

14th — Reached the junction of the Kumbut and Maglung rivers 
without meeting any impediment from rapids ; the point where 
the above rivers unite is about eight miles east of Wetup, and in the 
Kubo valley. The village of Mo, from whence is the ascent of the pass 
leading to Pa-tcbe-ne, across the Angoching, is distant from hence about 
one and a half mile. East at the last-named village are most extensive 
salt springs, which supply the whole of the southern division of Kubo, 
and Nga villages to the west of it, with salt. Total time moving this 
day, seven and half hours. 

N. B. — The general width of the valley of the Maglung is about two 
miles, that of the river about 120 yards : its course upwards nearly east 
and west, except where it rounds the bases of the different ranges of 
hills, which it does by turning for a short distance to the north ; in places 
throughout its course it is confined by a steep or abrupt face of rock. 
The hills from both sides terminate at, and slope gradually down to, its 
bed, leaving a gap for its egress to the Ningthee*. I have no doubt a 
road might be made through the valley : it must necessarily, however, 
be very circuitous, and the river crossed frequently ; drawbacks which 
would more than counterbalance the advantages to be derived from it. 
That the river might, with great advantage, be made available for trans- 
porting grain and other stores by boats from the Kubo valley to the 
Ningthee, my trip up it places beyond a doubt. The shore on either 
side is covered to the water's edge with a forest of teak, saul, keu, 
cotton, (semul,) wood oil, (gurjun,) and other noble trees, similar to 
those of the Kubo valley, and actually swarms with wild beasts, of the 
descriptions already mentioned in this journal ; throughout the whole 
course of the river through the Angoching hills, there is not a space of 
ten yards free of paths made by them down to the water, which gives 
the idea of a crowded population. In the neighbourhood of the Ning- 
thee, fish are most abundant ; the Manipurees (inordinate fish-eaters) 
who accompanied me, were regularly satiated with it : amongst others, 
I recognized the roo muchlee, cutla, mirga, kulbause, poontea, large 
and small, bowali, soli, mullet, pufta, gurri, and various others of 
which I know not the names ; but all of which my Bengalee servants 
recognised as similar to those found in the Surma at Sylhet. I had also 
prawns of an immense size brought me, and porpoises were amusing 
themselves in the Ningthee. 

* It is to be regretted that the course of the Maglung was not given in the sketch 
map from which Plate VII. is lithographed. — Ed. 

R 2 



132 Journal of a Tour [March, 

15th — Wetup, about eight miles west; road good, and similar 
to that throughout all parts of the Kubo valley. Just after starting 
I was joined by my suwaree elephant, the mahout still trembling 
from the effects of a fright he had received about three hours before. 
His story was, that being tired with riding, he had dismounted to recre- 
ate himself with a walk, having put his coolie to supply his place on the 
elephant ; he had got about twenty paces ahead, and was jogging along 
merrily, when he heard a rustling in a thick bush on the road side : 
thinking it caused by a deer, his curiosity led him to take a peep, and 
pushing aside some of the branches, a deer was there sure enough, but 
it was a dead one, and also a live tiger, which he was not prepared to 
expect ; the latter on being disturbed at his meal, gave a growl and 
raised his phiz to within a few inches of that of the terrified mahout, 
who retreated as fast as his fright would permit to the elephant, and 
took up a position on its tusks. The coolie also saw the tiger, and 
was in an equal fright with the mahout. The parties remained recon- 
noitring each other for about five minutes, when some sepoys and Kubos 
coming up, the tiger retreated, casting many an anxious look towards 
the bush which contained the remains of the deer, which were seized 
on as a good prize by the Kubos. The deer could only have been kill- 
ed a few hours, as it was perfectly fresh and still warm. The tiger had 
made a breakfast on one hind-quarter and part of the other ; a tolera- 
ble lunch, however, as the deer was a very large one of the species call- 
ed in Hindustan " Bara Singhi." 

16th — Num-muldah nala ; this road, having already been frequently 
reported on by Lieut. Pemberton, renders it unnecessary for me to say 
any thing about it. 

17th — Pausa ditto; ditto ditto. A village has been established 
here, since visited by Lieut. Pemberton, of six families, or about 
forty inhabitants. Just previous to my arrival, a poor Naga had been 
frightened entirely out of its wits, and half out of his life, by a tiger ; 
he was on his way from the hills to the village, close to which he had 
arrived, when he was surprized by a smart slap from behind on his most 
prominent and fleshy part, and at the same time a basket which he was 
carrying pulled from him. On turning round to see who it was that 
was taking such liberties, he saw a tiger walking off with the basket ; 
he did not stop to reclaim it, but made the best speed he could to the 
village, bearing marks of the truth of his story on the part before men- 
tioned. The head-man of the village told me, with a very serious face, 
that he was fearful the " Laee" was displeased in consequence of 
some omission of the proper respect and attention due him, and took 
this means of showing it : but he hoped to be able to appease him by 



1834.] along the Manipur Frontier. 133 

proper offerings ; which he proceeded forthwith to prepai'e in the shape 
of some of the best rice and vegetables procurable, cooked with great 
care and many prayers. The mess when ready he placed under a 
banyan tree on the outside of the village. If the " Laee" partook of 
it within the two succeeding days, it would be a sure sign his anger 
had evaporated. As he knew I was anxious, he said, regarding the 
welfare of the village, he would let me know in a day or two how mat- 
ters stood. 

18th — Tummoo ; here I was detained for three days in decid- 
ing a case, or rather three cases of witchcraft ! Motives of huma- 
nity induced me to undertake the business, as persons labouring under 
such an accusation become regular outcasts ; whom no village will 
receive within its precincts ; with whose children, male or female, no 
other family will intermarry ; the whole of whose property is seized by 
the village from which they are expelled. Exclusive of the above, the 
husbands of two of the women who were accused had been of the 
utmost service to me as guides in my different trips through Kubo, and 
otherwise useful from their intelligence and knowledge of the country. 
The favour with which I consequently treated them was I doubt not 
one of the causes of their misfortunes, and induced a wily old Kubo to 
intrigue to get them out of the way of his own prospects. Part of the 
penalties had already been inflicted previous to my arrival ,• they had 
been turned out of the village, and the greater part of their property- 
seized. On the morning after my arrival I assembled the whole village, 
the accused being also present, and tried to reason with them on the 
absurdity and folly of believing in witchcraft. I was laughed at for 
my pains, and told by one or two of the elders that I might as well 
try to convince them, there was no sun in heaven, as no witches. 
Finding all remonstrances and arguments were vain, I proposed the 
ordeal by water usual on such occasions, and called on the persons 
who were suffering under the supposed witches' incantations to stand 
forth, that they as well as the witches, as is customary, should un- 
dergo it. This caused a demur and whispering, which ended in a re- 
quest, begging me to defer farther proceedings till next day, to allow 
them to consult together on the subject, in which I acquiesced. I was 
almost assured that the same superstition which led to the belief in 
witchcraft would prevent any persons from coming forward to stand 
the proposed test, as the accuser, they say, unless actually convinced in 
his own mind of the truth of his accusation, is sure to draw down sig- 
nal punishment on himself and family for having made it ; besides he is 
heavily fined by the village, should the result of the ordeal be contrary 
to his assertion. Even were I disappointed in the hope, that no per- 



134 Note on the Chiru Antelope. [March, 

sons would come forward, I had no doubt the result cf the ordeal 
wo aid be favourable to the witches, as I should be present at it to see 
fair play. On the next morning, the villagers avowed that none of 
them would undergo the ordeal, and that consequently the accusation 
was unfounded : they returned all their property to the accused, re-instat- 
ed them in their houses, paid a small fine for having brought forward 
the charge without sufficient grounds, and gave a written acquittal, 
which I signed, to the supposed witches. Thus the matter was settled 
satisfactorily to all parties, except the old rascals who originated it and 
were obliged to return their ill -acquired spoil. I thought the persons 
who were accused would of course agree with me as to the absurdity of 
believing in witchcraft. I was however mistaken, as even they expressed 
their firm conviction of its existence with others, though themselves in- 
nocent. The ordeal on such occasions is as follows : The accuser and 
accused are bound separately, hands and feet, together, so as not to have 
the power of moving either ; they are placed on the inner edges of two 
canoes, which are placed a foot separate ; after some formalities, prayers, 
&c, are gone through, the canoes are suddenly pulled from under them ; 
if the accused be really a witch, she floats, and the accuser sinks : the 
case is reversed should the accusation be false. One end of the rope 
with which the hands and feet are bound, is sufficiently long to allow 
of its being held by a person in the boat, in readiness to pull up the 
party that sinks. 

The route from Tummoo to Manipur has already been reported 
on by Lieut. Pemberton ; it is only therefore necessary to observe, that 
since he travelled it, villages have been established at most of the 
places on the line of road, for the purpose of facilitating the communi- 
cation. 



V. — Note on the Chiru Antelope. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 
[Read at the meeting of the 20th instant.] 
Having recently received a fine female specimen of the Chiru Ante- 
lope of Tibet, besides two more very complete spoils of the male of the 
species, 1 conceive I cannot do better than throw into the form of a 
synoptical character (to avoid prolixity) all the leading and distinctive 
marks of this most rare and singular animal. 
Genus Antilope. 
Subgenus Gazella, H. Smith. 
Species, G. Hodgsonii, Abel. 
The Chiru of North-East Tibet. 
Gregarious on open plains. 



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1834.] Note on the Chiru Antelope. 135 

C. Hodgsonii. Length of the male,from snout to rump, four feet eight 
inches : height, before, two feet eight inches; behind, two feet lOinches: 
horns, with a sinus in the core, from 22 to 27 inches long, slender, black, 
sub-erect, sublyrate, inserted between the orbits, approximated at bases, 
and strongly compressed; towards the points round and turned forwards, 
12 to 20 annuli, which are round-edged, independent, very prominently 
displayed to the front, striated to the sides and back ; large inguinal 
purses, as in Dorcas ; no suborbital sinus ; nose perfectly clad, broad, 
bristly ; aperture of the nostrils wide, and furnished on the outer side 
with an accessary enlargement or intermaxillary pouch : ears, short, 
pointed, substriated: tail, short and full : hoofs, low and compressed for- 
wards, spread and padded behind ; fur very thick and porrect, of two 
sorts, hairy and woolly : the hair, quill-like and brittle ; the wool spare, 
applied to the skin, and very fine ; no bands on the flanks, nor brushes 
on the knees ; no congenital callosities on knees or sternum ; rarely arti- 
ficial ones on the former : size medial, with very compact structure, full 
of grace and vigour ; the limbs cast in the finest mould : colour, above, 
bright rufous ; below, white : the face and fronts of the limbs, entirely 
brown-black. The female, smaller, hornless ; inguinal purses less than 
in the male ; two teats ; no marks on the face or limbs. In both sexes the 
palate is colourless, but the naked skin of the lips and nostrils, jet black. 
Major H. Smith having provisionally ranged our animal with the 
Oryges, with a conjecture that it might be found to belong to the 
Reduncine group, it is proper to add that the Chiru cannot, with any 
propriety, be classed under either of those racemi, as designated by 
himself, and that this species belongs unquestionably to his Antelopine 
or to his Gazelline subgenus. Hornless females would give it to the 
former. But lyrate horns, no suborbital sinus, and ovine nose, affine 
it rather to the latter, under which, accordingly, I have disposed it. 

The Chiru, however, with his hollow-cored horns, his intermaxillary 
pouches, and his bluff bristly nose, united to a figure and manners re- 
sembling exactly those of the beauteous Gazelles and Antelopes proper, 
is, in many essential respects, a conspicuous novelty, and, but that I 
apprehend the prevailing disposition of the day is to cany classification 
beyond the limits of accurate knowledge, I would have placed the Chi- 
ru in a new subgenus created for his reception, and denominated Pan- 
tholops. The Byzantine writers so called the supposed unicorn, and 
•we all know how resolutely the Tibetans insisted for years that such 
was their Chiru. 

Should any one object to my synoptical character, that it contains 
some distinctive points of a generic or even larger quality, I have only 
to observe that until our classification be amended, the thing cannot be 
helped, without omitting essentials. For example, the genus Antelope 



136 



Boats for River Navigation. 



[March, 



has been separated from Capra and from Damalis by the circumstance 
of the cores of the horns being solid in the former and sinused (so to 
speak) in both the latter. Nevertheless, I am well acquainted with three* 
species, besides the Chiru, in which the cores of the horns are not solid, 
though the whole four are still retained (and of necessity) in the Ante- 
lopine genus. It would be easy to multiply instances, from the best 
and most recent works, of new sub-genera, which have been set up upon 
the strength of diagnostics of far from general prevalence, that when 
you come to examine carefully, the several species classed under any 
one of them, the rule too frequently turns out to be the exception ! For 
example, the subgenus Namiorhcedus is chiefly designated by the pre- 
sence of the intermaxillary pouch : but of the three species contained in 
it, two are perfectly familiar to me (Ghoral and Du Vaucellii), and nei- 
ther has a trace of any such organ. 
Nipal, 25th February, 1834. 



VI. — Comparative Section and Tonnage of English and Indian Boats for 

River Navigation. 

The advantage to the internal commerce and agriculture of this 
country, likely to arise from the improvement of the communications 
both by land and water, are too well known to require pointing out : 
but the means of effecting this improvement appear to be very much 
neglected ; and the object of the following observations therefore is to 
shew to those interested in the inland navigation of Bengal, the man- 
ner in which they may benefit themselves by reducing the cost and 
facilitating the conveyance of goods by water carriage. 

The alteration in the present system recommended is a better con- 
struction of the boats, both in their proportions and in the manner of build- 
ing them ; and, as examples are more satisfactory to general readers, than 
theory or calculations, a table is given, containing the dimensions of 
several boats used for river and canal navigation in England, and for 
the sake of comparison, a few boats now in use on the Hoogly river. 







Dimensions of the boat. 


Burthen. 


Greatest 
section, 
sq. feet. 


Ratio of 
burthen 
to sec. 




Names of Rivers. 


Length 
feet. 


Breadth 
feet. 


Drght. 
feet. 


m Bazar 
Tons. , 
mds. 


Remarks. 


Thames, 

Thames and "1 
Severn Canals, / 
Severn, 


70 
66 
80 
120 
45 
70 
34 
26 
28 
22 


12 
16 
12 
18 

9 
6-10 
14 
12 

8* 
9i 


3 

3§ 

5 

2-8 

3 

5 

3f 

3i 

2 


45 

75 

56 

100 

18 
27 


1215 
1 2025 

1512 

2700 
486 
729 

1230 
450 
360 
270 


32| 

70 

37 

79 

19 

20| 

61 

38 

25 

17 


37 
29 
41 
34 
25 
35 
20 
12 
14 
16 








Canal boats, . 
Hoogly river,- 


r 


mean 35 
mean 15§ 



* Viz. Thar, Ghoral, and Vaucellii. 



1S34.] 



Boats of River Navigation. 



137 



The few examples stated in this table have been taken indifferently 
from a collection of the dimensions of boats used in twenty different 
rivers in Europe, and from an equally numerous list of country-boats. 

The resistance that a boat meets with in passing- through the water 
being proportional to its greatest section immersed, the last column in 
the table has been added for the purpose of shewing the number of 
maunds the boat can carry for each square foot in its greatest section. 
This column is the best criterion by which an opinion may be formed of 
the comparative advantages of the proportions of any two boats ; their 
burthen, and the proportion between their resistance and their greatest 
section, being the same. 

Dimensions of Boats proposed for the Navigation of the Rivers of Bengal. 



Burthen in 
bazar mds. 


Length, 
feet. 


•3 • 

u 


\ Q OJ <n 

M -w ~ i> 22 
Jg " g 3 

q pa-s 


Greatest 
section, 
sq. feet. 


Ratio of 
sectionto 
burthen, j 


Remarks. 


1500 


72 


12 


f. i. 
3 


11 


32 


48 


The weight of a boat 


1200 


66 


11 


2 9 


9 


26§ 


44 


with its crews & stores 


900 


60 


10 


2 6 


7 


22 


40 


on board is about one- 


650 


54 


9 


2 3 


6 


in 


37 


third of the load that 


460 


48 


8 


2 


5 


14 


33 


it will carry. 


310 


42 


7 


1 9 


4 


102 


29 


The size of the sail 


190 


36 


6 


1 6 


3 


8 


25 


is usually 30 sq. feet 


110 


30 


5 


1 3 


2 


H 


21 


for every foot of great- 


57 


24 


4 


1 


1 


n 


16i 


est section of the boat. 



From the last column of the first table it appears, that the average 
load of a country-boat is 15| maunds for each foot of section, Avhile the 
average of the English boats is 35 maunds ; and if one tracker is allowed 
for every three feet of section, or six or seven men to track 100 maunds 
in a country-boat, the same work can be equally well done by three men 
in a boat of the improved proportions. This comparison is not strictly 
correct, as the boats compared are not of the same burthen : but if the 
country-boats in the first table be compared with boats of equal burthen 
in the last table, the proportion will be found to be as 15§ to 32|. 
This comparison shews how a saving of half the crew may be made. 
The economy of using large boats instead of small, is in like manner 
pointed out by the last column of the second table. It may be here 
necessary to remark, that the stability, and of course the safety, of boats 
of this proportion, when under sail, will exceed that of country- boats, as 
much as the former exceeds the latter in length, the section of both 
being the same, and the size of the sail bearing such proportion to the 
greatest section as has been already remarked. 

Economy is not the only point to be considered in the conveyance 
of goods ; regularity, cei-tainty, and expedition are of equal importance : 



138 Climate of Seringapatam. [March, 

from a want of these essentials the hire of a country-boat is 100 per 
cent, per annum, on the capital expended, or the price of the boat 
and stores ; and the insurance of a four months' voyage is more than that 
to England. As an example, it may be stated, that a boat that can carry 
500 maunds of goods, will, if in constant employment, earn360rupees a 
year, while the same boat may be purchased for 200 or 300 rupees. If 
1 2 per cent, per annum is allowed for the interest of capital, and the boat 
requires repairs equivalent to replacing it every five years, 360 rupees a 
year will allow of 1125 rupees being expended in the construction of 
the boat. For this money, the boat could be built in such a superior 
manner, and the supply of stores made so complete, as to set at defiance the 
ordinary risks attending the navigation of the Ganges, and the insurance 
would in consequence probably not exceed \ per cent, per mensem. T. 



VII. — Climate of Seringapatam. Latitude 12°45' N. Long. 76°51' E. 

Being desirous of including within the pages of the Journal all the 
data necessary for a meteorologist, to judge of the contingencies of pres- 
sure and temperature on the whole continent of India, we extract the 
following results of a meteorological journal, kept for two years at Serin- 
gapatam, from Brewst?r's Edinburgh Journal of Science, No. 5. 

The original registers were kept by Mr. Scarman in 1814 and 1816. 
They were abstracted and reduced to order by Mr. J. Foggo, Junior. 

The mean temperature of the whole year is by observation 77.06. 
The mean at sunrise is 63°. 17 : at 3 p. m. 90°. 95 : — of the day, 84°, of 
the night, 70°. 11. The average daily range of temperature 27°. 7. 
The curve of mean temperature has two convex summits, in May and 
October, corresponding with the sun's passage twice over the latitude 
of the place. The highest temperature is 115°, and the lowest, 48°. 

The mean temperature of the river Caveri, observed every day at 6 
A. m. and 6 p. m. is 77.2 agreeing exactly with that of the air. 

The average height of the barometer is 27.568, whence the elevation 
of Seringapatam may be calculated to be 2412 feet above the sea, 
assuming the sea level, 29.88, and the temperature of the intercepted 
column of air, 78°. 

The average diurnal tide between the hour of 10 a. m. and 4 p. m. is 
0.074 inch. During the prevalence of the south-west monsoon, the extent 
of the variation is diminished. The monthly variation also proceeds with 
great regularity, the whole range being 0.262. For the last three months 
of 1816, the register was extended to the hour of 8 p.m. and the average 
height of the barometer at that hour is 0.006 lower than at 4 a. m. 



1834.] 



Climate of Seringapatam. 



139 



The prevailing winds are the north-east and south-west, or the 
general monsoons of the Indian Ocean. The south-west sets in during 
the month of April. When it commences, its reciprocation with the 
north-east wind interrupts the serenity of the weather ; and during its 
continuance, thunder storms occur almost every day, with heat-lightning 
at night. This is the rainy season, but the monsoon having deposited ita 
superabundant moisture upon the ghats, very little rain falls at Seringa- 
patam. During the north-east monsoon, which begins about the end of 
October, the weather is settled and fine, with heavy dews before sunrise. 







Range 


of the 


Thermometer, 


$c. in 


1816. 










a * 


a * 

tu 


CO cu 


a 


dif. 

rom 
;an. 


c 
o 




Proportion of 


Months. 


Mean t 
perature 
sunrise. 


a £ .; 

« 3 " 

P*!N 


Mean d 
range of t 
perature. 


Mean 
monthly t 
perature. 


Monthly 
ference f 
annual m 


vi 
u 

o 

P< 

> 


d 
'5 
PS 


winds 






n. e.'.s. w. 


var. 















inch. 


inch. 






" 


January, 


54° 


84° 


30 


69° 


—6.7 


8.83 





30 


1 





February, 


58 


91 


30 


74 


—1.7 


10.17 


0.30 


24 


5 





March, 


59.5 


100 


43.5 


79.7 


+4.0 


15.05 


0.01 


12 


17 


2 


April, 


66 


100 


34 


83 


+ 7.3 


14.52 


2.47 


4 


26 





May, 


66.5 


100.5 


34 


83.5 


+ 7.8 


15.00 


5.46 


3 


28 





June, 


65.2 


90.5 


25.2 


77.7 


+2.0 


9.27 


5.85 


1 


29 





July, 


64.5 


82 


17.5 


73.2 


—2.5 


6.60 


1.86 





31 





August, 


62.5 


85.5 


23 


74 


—1.7 


8.77 


1.37 





31 





Sept., 


62.2 


89 


26.7 


75.5 


—0.2 


9.36 


0.80 





30 





October, 


64.5 


88.5 


24 


76.5 


+ 0.8 


9.30 


4.07 


17 


13 


1 


Nov., 


61.5 


82.5 


21 


72 


—3.7 


7.35 


1.51 


26 


4 





Dec, 


57 


85 


28 


71 


—4.7 


8-92 





28 
145 


3 

218 





Mean, 


61.7 


89.8 


28.1 


75.7 




123.12 


23.7 


3 



Range of the Barometer, in 1826. 



Months. 


Mean 


Height of the Barometer at 


Mean 
monthly 


erence 
mean 

ilpres-' 

i 


y tide 

10 

. to 4 












pressure 
at 32°. 


Difl 
from 
annu? 
sure. 


Dail 
from 

A. M 
P. M. 




4 A. M. 


10 A. M. 


4 P. M. 


8 P. M. 


January, 


27.715 


27.763 


27.677 




27.614 


+ .169 


0.086 


February, 


.648 


.687 


.608 




.527 


+ .082 


.079 


March, 


.638 


.664 


.571 




.486 


+ .041 


093 


April, 


.569 


.614 


.499 




.411 


— .034 


.115 


May, 


.539 


.559 


.478 




.373 


_ .072 


.081 


June, 


.498 


.509 


.458 




.354 


_ .091 


.051 


July, 


.498 


.507 


.471 




.372 


_ .073 


.036 


August, 


.502 


.514 


.470 




.372 


— .073 


.044 


September, 


.536 


.545 


.483 




.392 


_ .053 


.062 


October, 


.592 


.621 


.634 


27.578 


.461 


+ .016 


.087 


November, 


.588 


.630 


.559 


.587 


.484 


+ .039 


.071 


December, 


.616 


.650 


.563 


.613 


.497 


+ .052 


.087 


Mean, 


27.578 


27.605 


27.531 


27.592 


27.445 


range 
0.260 


0.074 



140 



Catalogue of Moon Culminating Stars. 



[March, 



VIII. — Catalogue of Stars to be observed with the Moon in May, 1834, 





Names of 
Stars. 


Mag 


Decn. 


A, R. 


& 

§ 


Names of 
Stars. 


Mag 


Decn. 


A. R. 






' 


h. m. s. 




' 


h. m. s. 


17 


52 Leonis 


6 


+15 5 


10 37 37.33 


20 


21 Bootis 


4.5 


+ 52 9 


14 10 18.52 




53 


6 


11 26 


j 40 31.68 


! 


104 Virginis 


6.7 


— 5 20 


18 42.87 




46' Leo.Min. 


4.5 


35 7 


1 44 0.68 ! 


77 Centauri 


3 


41 24 


25 1.72 




u Arg.in Car 


5 


—57 57 


46 48.51J , 


b Urs. Min. 


4 


+76 27 


28 4.07 




63 Leonis 

(1318) 


4.5 
7 


+ 8 15 
15 19 


56 26.96H — 
11 3 1.481-21 












2 Librae 


6 


—10 55 


14 14 30.73 




J 1 Limb 




11 22 


4 


1 


23 Bootis 


4 


+ 52 38 


19 32.76 




73 Leonis 


5.6 


14 14 


7 10.52 




U Centauri 


3 


—41 24 


25 1.69 




ir Centaur. 


4 


—53 33 


13 27.96 




(1651) Lib. 


6.7 


11 34 


28 13.81 




78 Leonis 


4 


+11 27 


15 16,11 




a Lupi 


3 


46 39 


30 54.41 




85 


6 


16 21 


21 2.40 




5 Librae 


6 


14 14 


36 50.61 




1 Virginis 


6.7 


9 4 


29 54.23 




7 


5.6 


13 26 


40 15.04 




2 Virginis 


5 


9 12 


36 43.25 




13 

J 1 Limb 
$ Urs. Min. 


6 


11 1] 

12 32 
+74 50 


45 23.77 

48 

51 20.97 


JS 


1 Virginis 


67 


+ 94 


11 29 54.25 




3 




3 — 


4.5 


7 28 


37 19.50 




ir Lupi 


5 


—46 22 


53 53.28 




5 


3.4 


2 43 


42 3.29 




21 Librae 


6 


15 35 


57 23.82 




64 Urs.Maj. 


2 


54 38 


45 3.66 




f Lupi 


4 


51 26 


15 27.47 




7 Virginis 


5.6 


4 36 


51 26.89 




27 Librae 


2.3 


8 44 


8 6.22 




9 

5 1 Limb 


4.5 


9 40 


56 45.69 




29 


7 


14 55 


11 46.26 






5 38 


59 


J30 


6 


14 30 


13 48.36 




11 Virginis 


7 


6 46 


12 ] 37.15 


;51 Bootis 


4 


+37 58 


18 14.45 




5 Crucis 


3 


—57 48 


6 22.35 




13 Urs. Min. 


3.4 


72 26 


21 6.73 




16 Virginis 


5.6 


+ 4 15 


11 55.28 




37 Libra; 


4 


— 9 28 


25 7.89 




17 Virginis 
(1434) 


6 
7 


6 15 

5 20 


14 5.69 
19 51.55 














22 


32 Librae 


6 


—16 6 


15 18 56.02 




717 Crucis 


23 


—56 9 


22 2.44 




34 


6 


16 1 


21 20.22 




5 Draconis 


3.4 


+70 43 


26 22.58 




35 


6 


16 16 


23 34.14 




31 Virginis 


6 


7 14 


33 33.11 




38 


4.5 


14 12 


26 16.66 












[ 


41 — — 


6 
5 


18 44 

19 7 


29 23.22 
32 25.09 


19 


8 CanisVen. 


4.5 


+42 17 


12 25 51.66 


) 


43 




25 Virginis 


6.7 


— 4 53 


28 15.20 


1 


44 


4.5 


15 7 


34 45.98 




y 


4 


30 


33 15.73 


45 Librae 


5 


19 39 


43 43.73 




38 


6 


2 37 


44 42.27! 


[ 


}) 1 Limb 




17 32 


47 




77 Urs. Maj. 


3 


+56 52 


46 42.02 


1 


9 Librae 


5.6 


16 1 


51 2.40 




44 Virginis 


6 


— 2 53 


51 7.50 


1 


5 Scorpii 


2 


19 19 


55 49.35 




]) 1 Limb 


| 30 


54 




14 


4 


19 


16 2 23.16 




51 Virginis 


4.5 4 37 


13 1 22.71| 




(1861) 


7 


19 40 


7 19.42 




1 Centauri 


3 —35 48 


11 19.59; 




4 Ophiuchi 


5 


19 37 


14 25.48 




65 Virginis 


6 4 1 


14 44.47. 




7 


5 


18 3 


17 25.50 




74 

79 


g 


5 22 
+ 16 


23 21.35! 
26 15.59' 


^^ 












4 


23 


9 Ophiuchi 


5 


—21 5 


16 22 19.88 




e Centauri 


3 


—52 35 


29 28.29 




15 Draconis 
24 Scorpii 
18 Ophiuchi 


4.5 
5 
6 


+69 8 

—17 24 

24 19 


28 24.08 
32 0.27 
39 40.39 


>0 


74 Virginis 


6 


— 5 22 


13 23 21.34 ' 


| 




80- 


6 


4 31! 


26 54.45 




(1924) Scor. 


6.7 


20 7 


43 29.15 




6 Centauri 


3 


52 35! 


29 27.85 




24 Ophiuchi 


6.7 


22 52 


46 49.28 




82 Virginis 


5.6 


7 50 


32 55.47; 




5 1 Limb, 




21 18 


49 




(1561) 


7 


6 46 


36 16.27; 




29 Ophiuchi 


6 


18 37 


52 10 79 




88 


7 


5 59 


39 38.33 




28 Scorpii 


6 


21 19 


56 19.48 




(1585) 


7 


7 13 


46 18.16 ! 




(1958) Oph.l 


6.7 


17 22 


58 38.31 




D 1 Limb 




6 44 


50 




22 Urs. Min. 


4 


+ 82 18 


17 3 20.70 




(1601) Virg. 


7 


8 26i 


55 35.70 




(1974) Oph. 


6 


—23 52 


8 0.41 




95 


6 


8 29 


57 57.54 




42 


3.4 


24 49 


11 50.75 




96 


6.7 


9 31 


14 11.40 




(1990) Scor. 


6 


21 16 


14 48,04 




J8 


4 


9 28 


4 4.30 




75 Herculis 


4 


+37 18 


17 58.85 




99 


4 


5 11 


7 20.31 




51 Ophiuchi 


5] 


-23 49 


21 19.27 



1834.] Asiatic Society. 141 

IX — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

Thursday Evening, the 20th March, 1834. 

The Rev. Principal W. H. Mill, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Read the Proceedings of the last meeting. 

Mr. Alexander Csoma de Koros, proposed by Mr. Trevelyan, second- 
by Mr. J. Prinsep, was elected an Honorary Member. 

The Secretary announced that a vacancy had been caused in the office of 
Vice-President, by the departure of Sir John Franks, when a ballot was 
held, and the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Calcutta was declared 
unanimously elected. 

Read a letter from G. Money, Esq. expressing his wish to withdraw from 
the Society. 

Read a letter from Rev. W, Yates, stating that he would prefer publish- 
ing his Translation of the Nalodaya in this country, on his own account, 
under the patronage of the Asiatic Society, with the hopes that the Asiatic 
Society would, in addition to their own subsci iption, forward the specimens 
to the Oriental Translation Fund, with a recommendation that they should 
also patronize the work, or adopt it on the list of their publications. Refer- 
red to the Committee of Papers. 

Read a letter from the Assignees of Mackintosh and Co. forwarding 
proposals for a lottery of the household property of the late firm, and 
soliciting the Society as a creditor to invest a portion of its claim in the 
same, at 2,000 rupees per ticket, there being 2,500 tickets, and 14 prizes, 
valued at a total of 5,20,000 rupees. 

Moved by Mr. Bagshaw, seconded by Mr. Hare, and resolved, that the 
Society cannot entertain the proposal. 

Read a letter from J. Robison, Esq. Secretary to the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh, expressing the thanks of the Society for the present of the 
XVII. Vol. of their Transactions. 

Read a letter from Mr. C. E. Trevelyan, presenting for the Museum, on 
behalf of His Excellency the Right Hon'blethe Governor General, a native 
picture representing the interview between His Lordship and the Maharao 
and Raj Rana of Kota, which took place at Ajmere in January, 1832. 

Library. 

The following Books were presented : 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh for the years 1832-33, Nos. 1 
and 2 — by the Society. 

Transactions of the Batavian Society, vol. 15 — by the Society. 

The letters of T. on the employment of the English language as a medium for 
Native Education — by the Author. 

The Indian Journal of Medical Science, Nos. 2 and 3 — by Messrs. J. Grant and 
J. T. Pearson, Editors. 

Ceylon Almanac, for 1834 — by his Exc. Sir R. W. Horton, Gov. Ceylon. 
[This volume, like the preceding vol. for 1833, contains much original and valu- 
able information on the ancient history, antiquities and geography of Ceylon.] 



142 Asiatic Society. [March, 

Madras Journal of Literature and Science, No. 2 — by the Madras Literary So- 
ciety. 

Abstract of Proceedings of the Cape of Good Hope Association for Exploring 
Central Africa, drawn up for publication — by J. C. Chase, Esq. Secretary. 

Map of various routes between Europe and India, comprehending Western and 
Northern Asia, together with Asia Minor and Egypt — by Mr. J. B. Tassin. 

Meteorological Registers for January and February, 1834 — by the Surveyor 
General. 

Translation of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes into the Madagascar language — by the 
Madagascar Mission. 

Journal Asiatique, Nos, 67, 68 and 69 — by the Asiatic Society of Paris. 

The following 1 were received from the Booksellers : 

Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia — Greeks and Romans, 1st vol. 

■ Foreign Statesmen, 1st vol. 

Physical. 

Read a letter from Sir R. Colquhoun, expressing Mrs. Herbert's desire 
that the Geological Specimens belonging to the Estate of the late Captain 
Herbert should be presented to the Museum of the Asiatic Society. 

A further collection of Fossil Bones from the bed of the Jumna works 
were presented on the part of Captain E. Smith, Engineers. 

The skin and skeleton of a large Rhinoceros were presented for the 
museum, by Mr. J. H. Barlow, C. S. 

Read a letter from Colonel Watson, advising the dispatch of 30 maunds 
of Coal from the new seam discovered by Mr. Cracroft and himself in the 
Kasia hills, for trial at the Presidency. 

This coal agrees in composition with No. 12 of the table published in the 3rd 
vol. Gleanings, page 283. The seam is from 16 to 20 feet thick, and spreads six 
square miles in area ; indeed it extends through tbe whole district. 

Colonel Watson explained the particulars of the locality to the Meeting, and exhi- 
bited the model of an apparatus on the principle of a suspension rail-rope for the 
conveyance of the coal down the hill. The height is 4000 feet, and the longitu- 
dinal distance If mile, over a very rugged rocky country, where the construction of 
a road would be attended with great expence. 

Read a letter from Major James Wilkinson, Governor General's Agent, 
Hazaribagh, forwarding a small specimen of coal picked up near Bhullea, a 
village in Ramghur, 14 miles south of Hazaribagh. 

This coal resembles the Oogadong lignite, in having an infiltration of white matter 
(silex ?) in its natural crevices. It is a rich lignite : sp. gr. 1.325. 

Further specimens of the Aeng coal were forwarded by Mr. Walters, 
commissioner, Arracan. 

Read a note on the Chiru Antelope of Nepal, by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

[This paper appears in a foregoing page.] 

Geographical. 

1. Journal of the Route from Dera Ghazi Khan, through the Veziri 
country, to Cabul, by Dr. Martin Honigberger, communicated by Captain 
C. M. Wade, Political Agent at Ludiana. 

The following extract from Captain Wade's letter was read. 



1834.] Scientific Intelligence. 143 

" This is the route used by the Lohani merchants, the great carriers of 
the trade between India and the countries beyond the Indus, and it has 
never to my knowledge been before traversed by an European traveller. 

Dr. Honigberger is a native of Transylvania and a man of education and 
science. He has travelled through Turkey, Asia Minor, Egypt, Bagdad, and 
thence come to the Punjab in 1827, by the way of Sindh. While in the Punjab 
heentered the service of Maharaja Run jit Singh, and was of great use tohim 
in shewing his people an improved method of making gun-powder, and in 
giving his physicians some lessons in pharmacy ; but as he did not think 
the Maharaja placed sufficient value on his services, he applied for his dis- 
charge, which was reluctantly granted ; and he is now on his way to Europe 
by Bokhara and Khiva. During his stay at Cabul, he has been employed in 
company with Mr. Mason in exploring the antiquities in that neighbour- 
hood ; he has sent me an account of their labours, which I shall have the 
pleasure to translate and communicate hereafter." 

[The Journal will be printed as soon as the route-map can be prepared.] 

Antiquities. 

Read some remarks upon the ancient inscription (called No. 2, by Lieut. 
Burt), on the Allahabad pillar, by Captain A. Troyer, Secretary, Sanscrit 
College, &c. 

[This paper is printed in the present number.] 

A short note by the Secretary on the subject of the oldest inscription, No. 
1, was also read. 

The Secretary exhibited to the members present the valuable and inter- 
esting collection of reliques and coins discovered by M. le Chevalier 
Ventura, General in the service of Maharaja Runjit Singh, on opening the 
Tope of Manikyala in 1830, and presented by that officer to himself some 
months since. They were obligingly conveyed to Calcutta under charge of 
Colonel Sir J. Bryant, Mem. As. Soc. 

[The description of these precious antiquities must unavoidably be postponed until 
drawings can be prepared to illustrate them in a becoming manner.] 



X. — Scientific Intelligence. 
1. — Royle's Illustrations of the Botany of the Himalaya Mountains. Part I. 
The first number of Mr. Royle's vast undertaking has made its appearance 
within little more than a year from the arrival of the author in England. It con- 
tains ten excellent lithographic plates, coloured ; one of Zoology (the Alpine hare) 
and nine of Botanical subjects*, including 15 plants of Upper India and Cashmere. 
The letter-press description of these is postponed, to allow space for a copious pre- 
liminary memoir on the natural history and climate of Upper India and the hills, 
the field of the author's labours and observations. 

* Anemone discolor ; Ranunculus polypetalus ; Isopyrum grandiflorum and mi- 
crophyllum ; Delphinium Cashmerianum ; Aconitum heterophyllum ; Cimicifuga fri- 
gida ; Meconopsis aculeata ; Corydalis Cash, and goviana ; Tauscheria desertorum 5 
Viola serpens, reniformis and Kanawurensis ; Grewia elastica. 



144 Scientific Intelligence. [March, 

From these we would fain make more ample extracts than our limited space will 
allow, and we can confidently assure all who would be acquainted with the features, 
the climate, — botany, — mineralogy of the hills, that they will be well rewarded by 
a perusal of the whole essay. The Court of Directors have placed at Mr. Royle's 
disposal the portion of Dr. Wallich's collection, which he had not himself the 
opportunity of publishing ; Major General Hardwicke also put into his hands ten 
volumes of drawings made in the plains of Upper India, and while travelling 30 
years ago in the Himalayas ; but neither of these have been broached as yet, owing 
to the ample and novel stores accumulated by himself. 

Of the vegetable productions of the neighbourhood of SeMrunpur, its Jchadir and 
bangur, or high and low land ; and of the Dehra Dun, we have a correct view from 
the author's own pen, in the first volume of the Journal*. To this he has on the 
present occasion added very largely, particularly in the part relating to the hills 
themselves : dividing the slope of the Himalaya into three several belts, and treat- 
ing each separately. The first belt extends to 4 or 5000 feet of elevation, and 
comprehends most of the Flora of temperate climes, with some remains of tropical 
forms, Buteafrondosa, Carissa sepiaria, Justicia adhatoda, Nyctanthes arbor tristis, 
Grislea tomentosa, Sterculia villosa, Kydia calycina, and Leea aspera. Nerium Ole- 
ander is found at the base of these mountains, as in Syria aud Barbary, along the 
banks of streams. The mangoe and the gloriosa superla attain an elevation of 4000 
feet. 

The second belt embraces the space between 5 and 9000 feet ; the limit to 
which the herbaceous plants of tropical genera extend. The third, thence to the 
highest limits, to which snow melts away on the southern face of the Himalaya. 
The bounds are necessarily but ill defined, and differ greatly on the northern as- 
pect of the mountains. 

The arboreous vegetation of the mid region corresponds almost entirely with 
that of temperate climates ; — Quercus, Acer, Ulmus, Carpinns, and the different 
pines; of smaller trees, there are species of Cornus, Benthamia, Euonymus, Rham- 
nus, Rhus, Ilex, Andromeda ; of shrubs, Berberis, Buxus, Daphne, Crataegus, and 
Coriaria, &c. ; of fruit trees, Juglans regia, Armeniaca vulgaris, Persica vulgaris, 
and Punica granatum, with species of Pyrus, Cerasus, Rubus, and Morus. But it is 
quite impossible to excerpt any thing like a complete catalogue of the riches of this 
genial clime, where man, as De Candolle observes, attains the greatest perfection. 

The splendid pines and cedars form the ornaments of the highest range at 11,000 
feet elevation. Quercus semicarpifolia is the principal forest tree at the highest 
limits — below, other species of Quercus, with Taxus, Betula, Acer, Cerasus, and 
Populus. The smaller trees of highest resort, and shrubs, are Juniperus, Salix, and 
Ribes. 

It is remarkable that one of the bamboo tribe is found at elevations of 10,000 
feet; — it is allied to the Chusquea of Quito. Of the cultivation at this elevation, Dr. 
Gerard and Capt. Webb have furnished particulars. Buckwheat and barley flou- 
rish at 11,600 feet. 

In addition to the author's former observations on the plants collected by his 
emissaries in the valley of Cashmere, we find the following note derived from 
M. Jacquemont's visit: 

" The valley of Cashmere, situated between the 34th and 35th parallels of lati- 
tude, in the most northern part of the Himalaya, and to which we descend from the 
* Account of the Seh&ranpur Botanic Garden, i. 41. 



1834.] Scientific Intelligence. 145 

snow-clad summit of Peerpunjal, is described as being of an oval form, encircled 
by mountains clothed with vegetation, which are themselves girded by a higher range 
covered with snow. The level of the valley is of considerable extent, being about 
60 miles in length, and 40 in breadth ; its elevation is estimated by the late lament- 
ed traveller M. J a cauEMONT to be 5248 to 5576 feet; he, however, states that 
the beauty of this valley has been much exaggerated, both by his countryman, Ber- 
nier, and by Mr. Forster. But there is no doubt that inconsequence of its being 
copiously watered by numerous streams, lakes, and canals, there is considerable 
moisture both of soil and climate, and almost constant verdure ; [he knew not of 
the late famine :] while the numerous gardens, and the great variety of fruit trees, 
and of beautiful flowers, must always strike visitors from the arid plains of India, 
whether Europeans or Asiatics, as Abul Fuzl. From the mixed nature of the cul- 
tivation, the climate must evidently be mild and temperate, for even in the warm- 
est months of summer, the breezes which descend at night from the mountains are 
always cool and pleasant : the periodical rains consist of gentle showers, and the 
snows which fall in winter cannot remain long on the ground. The Flora of Cash- 
mere has a great resemblance to that of European countries, but the moisture of 
the climate and its mild temperature in the season of vegetation, causes so great 
an extension of the herbaceous parts, as well as of the flowers of plants, that many 
of them rival in luxuriance those of tropical countries." The mildness and mois- 
ture are indicated by the culture of rice, melons, gourds, and cucumbers. The kidney- 
bean thrives well — also the egg-plant, capsicum ; marsh-tree mallow, wheat, 
barley, saffron ; turnip, raddish, beet-root; clover, &c. Of trees, the walnut, aspen, 
poplar, plane, and willow are named as most common. Fruit trees are so common 
as to constitute a jungle. 

The author passes under review, also, the valley of Nipal — the several river 
valleys and passes of the great chain — Kunawar, Bussahir, &c. He even digresses 
to the Neelgherries of the peninsula, to show that a similarity exists in its vegeta- 
tion and climate with that of the lower ranges of the northern chain ; but we must 
now close our imperfect sketch of the contents of this first number, regretting only 
that we are from our ignorance of the science so little able to select and set before 
our readers the points which must have the greatest value in the eyes of a Bota- 
nist. Every Botanist in India will, however, possess the work ; and possessing, 
prize it. 

2. — Analysis of the Edible Moss of the Eastern Archipelago. By W. B. 
O'Shaughnessy, M. D. Asst. Surg. H. C. S. 

The third number of that meritorious work, the India Journal of Medical Sci- 
ence, contains an able analysis of this curious delicacy of the Chinese materia culi- 
naria, the substance of which we venture to transfer to our pages, as coming 
properly within the scope, to which the motto on our title page confines, or rather 
extends, our investigations. 

The edible moss is a small and delicate fucus, of a white colour, and flattened 
filiform shape. The longest of the separate individuals in the specimens examined 
by Dr. O'S. did not exceed two inches from the ciliary processes, corresponding 
to the root, to the extreme of the ramifications, which were not very numerous or 
regular. Dr. O'S. names it the fucus amylaceus, from its remarkable and impor- 
tant peculiarity of containing a large proportion of pure starch. 

Digestion in cold water for 24 hours separated a portion of gum, and the soluble 
alkaline salts : — this branch of the analysis proved it to differ from the Iceland 
T 



146 Scientific Intelligence. [March, 

moss in containing no bitter principle. Another portion was cut into very minute 
shreds, and boiled for 24 hours in distilled water, which was renewed as fast as it 
evaporated. On cooling, the liquid gelatinized, holding suspended an abundance 
of the undissolved ligneous shreds. The jelly was transparent and colourless; 
neither acid nor bitter ; gave no precipitate with tincture of galls, and only a tran- 
sitory blue tinge with iodine. The ligneous fibre yielded a trace of wax on boiling 
in alcohol ; after which, ground to a fine powder, and boiled in distilled water, the 
solution struck a fine deep blue with iodine, from the starch present : scarcely a 
particle of the starch can be taken up by simple boiling until after trituration. The 
woody fibre incinerated gave a small residuum of earthy salts and iron. The quan- 
titative composition deduced from Dr. O'Shaughnessy's analysis is as follows: 

Vegetable jelly, 54.5 

True starch, 15.0 

Wax, a trace, 0.5 ? 

Ligneous fibre, 18.0 

Gum, 4.0 

Sulphate and muriate of soda, 6.5 

Sulphate and phosphate of lime, 1.0 

Iron, a trace, 0.5 ? 

100.0 

With regard to the best mode of rendering the moss available as an article of 
diet, we extract the following judicious observations : 

" In the first place, from the tendency of pectin or vegetable jelly to form inso- 
luble compounds with saline and earthy bases, it is necessai-y to steep this fucus 
for a few hours in cold rain water as the first step in its preparation. This removes 
a large portion, if not the entire, of the sulphate of soda, leaving all the gelatine 
and starch. It should next be dried by the sun's rays, and ground to a fine powder .- 
I say ground, for cutting or pounding, however diligently or minutely performed, 
still leaves the amylaceous globules so mechanically protected, and so closely in- 
volved in an external sheath of tough ligneous fibre, that scarcely a particle of the 
starch can be extracted by boiling, even though the decoction is prolonged for se- 
veral hours. When ground, boiling for 25 minutes or half an hour dissolves all 
the starch and gelatine. The solution while hot should be passed through muslin 
or calico, and thus the ligneous fibre is removed ; lastly, the strained fluid should be 
boiled down till a drop placed on a cold surface gelatinizes sufficiently. 

" With milk and sugar, and flavoured with lemon juice or sherry, this substance 
when prepared as I direct, would afford the invalid a pleasant article of diet, espe- 
cially at sea, where other jellies or their materials cannot be so easily preserved- 
As I am informed that this fucus is found abundantly on the eastern coast of Ben- 
gal, I entertain considerable hopes of its being hereafter found available also in 
several processes of art and in various manufactures." 

The wide field of vegetable chemistry has been hitherto nearly untrodden in 
India; and yet there is no country where it offers a richer harvest of curious and 
novel results. We hope Dr. O'Shaughnessy's talents, once directed to the sub- 
ject, will be fixed on this difficult branch of chemical analysis. He has already 
acquired in England the peculiar skill and experience in recognizing and separating 
the numerous and complicated principles of which organic substances are compos- 
ed, that alone can give confidence in such analyses, and ensure their general 
acceptance by chemists. 



1834.] Scientific Intelligence. 147 

XI. —European Science. 
De Candolle's Theory of the Rotation of Crops. 

It is a well-established fact in the practice of husbandry, that a succession of 
the same kind of crops on the same piece of ground, deteriorates not only the 
ground, but the crops. Thus, a successive crop of wheat, barley, or oats, on the 
same land, destroys the stamina of the ground, and renders each succeeding crop 
less in produce and value. A succession of wheat, barley, and oats, frequently 
repeated, will produce the same effect, though not so quickly. Even a succession 
of green crops will affect both the crops and the soil in a similar manner, in a 
given time. 

This deterioration of soil and crop, is most perceptible when there is no inter- 
mediate application of manure. Manure will, no doubt, protract the period of 
greatest deterioration ; but manure cannot constantly maintain a profitable re- 
turn from a succession of the same kind of crop. Besides, it is impossible to ob- 
tain a sufficient quantity of manure for frequent intermediate applications, in 
order to counteract all the effects of deterioration. The impossibility of main- 
taining to perfection the same kind of vegetable on the same piece of ground in a 
well cultivated garden, illustrates, in a striking manner, the limited powers of 
manure. In the field, where the cereal crops always ripen their seed, the power 
of manure is still more limited. These evil effects, arising from what is em- 
phatically and properly called over-cropping, have, therefore, been established 
beyond doubt. 

To obviate the serious evil of deterioration of soil and crop, which neither labour 
merely, however dexterous, nor manure, however well prepared, can prevent, the 
adoption of a succession of different kinds of crops has been attended with bene- 
ficial results. Tims a green crop, such as grass, turnips, or potatoes, was made 
to succeed a corn crop ; and when this alternation of crops was substituted for a 
successive series of corn or grain-crops, experience soon discovered that less de- 
terioration affected any crop of the series, or the land itself. It was also found, 
by this arrangement, that a longer period might elapse, than by the former, be- 
tween the applications of manure, without diminishing the gross produce of the 
intermediate crops. 

In the progress of experience, this beneficial arrangement of cropping was dis- 
covered not to bestow all the advantages of which the alternate system was capable. 
It was well to cause the gentler sway of the green crop to succeed the severer energies 
of a corn one ; but it left the important question undecided, whether the particu- 
lar corn crop selected was the most proper one by nature to follow its predecessor. 
Thus, it would be an improvement on the old series of cropping, to make wheat 
follow grass, barley after potatoes, and oats succeed turnips ; but is wheat the 
best successor to grass of any of the corn crops ? and, in like manner, a similar 
question might be asked of the rest of the series. Experience again suggested, 
that a better arrangement might be followed. It said, let wheat follow a bare fal- 
low, potatoes, or beans ; let barley succeed the turnip, and let oats be taken after 
the grass. 

The trials of experience suggested yet better arrangements, to secure the great- 
est produce of the different kinds of crops. It was soon discovered that all kinds 
of soils were not adapted to the most luxuriant growth of all the kinds of crops. 
Thus a clay soil was found to suit wheat better than barley ; a bare fallow better 
than turnips ; and beans better than potatoes. A gravelly soil on the other hand, 
was most suited to those crops which were rejected by the clay soil. 



148 •' Scientific Intelligence. [Makch, 

All these different changes and alterations suggested by experience, in the 
succession of crops, and the soils which are best suited to them, produce this irre- 
vocable result : — that a particular corn crop shall succeed a particular green crop, 
on the soil that is best adapted to them ; and that manure shall be applied, at 
given intervals, with one of the green crops, or with bare fallow. Thus, on 
strong soils, wheat must follow a manured fallow, grass after wheat, oats after the 
grass, then beans after oats, and wheat to precede the manured fallow after the 
beans. On weak soils, barley succeeds to turnips which have been manured, 
grass follows the barley, and oats precede the manured turnips. 

Experience having proved that these successions of corn and green crops, on 
their respective soils, are best suited to insure the greatest produce, it is requisite 
that one series of successions shall follow another, in regular order, on its respec- 
tive soil. These series of successions are called the " Rotation of crops." Should 
any alteration be desired in the rotation, it can only consist of a substitution of 
one corn crop for another, or one green crop for another ; for the corn and 
green crops must always stand in the same relative position to each other. 
But this substitution of one crop for another will generally be attended with a 
sensible deterioration in the crop or soil, if the deterioration be not counteracted by 
an additional quantity of manure. A modification may be effected in the rotation 
by extending the time which it occupies. Thus the rotation on strong soils, which 
embraces six years, may be extended to seven or eight ; and that of four years, 
on weak soils, may be extended to five or six years. The extension of the length 
of the rotation must be effected alone through the gentle, or the green, and not 
the severe or corn class of crops ; and that not by means of any of the green crops 
indiscriminately. Thus the extension must not be effected by a repetition of any 
of the corn crops ; for, we have already observed, such a proceeding would has- 
ten their own deterioration ; nor by adding an alternate green and corn crop to the 
end of the rotation, for that would be a mere attempt to deteriorate the soil bv 
delaying the application of manure ; nor by repeating the turnip or potatoe crop 
for neither can be raised without manure ; — but it must be effected by allowing the 
grass to remain as many years longer as it is desired to extend the term of the 
rotation. The period of grass crop can alone be extended without trouble. 

Experience again steps forward to check speculation in the endurance of the 
grass crop. On strong soils it is inimical to the grass crop to prolong its exist- 
ence beyond one year, and hence annual grasses and the six years' rotation is best 
suited to that class of soils ; whereas, an extension of the existence of grass on 
the weaker soils, serves to strengthen the energy of the soil. Two at least or 
perhaps three years of grass confers a lasting benefit on such soils. Having 
thus fixed upon the length of rotation which is best adapted to the soil, let it be 
irrevocably adhered to. 

In the establishing of this beneficial system of cropping, experience alone 
has discovered the progressive steps which have led to its completion. The ra- 
tionale of the system has never been inquired into by those who have administered 
its rules or benefited by their application. The investigation of causes is the duty 
of the philosopher, and not of the farmer, who has ODly to deal with effects • but 
the happiest results may be anticipated from the combined efforts of both ; when 
the former directs his mind to establish the principles upon which the experienc- 
ed operations of the latter depend. 

Among all the important practices in husbandry, that of the rotation of crops is 
the most important ; for by an attentive adherence to it, the utmost regularity of 



1834.] Scientific Intelligence. 149 

work will be maintained through every department of labour. To a steady ad- 
herence to this practice is justly ascribed all the improvements on land which have 
attracted the admiration of every lover of this country : to it is properly attributed 
the regular apportionment of an invariable extent of land, which is annually devot- 
ed to the growth of culmiferous crops ; and which regularly checks, as far as 
human means can, injurious fluctuation in the supply of the first necessary of life : 
and to it is accurately imputed the supply of the immense numbers of high-fed 
live-stock which daily grace our markets. 

To the intelligent agriculturist it is delightful to learn that the discoveries of 
science tend more and more to develop those principles which his practice illus- 
trates. That practice has hitherto kept " the even tenor of its way," by the guid- 
ance of unerring experience, amid the contempt of scientific reproach. It now 
receives its justification in the confession of scientific error. 

Various reasonings have hitherto been employed by men of science to account 
for the necessity of a rotation of crops. It has been thought sufficient to explain 
all the phenomena to state, that different plants absorb different juices from the 
same soil, and, therefore, though the ground may be exhausted by one class of 
vegetables, it may be rich enough for another. But it is well known to botanical 
physiologists, that plants absorb all the soluble substances which the soil contains 
whether injurious to their growth or not. It has also been stated as an explana- 
tion, that the roots of different plants, being of different lengths, extend into dif- 
ferent layers of the soil, and thus derive from it adequate nourishment. But the 
roots of all plants must be in the same stratum at the period of germination, and 
it is besides probable that all the arable part of the soil is homogeneous. It is 
known that plants of the same family, such as clover and lucerne, do not prosper 
in succession, although their roots are of different lengths. These theories are 
therefore not satisfactory. 

Brugmans stated that a portion of the juices which are absorbed by the roots 
of plants, are, after the salutiferous portions have been extracted by the vessels of 
the plant, again thrown out by exudation from the roots, and deposited in the soil. 
This idea has been more fully pursued by De Candolle, who sees in it the true 
theory of the rotation of crops. He thinks it probable, that it is the existence of 
this exuded matter, which may be regarded in some measure as the excrement of 
the preceding crop of vegetables, that proves injurious to a succeeding vegetation. 
He has compared it to an attempt to feed animals upon their excrements. The 
particles which have been deleterious to one tribe of plants, cannot but prove in- 
jurious to plants of the same kind, and probably to those of some other species, 
while they furnish nutriment to another order of vegetables. Hence why one 
kind of corn crop is insured by immediately succeeding another of the same kind ; 
hence why different kinds of crop may with advantage succeed one another ; hence 
in short, the propriety of a rotation of crops. 

To subject these theoretic views to the test of experiment, M.I. Macaire has made 
many experiments to prove that vegetables exude matter from the roots, and which 
are related by him in a memoir inserted in the Transactions of the Soctitt de Phy- 
sique et d'Histoire Naturelle of Geneva*. After various attempts to raise plants 
in pure siliceous sand, pounded glass, washed sponge, white linen, he decided 
upon pure rain-water. After cleansing and washing the roots thoroughly, he 
placed them in vials with a certain quantity of pure water. After they had put 
forth leaves, expanded their flowers, and flourished for some time, he ascertained, 
by the evaporation of the water, and the use of chemical re -agents, that the water 
» See Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, No. xxviii. p, 215. 



150 Scientific Intelligence. [March, 

contained matter which had exuded from the roots. He satisfied himself that this 
is the fact with respect to nearly all those plants which display their flowers. 

" Several plants of Chondrilla muralis, perfectly clean, were placed with their 
roots in pure water. At the end of a week, the water was yellowish, and emitted 
an odour like opium, and had a bitter taste. Subacetate and acetate of lead 
produced a brownish flocculent precipitate, and a solution of gelatine disturbed its 
transparency. As a proof that this matter was an exudation from the roots, it 
was found that neither pieces of the root nor of the stem, when macerated in the 
water during the same time, occasioned either taste, smell, or precipitate. 

" To prove that plants employ the excretory power of their roots, in order to 
get rid of hurtful substances which they may have imbibed, the following experi- 
ments were made. Some plants of the Mercnrialis annua were washed in distilled 
water, and placed so that one portion of their roots dipped into a weak solution of 
acetate of lead, and another branch of the same root into pure water. Having 
vegetated in this manner very well for several days, the water was tested by hydro- 
sulphuret of ammonia, which proved, by the black precipitate which it formed, 
that a notable portion of the lead had been absorbed, and deposited by the branch 
which dipped into the water. Groundsel, cabbage, and other plants, gave the same 
results. Some plants grew very well for two days in acetate of lead. They were 
then withdrawn, their roots well washed with distilled water, which being after- 
wards tested, was found to contain no lead, and then placed to vegetate in rain 
water. In the course of two days this water was found to contain a small quantity 
of acetate of lead. 

" The same experiments were made with lime-water, which, being less injuri- 
ous to plants, is preferable to lead. The roots being partly placed in lime-water, 
and partly in pure water, the plants lived well, and the pure water soon showed 
the presence of lime by the oxalate of ammonia ; and the plants which had grown 
in lime, and were then transferred with every precaution to pure water, soon dis- 
gorged into it a portion of lime. 

" Similar results were made with a weak solution of marine salt, and with a 
like result. There can be no doubt, then, that plants have the power of rejecting 
by their roots, soluble salts, which are injurious to vegetation. Experiments also 
proved, that the roots exuded a greater excess of matter under night, than in the 
day. As it is well known that the light of day causes the roots to absorb their 
juices, it is natural to suppose that, during the night, absorption ceases, and ex- 
cretion takes place." 

Some of the inferences which M. Macaire would deduce from his experiments, 
are, that the greater number of vegetables exude by their roots substances unfit 
for taeir vegetation ; that the nature of these substances varies according to the 
families of plants which produce them ; and that some being acrid and resinous, 
may be injurious ; and others, being mild and gummy, may assist in the nourish- 
ment of other plants. 

But the most interesting experiments to an agriculturist, were made by M. 
Macaire, with the bean, wheat, and potatoe. 

The bean lives well in pure water, which continues quite clear, but assumes a 
yellow colour. Chemical tests and evaporation detect a matter in this water, very 
analogous to gum, and a little carbonate of lime. It was found that the water in 
which the bean had lived, was well charged with excrementitious matter. Fresh 
plants of beans did not live well in it ; but to ascertain whether this arose from 
want of carbonic acid in the fluid, or from the presence of exuded matter which 



1834.] Scientific Intelligence. 1 5 1 

they repelled, plants of wheat were placed in the water. They lived well ; the 
yellow colour of the fluid became less intense, the residuum less considerable, and 
it was evident that the new plants absorbed a portion of the matter discharged by 
the first. Hence the practice of cropping wheat after beans is justified by this 
experiment. 

Wheat, rye, and barley were subjected to experiment. They do not live well 
in pure water, probably from the quantity of mineral substances, particularly 
silex, which they contain. The water in which they vegetated was clear, trans- 
parent, without colour, smell, or taste. It contained some salts, alkaline and 
earthy muriates and carbonates, and only a very small portion of gummy matter. 
As gummy matter appears to be a good preparation for wheat, which was il- 
lustrated in the experiment of the bean, corn-crops which do not give out gummy 
matter, ought not to succeed each other. And as M. Macaire thinks that plants 
of corn reject scarcely any thing but the saline matters foreign to vegetation, it is 
probable that any preparation but by their own kind, would be acceptable to seve- 
ral plants. The practice of preparing soil for corn-crops, by the culture of green- 
crops, is thus countenanced by experiment. 

The potatoe lives well in water, and puts forth its leaves. The water is scarce- 
ly coloured, leaves little residuum, gives but little taste, and induces the belief 
that this is one of the plants whose roots secrete little or nothing of a decided 
character. This experiment of the potatoe, M. Macaire observes, was made upon 
a plant at an early stage of development. Experiment would lead to the inference 
that the potatoe is not a very good preparative for corn-crops, which is known to 
be the case in practice, unless it is assisted by an extraordinary quantity of manure. 
All these facts tend to prove the theory of rotation suggested by M. De Candolle. 

We hope the chemists of our country will prosecute these interesting investi- 
gations of M. Macaire ; and we beg to suggest the following course to be pursued. 

Let wheat, barley, and oats, be each subjected to a separate suite of experiments. 
Let it be ascertained whether the potatoe or the turnip affords the best nourish- 
ment to the succeeding corn-plants. Experience indicates the turnip as the best. 
Then determine which of the three corn-plants will best follow the potatoe and 
turnip respectively. Experience prefers Mheat after the potatoe, and barley after 
the turnip. The oat is not a favourite after either. Let red and white clovers 
and rye-grass collectively, be tried after all the corn-plants. Experience points 
to barley as the best nurse for these grasses, as they may be termed, according to 
ordinary phraseology. Let it be also ascertained whether the potatoe or the tur- 
nip is the better preparative for the grasses. Experience is partial to the turnip- 
Then let it be determined for which of the corn- plants the grasses make the best 
preparation. Experience decidedly says the oat. It may be proper to try the 
grass-plants singly, and from one to three years old. We presume the value of 
the bean and the pea has been already sufficiently ascertained by M. Macaire. 
Should any eminent chemist direct his attention to this interesting subject, we shall 
be happy to insert the details of the experiments. — Quarterly Jour, of Agriculture. 

We can but repeat the injunctions and the offer of the Editor of the London 
Journal of Agriculture, should any of our friends be inclined to pursue the 
inquiry in this country. The effects of the mixed crops, to which the natives are 
so partial, would be a fertile subject for investigation. — Ed. 



152 



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JOURNAL 



OF 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



JVo. 28.— April, 1834. 



I. — Memoir on the Ancient Coins found at Beghram, in the Kohistdn 
of Kabul. By Chas. Masson. 
[Read at the Meeting of the 30th instant.] 

[We hasten to give to the world the results of Mr. Masson's successful researches 
in the Numismatology of Bactria, for the communication of which to this 
Journal we are mainly indebted to Dr. J. Gerard, who was for some days in 
company with the author at Kabul, and had an opportunity of inspecting his 
large and valuable collection of coins, and of certifying, that the drawings of 
those selected to illustrate the present memoir are faithful and accurate. 

We are most happy to comply with the author's request in sending copies of the 
memoir to the several officers and gentlemen indicated.] 

It will be unnecessary in this place to enter upon a detail of Alexan- 
der's conquests in central Asia, the rise and fall of the Greek Bactrian 
monarch), and other events, which, as they have lately become a topic 
of popular attention, are daily receiving more familiar illustration. I 
shall therefore proceed at once to the subject of this memoir. 

In July of the present year (1833), I left the city of Kabul, to explore 
the districts north of it, at the base of the mountains Hindoo Kiish, 
with the primary object of identifying the site of Alexandria ad Cauca- 
sum. Although upon this question I defer a decision, until I can 
consult the ancient authorities, there being many spots which would 
agree therewith in a local point of view, — I was recompensed by the 
discovery of numerous interesting objects, and among them of the site 
of an ancient city of immense extent, on the plain now called Beghram, 
near the confluence of the rivers of Ghorbund and Punjsheer, and at 
the head of the high road leading from Khwojeh Khedree of Kohis- 
tan, to Nijrow, Taghow, Lughman and Jelalabad. I soon learned 
that large numbers of coins were continually found on the plain of 
u 



154 Memoir on the Ancient Coins, [April, 

Beghram, and my first excursion put me in possession of about eighty, 
procured with difficulty, as their owners were suspicious of my mo- 
tives in collecting them. The coins were of such a type and descrip- 
tion, as naturally increased my ardor in their research ; and, succeeding 
in allaying the mistrusts of the finders, I obtained successive parcels, 
until up to this time (November 28th, 1833), I have accumulated 
1,865 copper coins and fourteen gold and silver ones, the latter 
Brahminical and Cufic. Of course many of these are of no value, but 
I persevered in my collection, under the hope of obtaining ultimately 
perfect specimens of every type and variety of coin ; in this I have but 
partially succeeded, so great is the diversity of coins found at this 
place, that every fresh parcel of 100 or 150 coins yields me one or 
more with which I was not previously acquainted. 

I may observe, that, on my return to Kabul, from my first excursion, 
I found two persons there, busy in the collection of coins. I left them 
the field of the city, and confined my attentions to the more distant and 
ample one of Beghram. Besides, as my object was not merely the 
amassing of coins, but the application of them to useful purposes, I 
hailed with satisfaction the prospect of obtaining a collection from a 
known spot, with which they would have, of necessity, a definite con- 
nection, enabling me to speculate with confidence on the points they 
involved. 

I suppose that no less a number than thirty thousand coins, 
probably a much larger number, are found annually on the dusht or 
plain of Beghram, independently of rings, seals, and other trinkets. 
Gold and silver coins occur but rarely. If we allow a period of five 
hundred years, since the final extinction of this city, (and I have 
some idea that negative proof thereof may be adduced,) and if we allow, 
as I presume is reasonable, that the same or not a less number 
of coins has been annually extracted from its site, we have a total 
of fifteen millions, a startling amount, and which will not fail 
to excite curiosity as to this second Babylon. The antique treasures 
of Beghram, untilTtheir partial diversion this present season, have been 
melted in the mint at Kabul, or by the coppersmiths of that city and 
of Chareekar. The collection of them is made by Afghan shepherds, 
who sell them by weight at a very low price to itinerant misghurs or 
coppersmiths, who occasionally visit their tents, and these again melt 
them down themselves, or vend them at a small profit to the officers of 
the mint. 

The coins of Beghram comprise five grand classes, viz. Greek, Indo- 
Scythic, Parthian, and Guebre, Brahminical, and Muhammedan, and each 
of these classes contains many varieties or series. I have ventured to 



1334.] discovered at Beghram in Kabul. 155 

attempt their arrangement, and if my plan be found correct, the classi- 
fication I should hope will materially assist the study of these coins, 
and their application to historical elucidation. In this memoir I shall 
only treat of the two first classes, as I have not leisure to include the 
three other classes — the study of which, however useful and necessary, is 
more obscure, and cannot be conducted without the assistance of histori- 
cal reference, which of course I cannot command here. Of the Guebre 
coins, which are found in considerable numbers, it may be generally 
observed, that the conquests of Arsaces Mithridates will explain their 
appearance in these countries j but I incline to think we may recognize 
a distinct Parthian dynasty, which may possibly have been founded by 
some enterprising viceroy under his successors. I sometimes indulge 
the hope of identifying a Parthian metropolis in the neighbourhood of 
Kabul. As Sassanian coins are also discovered, it would seem probable 
that these countries were also at some period dependent on the princes 
of the house of Sassan. The Brahminical coins, that is, such as are 
clearly so from their Nagree inscriptions, I calculate may chronologically 
be placed in succession to the Sassanian ones ; and that they formed 
the circulating specie of these countries at the period of the Muhamme- 
dan invasion, is proved by coins with Nagree legends on the one side, 
and Cufic on the other. 

General Observations. — Class, Grecian — Series No. 1. 
Coins of the Recorded Kings of Bactria. 
The Greek coins found in these countries are naturally the most 
interesting. Of the recorded kings of Bactria, we find at Beghram the 
coins of three only, viz. Menander, Apollodotus, andEucRATiDES the 
1st or Great. It may sometimes happen that a medal of Euthydemus is to 
be met with at Kabul, but it must always be considered an importation 
from Balkh. The coins of the two first Bactrian princes, Theodotus I. 
and Theodotus II. we ought not to expect here, as it is certain that 
their rule did not extend south of the Caucasus, the present Hindoo 
Kush. Euthydemus, the third prince, we may conjecture profited by 
the diverted attention of Antiochus the Great from his eastern provinces 
to the Roman invasion, and passed this mountain range ; but the absence 
of his coins leads us to infer that he may have died before he had 
effected a settlement of the countries invaded by his arms. Of the 
celebrated Menander, we have numerous coins ; the features on most of 
them, those of youth ; on none of them, those of age. The legend of no 
one coin describes him as king of Bactria and India, nor is the epithet 
NiKATnP to be found, as applied to him by Schlegel, but that of 
SnTHP. His recorded conquest of a great part of India must there- 
fore have been subsequent to his ascending the throne in Bactria. 
u 2 



156 Memoir on the Ancient Coins, [April, 

Colonel Tod observes, that, he could not fix the period of the conquest 
of Bactria by Menander ; leading us to infer that he was a prince of the 
Greek dynasty on the Hyphasis ; it would appear certain however that 
Menander was a king of Bactria, who extended his conquests very far 
into India, according to the direct testimony of Pliny — which is corro- 
borated by Plutarch, who, in his valuable and honorable mention of 
him, styles him Menander, a king of the Bactrians. 

Of Apollodotus we have several coins, and their discovery in these 
countries proves the fact of his having reigned in them, which has 
been doubted by some, who have alike referred him to the dynasty on 
the Hyphasis. 

It must be confessed, that our views are not at present quite clear 
relative to the reigns and successions of the Bacti'ian princes : if the 
chronological data of Schlegel be correct, we have from the ascension 
of Apollodotus to sovereignty 195 B. C. to that of Eucratides 181 
B. C, but an interval of 14 years, which may have been very naturally 
filled by the reign of the former, while we have the names of three princ- 
es, Menander, Heliocles, and Demetrius, who have claims more or 
less to be considered kings of Bactria. Fortunately, we have other 
kingdoms to which to assign them, should their pretensions to that of 
Bactria be found inadmissible. These points, and some others will shortly 
receive much elucidation, when we become acquainted with the nature 
of the coins found north of the Hindoo Kush. 

The coins of Eucratides I. or Great, are very numerous, and of 
very spirited execution. I believe they are not to be found east of 
Kabul, which, if ascertained to be a fact, yields grounds for the hypo- 
thesis, that in his time, an independent Greek kingdom existed west 
of the Indus, whose capital was the ancient Nysa, or near the modern 
Jelalabad. That such a kingdom existed at the later period, we have 
the satisfaction of being able to demonstrate to a certainty. 

We have discovered no coins of Demetrius, supposed to have been a 
son of Euthydemus ; it is fair to infer then that he never ruled in these 
countries. ColonelToD assigns him to the dynasty on the Hyphasis, 
of which he has some claims to be considered the founder, and which 
we may credit until farther researches may confirm or controvert the 
opinion. 

We are alike without any evidence of Heliocles, whose claim to be 
reputed a sovereign of Bactria appears to have been advanced by 
Mionnet, on the authority of a single medal. 

We find no coins of the last of these kings, Eucratides II. 
although his reign was not a short one, (twenty-two years, according to 
Sculegel.) As he ascended the throne by the murder of his father,. 



1834.] discovered at Beghram in Kdbul. 157 

it is not unlikely that the parricidal act was followed by anarchy and 
the dismemberment of many of his provinces ; — the absence of his coins 
at Beghram would seem to countenance such an opinion, and the 
distracted state of his affairs was probably favorable to the inroads of 
the Getse, who destroyed his empire. 

The coins of the kings of the regular Bactrian dynasty are of excel- 
lent workmanship, and have monograms or eras, from which an accu- 
rate estimation of their reigns may, it is hoped, be adduced. The 
inscriptions or legends of the reverses are invariably Pehlevi, which 
proves it to have been the current language of these countries at the 
period of the Macedonian conquests. The Greeks, as conquerors, inserted 
on the obverses, their own characters, and by them we recognize their 
princes, after a lapse of twenty centuries. Under the auspices of the 
present viceroy of India, the English language seems likely to become 
generally known throughout the eastern empire ; and should this splen- 
did purpose be effected, at some remote period, when the natural 
revolutions of political authority may have placed the natives of India 
under their own government, or that of other conquerors, they may still 
retain a fond and grateful remembrance of their former rulers, while 
they cherish their language and literature. 

Class, Grecian — Series No. 2. Coins of ANTIAAKIAOS ««^AT2I02 
These coins I have classed as a distinct series, and introduced them 
here, because independently of the beards, which are not borne by the 
Bactrian kings, or by the early monarchs of the Nysasan dynasty, it is 
impossible to allow that the sovereigns were Grecian, both from their 
names and epithets — wh'de the fine execution of the coins, and the pure 
Greek characters of the legends, seem to place them at a period syn- 
chronous or nearly so with the Bactrian monarchs. The conical 
emblems on the coins of antiaakiaos we fortunately detect by a single 
specimen to have been also adopted by Eucratides ; and this circum- 
stance establishes a connection, if merely that of descent or succession. 
My opinion of these coins is, that they belong to princes of an inferior 
dynasty, who ruled in the mountainous districts of Caucasus, consequent 
to the destruction of the Bactrian empire, and until their subjugation 
by the Nysaean rulers. Their metropolis may have been Alexandria ad 
Caucasum. In the districts where that city is naturally to be looked 
after, viz. in the Kohistan of Kabul, we find every indication that a 
capital has existed, which has varied its position and name, in much the 
same manner as Babylon. These coins have fortunately monograms, 
which may contribute to their better explanation. 

Class, Grecian— Series No. 3. Coins of ArAGOKAHS, riANTAAEnN, &c. 

This singular description of coins fortunately presents us with the 

name of the princes, although we are denied the satisfaction of beholding 



158 Memoir on the Ancient Coins, [April, 

their features ; and no data are furnished on which we may fix the dynasty 
to which they may have belonged. Setting aside the curious form of 
these coins, their designs are well executed, and the obverse legends 
expressed in pure Greek characters. This circumstance induces me to 
insert the series here, and I should consider the dynasty a distinct one, 
perhaps under nearly the same circumstances as the preceding. The 
consideration of the coins with the legend BA2IAE.Q2 iiantaaeontoS made 
me at first hesitate whether to regard ArAQOKAEOTS as a name, or, an 
epithet; as both descriptions of coins, from the coincidence of obverse and 
reverse, seem to refer to the same prince. A series of uncouthformed coins 
I have included under this series, from the agreement of the obverses : 
the reverses exhibit elephants. These Leonine coins have no legends, 
but figures, which may be their monograms. 

Class, Grecian — Series No. 4. Coins of the Nysaan Dynasty. 

We now come to a series of coins, which it is gratifying to identify as 
belonging to Greek princes, whose seat of empire was at the ancient city 
of Nysa, or Dionysiopolis, founded agreeably to Sanscrit and Greek re- 
cords by Bacchus or Dionysius. Hercules, the tutelary Bactrian deity, is 
represented on some of these coins, and a horseman, alike a Bactrian em- 
blem, on others. These coins, with respect to their type and execution, 
exhibit many incongruities : on many, while the bust is well executed, 
and the features well delineated, the Greek characters of the legends are 
very corrupt. Happily, the Pehlevi legends are generally fair and dis- 
tinct. The princes of this dynasty would seem to have been numerous, 
probably of more than one family ; it is to be hoped, we shall be enabled 
ultimately to identify all of them : at present we have three if not four 
princesof the same name EPMAI02; a SATHPHErAC ; and an ynaa*eppo2*. 
We have the coins of others, the legends illegible. 
Class, Grecian — unarranged Coins. 

These coins I have not referred to distinct series, as it is probable 
that legible specimens will enable us to refer them to some of the pre- 
ceding ones. The coins of EPMAI02 have a similarity in nomenclature 
with those of the Nyssean dynasty, but it will be noticed, that the qua- 
drangular form is not adopted with the latter — another of the coins has 
the figure of Hercules, and another, the epithet MErAAor, the former a 
Bactrian and Nysoean emblem, the latter only observed on the coins of 
Eucratides I. 

Among the supplementary coins which were not found at Beghram, 
and are not in my possession, the coins with the horseman on the 
obverse are certainly Nysaean ; on the reverses is the figure of Ceres ; 
these coins are remarkable for their fair circular form, the pure Greek 

* We follow the ms. : but the second of these names is evidently SftTHP 
MEfAS, see further on. — Ed. 



1834.] discovered at Begliram in Kabul. 159 

characters of the legend, and for being generally plated over with silver. 
They are found generally, I believe exclusively, in the neighbourhood 
of Jelalabad. 

Class, I ado-Scythic— Series No. 1. Coins of KANHPK02, &c. 
The coins of kanhpkos exhibit two varieties as to the reverse. The 
one representing a figure standing to the right, with the legend in 
Greek characters nanaia, the other a figure standing to the left, with 
the legend HAIOC This species of coin has been supposed by the 
Editor of the Journal of the Asiatic Society in Bengal, to belong to 
Kanishka, a Tartar conqueror of Bactria. It is gratifying to be able 
to conjecture somewhat plausibly, that the capital of the prince whose 
coins are now the subject of our discussions, was at Kabul, a fact 
which may confirm or destroy the opinion of his having been Kanishka. 
M. Csoma de Koros, from Tibetan authorities, informs us, that a 
prince Kanishka reigned at Kapila, supposed to have been near Hurd- 
war : and Mr. Wilson endeavors to fix the birth-place of Sakya at 
Kapila, which he places in Oude. If the locality of Kapila rest on 
supposition only, and we be allowed the latitude of reading Kabila, and 
we find from Mr. Wilson's notice that the name is actually so written in 
one dialect and Kimboul in another, we have a great approximation to 
Kabul or Kabool — the question will be nearly set at rest, and Kanishka 
may have been the prince here designated KanhpkoS. But if Kapila 
cannot be allowed to represent Kabul, then we may doubt whether 
these coins refer to Kanishka. But certain will it be that they belong 
to a prince whose metropolis was Kabul. As I find very plausible rea- 
sons are advanced for bringing the epoch of Kanishka to agree with 
that of the overthrow of the Bactrian monarchy, and consequently for 
inferring, that, that event was effected by him, the remark forces itself 
from me that Bactria was conquered from the north by the Getee, and 
not from the east or north-east by the Sacse. That the Getse and Sacae 
were distinct Scythian nations, was too well known to the ancients, 
to allow their historians and geographers to confound them : we find 
even the Latin poet Horace aware of the distinction. I doubt whether 
the Get« at the period of their inroad upon Bactria made any settle- 
ment, assuredly not a permanent one, in the countries now called Af- 
ghanistan ; nor do I feel certain, that, the Greeks did not rally and 
recover their authority in Bactria. A better acquaintance with the 
country will enable us to judge more decisively on these points. The 
barbarians appear to have proceeded southerly, and to have settled 
themselves, in Kuchee, Sind, and the Punjab, where they probably ab- 
sorbed the Greek kingdom on the Hyphasis. In the countries named, 
their descendants still form the great mass of the population, and pre- 



160 Memoir on the Ancient Coins, [April, 

serve their ancient name, Jet. The Greek kingdom of Nysa may have 
sprung up on the subversion of that of Bactria, or, may have been coeval 
with its latter existence ; be this as it may, we are warranted in the 
belief, that, it flourished for along subsequent period : and it is only 
after its extinction that we can consider the coins of kanhpkoS chrono- 
logically, as we cannot suppose sovereigns reigning synchronously at 
Nysa, or Jelalabad, and Kabul. The type and general appearance of these 
coins favor all these suppositions, and while we identify them as belong- 
ing to a dynasty whose metropolis was at Kabul, we may conclude it to 
have succeeded the Greek one of Nysa. Whether the Nyssean govern- 
ment was subverted by Kanishka I cannot determine, but if so, his era 
must have been considerably later than about 130 B. C. 

The king on these coins appears in the double character of king and 
priest. My acquaintance with Buddha literature is too slight to enable 
me to affirm that such was the character of their princes. The altar 
we can by no means allow to be a fire altar, that is, as connected with 
the worship of Mithra ; it is simply an altar, to which indeed fire is a 
general accompaniment, or at least when incense is to be offered, in the 
act of which the king here appears to be employed. This altar very 
fortunately occurs, as it permits us to connect at least five distinct varie- 
ties of coins without the possibility of error. 

Series No. 2. Coins of KAA*ICHC, &c. 
The exact coincidence of the costume and position of the king, with 
the presence of the incense altar on these coins, can leave no doubt of 
their connection with those of KANHPKOS, and establishes the fact of the 
sovereigns belonging to the same dynasty. A tope opened at Kabul by 
M. M. HoNiGSBERGERproved to be the sepulchral monument of Kaa$ichc 
and from it was extracted a basin of factitious metal, with a gold coin, 
the legend on which was BACIAETC Kaa*ichC-OOH ( a representation of 
this coin is given as a supplementary one). This discovery is of emi- 
nent importance, as fixing the capital of the sovereigns of this dynasty 
beyond doubt. The copper medals of KAa*ichc, are of very fair exe- 
cution ; the legends on the obverses corrupted, but very legible Greek. 
They ally with the gold medal, have the same monogram OOH, which may 
be of much asistance. I incline to place the series of KAA*ICHC before 
that of KANHPK02 in a chronological point of view. 

- Series No. 3. 
This series may very safely be placed in succession to the two 
former, while the absence of the altar proves them distinct. I have not 
leisure to offer many remarks, which these coins suggest ; but as the 
legends are evidently Greek, or intended for such, I trust that eventually 
we shall be able to appropriate them with certainty. 



1834.] Discovered at Beghram in Kabul. 161 

The princes, whose coins constitute the two grand classes, just noted, 
excluding those of the recorded Bactrian monarchs, may, I conclude, 
be supposed to fill up by their reigns the period between the overthrow 
of the Bactrian empire and the subjugation of the provinces west of 
the Indus by Arsaces Mithridates. The former event occurred about 
130 years A. C. and the latter without means of reference I cannot de- 
termine*. The coins of Beghram are by no means exhausted, and fresh 
collections will doubtlessly put us in possession of many new ones ; 
indeed, I have now a few unintelligible coins, both Greek and Indo-Scy- 
thic, whose types although unrecognizable are certainly different from 
those described. The princes whose coins are found on any known 
spots or site, may fairly be held to have reigned there. In the first or 
Grecian class, the Beghram collection yields us two princes of Series 
No. 2, two at least of Series No. 3, eight at least of Series No. 4, or 
the Nyssean princes, and two at least of the unarranged coins — making 
a total of fourteen Greek kings. The Indo-Scythic class yields us 
at least nine princes ; if the reigns of the whole of these princes be 
averaged at fifteen years each, the total gives a period of a hundred and 
forty-five years, which would bring us to about 25 A. D. New discoveries 
will certainly carry us to a much later period. 

I shall now close these brief and general remarks on the Greek 
and Indo-Scythic coins of Beghram, which I had intended to have 
made public, at a future period, and in a more formal manner, in 
England, had I not been apprized of the intense interest excited 
by recent discoveries in this species of antiquities. I write from 
a country particularly interesting, and the neighbouring regions are 
perhaps as much so, at least to the antiquarian and historian, as 
any in the world. The Hindoo Kush alone intervenes between us 
and Badakshan, where if we may not be so sanguine as to allow 
its princes even the honor of a bastard descent from Alexander the 
Great, we may be gratified in beholding the posterity of Oxartes, 
his father- in -law, and of Sisymithres, his benefactor and friend, or 
of those who govern in their seats ; also of solving the geographical, 
problem as to the source of the Oxus, by ascertaining whether it issue 
from a glacier as represented to Mr. Elphinstone, or whether it 
emanate from a lake as recorded by Pliny. 

For the last six or seven years, I have directed my attention to the 
antiquities of Central Asia, particularly to the vestiges of its Grecian 
conquerors and rulers. In spite of conflicting circumstances, I have 
made many discoveries, which one day, by the favor of the Almighty, 
I shall make public. I shall not remit my labors : notwithstanding 

* Vaillant places this event in the year 144 A. C. and the final subjugation of Bac - 
tria by the Scythians in 126 A. C— Ed. 
X 



162 Memoir on the Ancient Coins [April, 

the inevitable casualties of time, notwithstanding the defect of histori- 
cal records, notwithstanding the merciless and destructive ravages of 
Muhammedan conquerors, I think, I trust, we have sufficient evidences 
and indications still remaining, to enable us to decide with certainty, or 
to arrive at plausible conjectures on, most of the interesting points con- 
nected with tbese countries, from the period of the Macedonian con- 
quests to the introduction of the Islam faith. 

P. S. Remark on the Etymology of Manikyala. 

General Ventura proposed asthe etymology of Manikyala, " the City 
of tbe White Horse." Mr. Wilson, very properly dissatisfied with this 
explanation, substituted that of " the City of Rubies." I beg to propose 
another which appears to me to be the ccrrect one, and peculiarly appro- 
priate to the building being a Buddhist monument. We find the term 
Manya or Lord and King, applied to Sakya and other Buddhist princes ; 
thus Sakya Manya, " our Lord Sakya ;" Abhi-Manya, our Lord Abhi. 
Kyala, signifying " a place," that is of any kind, why should we not 
read Manikyala, " the place or grave of our Lord or King," that is 
"the King's Grave;" a simple etymology, coinciding with the purpose of 
the monument, truly Buddhist*, and which will pi*event us from bestow- 
ing on a city, a name, I suspect, it never had. It is singular and 
deserving of notice, that of all the topes so numerously found in various 
parts of these countries, that of Manikyala alone should have preserved 
its original Buddhist name. 

Enumeration of Coins collected from Beghram, by C. M. 
Class Grecian — Series 1. Recorded Kings of Bactria : 

Menander, 39 

Apollodotus, 19 

Eucratides, 70 

128 

Series 2. Antilakides, 8 

Ausius, 6 

14 

Series 3. Agathocles, ( . . 10 

Pantaleon, 2 

Coins without legends, 20 

32 

Series 4. Hermseus, 1 34 

Hermseus, II 136 

Hermseus, III 10 

Sotereagas, 171 

Unadpherros, 19 

Coins with horseman on the obverse, 8 

Coins as Fig. 41, 6 

384 

* On Mr. Burnes and myself visiting Manikyala, his Munshi or surveyor in- 
stantly remarked the similarity of the structure to that of Buddha monuments in 
Bombay. — J. G. Gerard. 



1834.] Discovered at Beghram in Kabul. 163 

Unarranged, Hermaeus, 2 

Single specimens, 8 

10 

Total, Greek Coins, 568 

Class Indo-Scythic — Series 1, Kanerkos, 24 

As fig. 3 and 4, 22 

As fig. 5, 6 

As fig. 6 and 7, 16 

68 

Series 2, Kadphises, 37 

As fig. 3, 4, and 5, 254 

291 

Series 3, As fig. 1 to 6, 56 

As fig. 7 to 9, .. . .^ 56 

As fig. 10 9 

As fig. 11, 113 

234 

Unarranged and ambiguous, 12 

605 

Total, Indo-Scythic Coins, 1173 

Guebre Coins, Parth. and Sass 161 

Nagree, 34 

Cufic, 122 

1490 

Unintelligible and useless, chiefly Indo-Scythic, as Figs. 3, 4, & 5, of 

Series, No. 2, 375 

Grand Total, Copper, 1865 

Gold and Silver, Cufic, &c 14 

1879 



Analysis of the Beghram Greek Coins with reference to Plates. 
Plate VIII. Series 1st — Recorded Kings of Bactria. 

Menander. 
Fig. 1. Obverse. A helmed head with Greek legend BASlAEnS 2nTHPOS ME- 
NANAPOT. 
Reverse. A figure of victory standing to the left, the right-hand 
stretched holds a wreath, the left-hand depends by the side, 
and holds a palm branch, legend Pehlevi. — Monogram ]$J B. 
This is one of fifteen quadrangular coins in my possession. I selected it for a 
specimen, both on account of its superior preservation, and of the youthful 
appearance of the king. They all essentially agree, excepting that on the others 
the figure of victory is standing to the right. The monograms vary, HE and HZ. 
On these coins the features of the celebrated Menander display the various 
transitions from youth to manhood. 
Fig. 2, Obverse. Head of elephant, with legend as preceding. 

Reverse. A lengthened figure (fish ?) legend Pehlevi — Monogram H A. 
Fig. 3, Obverse and reverse as preceding — Monogram appears to be A P. 



3 64 Memoir on the Ancient Coins [April, 

Fig. 1, is one of twenty-one copper quadrangular coins in my possession, 
with the same monogram, although struck at various times and with different dies. 
—Fig 2 is given on account of the variance, in the form of the elephant's head, and 
of the monogram ; it is the only one of the coinage I have met with. 
Fig. 4, Obverse. A helmed head with usual Greek legend. 

Reverse. Figure of owl — legend Pehlevi — monogram J)[ 
This is an unique specimen — a beautiful coin. The owl, it is well known, was an 
emblem of Minerva, and, figuratively, of Wisdom. 

Apollodotus. 
Fig. 5, Obverse. Figure of Apollo, standing to the left, his right-band holding a 
dart or arrow ; left resting on a bow — the legend BA2IAEft2 
AIIOAAOAOTOr 2HTHP02. 
Reverse. Emblem with two supports, in an oblong square, defined by dots 
or points — legend Pehlevi — on the right of the emblem is an am- 
biguous character, which may be the monogram. 
Fig. 6, Reverse. Emblem with three supports. (Oracular tripod of Apollo at 
Delphos ?) — legend Pehlevi — monogram to the left of the emblem 
and ambiguous. The obverse of this coin resembles the preced- 
ing, therefore not given. 
Fig. 7, Obverse. Figure of Apollo standing, facing the front — legend the usual one. 
Reverse. The same tripodical emblem, differently designed — legend Pehlevi 
— monogram jij. 
These are three from nineteen copper quadrangular coins in my possession, and 
will shew the various types of the coins of Apollodotus. Figures 5 and 7 are 
single specimens. The omission of the prince's bust will be here noticed, and 
the substitution of the deity Apollo, to whom he was probably consecrated on his 
birth, whence his name Apollodotus, or the gift of Apollo. 

Eucradites. 
Fig. 8, Obverse. Helmed head— Greek legend BA2IAEH2 MErAAOY ETKPATIAOY. 
Reverse. Two horsemen in charge, with spears couchant, and palm branches 
— legend Pehlevi — monogram "4*. 
Fig. 9, Obverse. As preceding. 

Reverse. As preceding — monogram Jj$ E. 
There are two specimens from sixty-six copper quadrangular coins in my posses- 
sion. They are all of excellent workmanship, and the figures in spirited relief : — 
the features of the king are so clearly and strongly delineated as to impress us 
with the conviction of the fidelity of the portrait, and we recognize therein, a 
sovereign worthy of his epithet " The Great." The monograms vary from the 
two noted above, to ¥$, £$, J^f and t°t ; the most prevalent is #f . 

Fig. 10. Obverse. Helmed head — legend BASlAEfi EYKI.. . 

Reverse. Two conical emblems with palm branches — legend Pehlevi. 
This is one of two copper quadrangular coins in my possession. The letters 
EYKP being indubitably distinct, can only refer to a prince of the name Eukra- 
tides, while the epithet MErAAOT obliterated on this specimen, being legible 
on the other, we may safely appropriate them. The conical emblems resembling 
bee-hives are here first noticed, which is to be remembered, as they are also 
adopted on the coins of a prince to be next noticed. 
Fig. 11, Obverse. Helmed head with usual Greek legend. 

Reverse. Female deity sitting, with tunetted crown like Cybele ; to the 



1834.] Discovered at Beghram in Kabul. 165 

right one of the conical emblems — beneath the figure a straight 
scalloped line. 
This, specimen is unique, the obverse in fine preservation ; the reverse a little 
defaced. 
Fig. 12 Obverse. Helmed head. 

Reverse. Two horsemen in charge. Legend BA2IAEH2 MErA .... 
An unique specimen — form oval : — although the name is not to be found here, 
from the horsemen on the reverse, and the epithet, we can have no doubt of its 
belonging to " Eucratides the Great*." 

Plate IX. Series 2. — Antilakides. 

Fig. 13, Obverse. Bearded bust, with fillet or wreath around the head, a palm 
branch or similar emblem projecting from behind the neck. 
Greek legend .... *OPOT ANTIAAKIAOY. 
Reverse. Two conical emblems, with two palm branches, Legend Pehlevi. 
Monogram K. 
Fig. 14, Obverse. Bust— legend BA2IAEH2 NIKH4>OPOY ANTIAAKIAOY. 
Reverse. As preceding — monogram obliterated. 
These are two from eight copper quadrangular coins in my possession. The 
first is of very spirited design, and the venerable features of the king are those of 
a Homer or a Socrates. The beard on these coins is somewhat singular, as it is 
not observed on the coins of the early Greek princes. The legends are in pure 
Greek characters. The conical emblems on the reverse, we have, as noted before, 
been so fortunate to discover on a single coin of Eucratides, proving that they are 
Bactrian. On two other coins we have distinctly the monogram 7T2. 

Ausius. 
Fig. 15, Obverse. Bearded bust, with wreath round the head — hair terminating 
in a pad — palm branch projecting from behind the neck. Greek 

legend. A2IAEX22 ANIKHI Y2IOY. 

Reverse. Figure of elephant — legend Pehlevi. 
Fig. 16, Obverse. Bearded bust, as preceding. Greek legend BA2IAE&2 ANIKH- 
POYf AY2IOU. 
Reverse. Figure of elephant — legend Pehlevi — monogram *Z?2. 
These are two from six copper quadrangular coins in my possession — all of fine 
workmanship and design — the legends are in pure Greek characters. I read the 
name Ausius ; should the first letter by any chance be A in lieu of A, it will become 
Lusius, equally a Grecian name. It is curious that the monograms on these coins 
should be the same with those on some of Antilakides ; it may be that the year 
expressed by A2 was the last of the reign of Antilakides, and the first of that of 
Ausius, who from his aged features will not have been the son, but the brother, of 
the former, a supposition which the great resemblance in features, similarity of 
costume, &c. tend to confirm. The elephant on the reverse I suspect has no parti- 
cular or mystical meaning : it was necessary to place some figure, and this was 
fixed upon, to let mankind know that the monarch was potent, and had such 
animals at command. The elephant, for like reasons, is to be seen on some of 
the coins of Seleucus, which I have procured at Bagdad. Why these two princes 
affected the beard and barbarian head-dress in preference to the warlike helms of 
* I have a similar coin, presented by Captain Wade, in which the name 
EYKPATIA. . is perfect.— Ed. 

f Probably ANIKHTOT, invicti.— Ed. 



1 66 Memoir on the Ancient Coins [April, 

the Bactrian princes, is difficult to decide, and although their high sounding epithets 
make vis desirous of being better acquainted with them, I apprehend we shall only 
be enabled to allow them a limited sway in the regions south of the Caucasus ; 
probably, as I have hinted before, their capital was Alexandria ad Caucasum. 

Series 3. — Agathocles. 
Fig. 17, Obverse. Lion standing to the right. Greek legend BA2IAEH2 ArA- 
0OKAEOY2. 
Reverse. Female deity, with flower in right-hand. Legend Pehlevi. 

This is one of ten copper quadraugular coins in my possession. 

These coins, I presume, are sufficiently interesting ; and fortunately, the pure 
Greek characters of the legend leave to doubt as to the name of the prince. The 
same Agathocles occurs in history, having been borne by the celebrated tyrant 
of Sicily; — by one of Alexander's generals; — and by his grandson, the illustrious 
son of Lysimachus, king of Thrace, put to death by his father on account of 
the base and false information of his step-mother Arsinoe, the sister of Ptolemy 
Soter, king of Egypt. He was killed about 283 B. C. "While we are at a loss 
to assign the epoch of the prince, whose coins we now consider, we may be assured 
that he flourished near that of the Bactrian dynasty, or ere the Greek arts and 
perspicuity of language had declined. The deity on the reverse has no positive 
marks by which to identify her. If it be a flower she holds in her hand, she 
may be Flora ; if heads of wheat, she may be Ceres, or perhaps Proserpine the daugh- 
ter of Ceres ; — the evidence is too slight, however, even to authorize an opinion. 

Pantaleon. 
Fig. 18, Olverse. Lion standing and facing to the right. Greek legend BA2IAEnS 
IIANTAAEONTOS. 
Reverse. Female deity with flower in right-hand. Legend Pehlevi*. 

This is one of two copper quadrangular coins in my possession. The exact 
coincidence of the figures on the obverses and reverses make us fain to consider 
these coins as referring to the same prince as the preceding, notwithstanding the 
variation in the Greek legend. Pantaleon signifies in Greek " in all things a lion," 
that is, always brave. I know not whether to consider this term an epithet, or a 
name, nor do I remember whether as the latter it occurs in historyf . These coins 
have no monograms. 

Fig. 19, Olverse. Figure of lion standing to the left, over the back the character 
■£ — under the head, another of this form, $>. 
Reverse. Figure of elephant — over the back the character ^ . 

This is one from twenty copper quadrangular coins in my possession, the cha- 
racter noted on the reverse, not plain on the coin here represented, is supplied from 
another where it is distinct. These coins are mere massy lumps, the obverses 
struck with a square formed die in the bulk of the metal, the obverses rising in 
relief above the surface. It must be owned, that the absence of legends renders 
their appropriation difficulty, and I have included them in this series only from the 

* The characters of the legend on this and on the following coin, resemble very 
closely those of the inscription on the Allahabad column, No. 1, (seepage 112.) It 
will be important to trace them further. — Ed. 

f A Pantaleon occurs as a king of Pisa, who presided at the Olympic Games 
B. C. 664.— Ed. 

X Some light will I think be thrown on these coins by Captain Cautley's dis- 
covery near Seharanpur.—ED. 



1834.] Discovered at Beghram in Kabul. 1C7 

coincidences of the lion, the clumsy form of the coins, and the peculiarity to he 
observed in the sunken character ofthe obverses. The monogramical characters, it 
is feared, are too obscure to allow much to be gained from them. 

Series 4. — Nyscean Princes, Herm^eus I. 
Fig. 20, Obverse. Bust with wreath around the head ; hair dressed in curls, with 

fillets hanging down behind. Legend Greek, nearly obliterated. 
Reverse. Figure of male deity, probably Hercules, sitting on a throne, 

right hand extended and holding a wreath. Legend Pehlevi. 

Monogram {£*. 
This is one from twenty-eight copper coins in my possession ; it is represented 
here from the fine preservation of the bust, which enables us to become admirably 
acquainted with the features of the prince. 
Fig. 21, Obverse. Same as preceding. Greek legend BA2lAEn5 SnTHPDS 

EPMAIOT. 
Reverse. As preceding. 
This is one of six copper coins of the same size, on which the whole of the 
legends are clear and distinct. On the larger coins they are always imperfect, from 
the dies having been too large for them. By a comparison of these also, no doubt 
remains as to the intended legend. The coins of this prince are remarkable for 
the fair execution of the bust ; the Greek characters are pure, but vary in regularity 
of form on many specimens, as they may have been struck at various periods, and 
by different dies. The position of Hercuj.es on the reverse reminds us of the coins 
of Euthydemus. From every circumstance connected with these coins, we must 
place Herm.eus very nigh the Bactrian epoch. In setting him at the head of the 
Nysaean princes, I must confess I have only negative grounds, and incidental con- 
jectures. We cannot identify him with the Bactrian series ; his name forbids it. 
That he was a prince of power and talent, his coins attest, and his portrait so hap- 
pily preserved on them, convinces us. That he governed at Nysa is proved by 
his medals being found there ; I therefore, in absence of more direct evidence, con- 
sider him a prince of Nysa, perhaps the founder of the dynasty there. All his coins 
agree in the same cast of features, those of a prince of fifty to sixty years of age. 
On a comparison of the Nyssean coins, we may suppose him the father of the 
youthful Herm^eus, whom I call the 2nd ; and that his epoch was anterior to'HER- 
m^eus, whom I call the 3rd, is evident from the decline in the execution ofthe coins 
of the last, and from the corruption of the Greek characters on their legends. The 
adoption of the same name by these three princes seems to prove a connection of 
descent and lineage, so does the figure Hercules on the coins of Herm^eus the 
3rd. That this prince ruled at Nysa, we have the best evidence, because we have 
his sepulchral monument there. 

Herm^eus II. 
Fig. 22, Obverse. Bust with diadem, fillets depending behind. Greek legend, 

illegible. 
Reverse. Female deity ( ?) — legend Pehlevi — monogram ambiguous. 
Fig. 23, Obve>se. Bust as preceding. Greek legend, portion legible, D2. 5V 

epmaidt. 

Reverse. As preceding. Monogram J§J. 

These are two from ten copper coins of the same size and type in my possession 
the legend on the obverse, had the size of the coins allowed its full exhibition 
would obviously have been BASIAEnS SHTHPnS 2V EPMAIOY. 

These coins are well executed, the figures in good relief, and the artist has 
done justice to the features of the youthful king ; there are some points of coin- 



1 68 Memoir on the Ancient Coins [April, 

cidence between these coins and those of Herm^eus I. which deserve to be pointed 
out. The figure on the obverse, I could wish had been a male, (but fear it is not,) 
as its position agrees with that of Hercules on the coins alluded to. The mono- 
grammic characters agree on both, or nearly so, and the style of the Greek cha- 
racters is precisely the same. Thus in the coins of the preceding series, we have 
noted the epithet 2HTHP02, has the O in the final syllable ; in those of Hermjeus 
I, we first note the substitution of □, and it is continued in those before us. If the 
letters 2V be the epoch, we have 74 probably of the Nyssean dynasty. These would 
seem to require other sovereigns before Herm^eus I. and if it be necessary, our 
conjectures may supply them. 

Herm^eus III. 
Fig. 24, Obverse. Bust, with diadem and fillets. Greek legend, portion legible 
BASIAEnS 2 THP02 EPM .... 
Reverse. "Figure of Hercules, with club. Legend Pehlevi. 
Fig. 25, Obverse. Bust, as preceding — Greek legend — the characters visible, con- 
fused from the use of dots or points at their angles. 

These are two specimens from sixty copper coins of the same size and type in 
my possession, besides which I have seventy-six smaller ones. These coins display a 
decline in style and execution, although in neither point of view absolutely bad. 
The smaller specimens are much inferior, many of them even wretched. The dif- 
ference in size between the dies and the coins, here also prevents us from obtain- 
ing any one specimen with the entire legend, but the letters EPM of the name 
distinct on a few, allow us to read the whole EPMAIOT as the preceding ones. On 
the reverses, the figure of Hercules is not to be mistaken. The legend on these 
coins from a general comparison will appear to be BA2IAEJ32 2 THPD2 2E 
EPMAIOT. If 2THPD2 or STHTDSSE have no signification as an epithet, I may 
suggest that THPD2 be read 2HTHP02 and 2E be understood as the epoch, which 
will be fortunate, as in numerals it will be 75, and the coins of Herm^eus II. 
give us 2V or 74*. That he died young may be inferred from our meeting with 
none of his coins on which he has a more aged appearance than the one found 
present. The coins now considered are very numerous. I am not quite certain 
whether we may not eventually find on some of them, other names than that of 
Herm/eus. It is fortunate that the Pehlevi characters on the reverses are in much 
better style than the Greek characters ; a natural circumstance, as the artists were 
probably no longer Greeks, but natives, whose vernacular language was the 
former. 

Satisfactory it is to be enabled to assert that the burial place of Herm^eus the 
III. was near the modern Jelalabad, near which I feel convinced was the celebrat- 
ed city of Nysa. A tope called Janni Tope in its neighbourhood was opened by 
M. Martin, who extracted therefrom three small boxesof stone, containing trinkets 
and other trifles more curious than useful ; also, loosely lying among the earth, 
were found between twenty and thirty of the copper coins of Herm^eus, rusty and 
defaced indeed, but easily recognizable as of the same type as those here described. 

SOTEREAGASf. 

Fig. 26, Obverse. Bust, with diadem and fillets behind hair in rows of curls; rays 

* The Greek numerals must then be read ME and MA. — Ed. 

-f- I have left this as it stands in the MS. but there can be little doubt that the 
title is 2HTHP MErA2 as read on the coins described and depicted by myself in the 
second volume of the Journal, (plates ii. xi. and xiii,) but with these plates before him, 
the author still finds reason to read the inscription HErA2. — Ed. 



1834.] Discovered at Beghram in Kabul. 169 

of glory around the head ; right-hand holding a sword, mace, or 
emblem of command. Behind the head, a trident or symbol of 
supreme authority. 
Reverse. Horseman, the ends of his turban flowing in the wind ; his right 
hand extended, and holding what may be a short sword ; horse 
caparisoned, and apparently furnished with saddle ; before the 
horse a tridental symbol. Legend Greek, portion visible, 
©HTHPHErAC BACIAEV BACIAE... 
Fig. 27, Obverse. Bust, as preceding, sword or mace in right-band, adorned with 

ribbons. 
Fig. 28, Reverse. Horseman, as in Fig.26. Legend Greek BA2IAEV2 BA2IAEUN 

2UJTHP. 
Fig. 29, Obverse. Helmed head, looking to the left ; before the figure a symbol 
difficult to explain, behind it the usual trident. 
Figures 26, 27, and 28, are from fifty -five copper coins of the same size and 
type in my possession ; Fig. 29 is from an unique specimen. Besides these I have 
one hundred and fifteen smaller copper coins of the same type. The whole of 
these coins are distinguished for the bold relief of the busts and figures. 

That the prince, whose medals are now before us, ruled and died at Nysa, is 
established by the fact of twenty-seven (I think) of his copper coin, similar in 
type to Fig. 26, having been extracted from his sepulchral monument in the neigh- 
bourhood of Jellalabad by M. Martin. When we learn that this monarch's coins 
are found generally over the Punjab and north-western provinces of India, even 
to Benares, we form high notions of his extended empire, and conceive exalted 
opinions of his talents, which are confirmed by the manly portrait disclosed on his 
medals. We feel a pride in drawing from obscurity a line of princes, whose edicts 
emanating from Nysa, would seem for a considerable period to have influenced the 
political destinies of a large part of Asia. 

There are many points connected with these coins which deserve attention. On 
the obverses we first observe the king's head, surrounded with rays ; we also here 
first observe the trident ; an emblem to be found on all the succeeding coins of this 
class we have to notice. I presume this to be an emblem of supreme authority, 
but nothing more ; as such I believe it was borne by Neptune and other gods of 
the Grecian mythology. On the reverse we have a horseman, a Bactrian Greek 
emblem, and on many of the coins, as Fig. 26, the Greek characters of the legend 
are much corrupted. On earlier coins of this prince, as Fig. 28, the legend is in 
fair Greek, and varies, as not comprising the HErAC to be found in the first noted. 
The earlier coins have also a much younger appearance, as Fig. 27. 

I hesitate whether to consider CUJTHPHHerAC, a name or an epithet, or a com- 
pound of both. I incline to the latter, considering that CUJTHP be understood an 
abbreviation of CUTHPDC and that H€rAC is the name of the prince : accordingly 
on some of the coins as before noted, we find the legend only BACIAEflC 
BACIAEUJN 2LITHP*. On the other hand, on the coins of a prince hereafter to be 
noticed, we find CWTHPHETAC inserted apparently as an epithet. This prince 
however we can scarcely suppose Greek. Persons more conversant in the Greqk 
language than I am, must decide this point. 

Fig. 29, is a spirited and valuable coin ; we rejoice to behold the warlike king, 
helmed after the manner of his Bactrian ancestors. On this we first observe a 

* This might have taught the author the real meaning of the inscription, but we pur. 
posely avoid correcting the text. — Ed. 



1 70 Memoir on the Ancient Coins [April, 

singular emblem which whatever it may be, serves to connect the next coin we 
notice with the Nyssean ones. On the coins of Sotereagas, the title king of kings 
is first to be observed, borrowed probably from the Partisans. 

The reverse of this coin is not given, so exactly corresponding with that of the 
first figure, even as to the corrupted Greek characters, that it would appear to have 
been struck with the same die. 
Fig. 30, Obverse. Horseman. Legend Greek, but defaced. 

Reverse. Figure (female ?) looking to the right ; behind her an emblem, 
the same as noted in Fig. 29 ; in front another singular globular 
emblem. 
This is an unique specimen, which, until legible specimens be procured, must 
remain unappropriated. That it refers to the Nyssean princes is proved by the 
horseman, which here forms the obverse, and by the singular emblem before allud- 
ed to — the new emblem, no less curious, alike serves us in the arrangement of the 
three next coins which follows : 
Fig. 31, diverse. Horseman. 

Reverse. Figure standing to the left, with globular emblem. 
Fig. 32, Obverse. Horseman, with trident. 

Reverse. Figure standing to the right, with globular emblem. 
Fig. 33, Obverse. Horseman. Legend Greek, portion legible AEflSBASlAEldN. 
Reverse. Figure standing to the left, with globular emblem. 
These three coins, from the types and symbols, we can pronounce Nyssean ; per- 
haps Fig. 31 and 33 may be the same — on the latter the Greek characters are pure 
and distinct. 

Unadpherros. 
Fig. 34, Obverse. Bearded bust, with diadem and fillets behind, jiker on head. 

Legend Greek; portion legible, ACIAEA2 2HTHPD. . 
Fig. 35, 0£»erse. Bust. Legend Greek, portion visible, fEPFDT BACIAE.. . 
Fig. 36, Reverse. Winged figure of victory standing to the right, with wreath ; 
legend Pehlevi. 
There are three from nineteen copper coins of the same size and type in my 
possession. The figure of the prince is somewhat remarkable, but I hesitate not 
to believe him Greek, notwithstanding his beard ; neither do I doubt of his connec- 
tion with Nysa. From a comparison of the united specimens, the Greek legend is 
undoubtedly BA2IAEn2 SHTHPOS TNAA*EPPOY. The tufts on the head I have 
considered the jiker, a plume of feathers worn to this day by Asiatic princes as 
an emblem of royalty. The Sadu-zye princes of Afghanistan were wont to 
wear four jikers, and such of their grandees or officers whom they wished to dis- 
tinguish by their favor, they allowed the permission of wearing one, or even two. 
The reverses of these coins have the figure of victory, also to be seen on those of 
Menander. 

Fig. 37, Obverse. Bust, with diadem and fillets behind ; row of pearls beneath 

diadem. 

Reverse. Horse standing to the left, with forefoot raised. Legend 

Greek, but obscure, BACIAEA legible. 

This is one from six copper coins in my possession. I at first considered it 

Nyssean, from the horse on the reverse, as well as from the beardless bust of the 

prince ; but although I have included it here, I now very much doubt ; and am even 

not certain that it may not be Parthian — if any of the princes of that line are to 

be found without a beard. The legend is written in straight lines in place of the 



1834.] Discovered at Beghram in Kabul. 171 

usual Greek peripheral form : — from a comparison of the six specimens, it will 
appear to be BACIA6A. . HAIIA6V HAIIAIVH : the last letter I am not clear whe- 
ther it be not intended for N. Two or three larger copper coins of this prince 
have been found in Kabul, on which the head is most preposterously large, the 
legend on these is still more unintelligible : a representation of one of these is given 
in the supplementary coins, fig. 48. 

Unarranged Greek Coins. 
Fig. 38, Obverse. Bust. Legend Greek BA2IAEH2 2HTHP EPMAIOT. 

Reverse. Horse standing to the right, forefoot raised — singular charac- 
ter & under his belly. Legend Pehlevi. 
This is one from two copper coins in my possession — the pad on the head is 
here to be noticed — the name EPMAIOT is beyond doubt, but I could not class 
this coin with those of Nysa, as the Greek characters of the legend refer to an 
antecedent period ; the quadrangular form of the coinage also forbids it. 
Fig. 39, Obverse. Figure obscured by time. Legend Greek, but illegible. 

Reverse. Macedonian infantry soldier probably of the phalanx, standing to 
the left, his right-hand extended and holding a wreath, armed 
with spear, sword, and shield. Legend Pehlevi. 
This is an unique specimen in my possession ; another was procured in Kabul, 
which I have represented in the supplementary coins, fig. 43 ; by this it will be 
seen that the figure on the obverse is that of Hercules with his club. The legend, 
here more intelligible, is unfortunately not sufficiently so, as to allow the identifi- 
cation of the coin. 
Fig. 40, Obverse. Figure obliterated. Legend Greek, but nearly effaced. 

Reverse. Figure apparently female, seated on a throne. Legend Pehlevi. 
This is an unique specimen in my possession ; another was procured at Kabul, re- 
presented in the supplementary coins, fig. 44, which shew that the figure on the 
obverse is one standing to the left, with a tridental staff in the right-hand. 
It also shews that part of the Greek legend is BA2IAEUJ2 MErAADT. The epithet 
it will be observed was that adopted by Eucratides I. I doubt whether these coins 
can be referred to him from the presence of the characters UJ and D in the legends, 
which indicate a later period. 

Fig. 41, Obverse. Lion rampant. Legend Greek, but defaced. 
Reverse. Humped cow. Legend Pehlevi. 
This is an unique specimen in my possession — the figures are in high relief. 
Besides the coins here noticed, I have five other single specimens, which, although 
unintelligble, are certainly Greek. Among them is a curious hemispherical coin. 
On the convex obverse is manifestly the delineation of a head ; on the reverse 
that of some animal. I give not the representation of this and the others, because 
nothing is gained from them, but the knowledge that our collection of Greek coins 
is not completed, and that farther discoveries remain to reward research. 

Supplementary Greek Coins. 
Fig. 42, Obverse. Helmed bust. Legend Greek, BA2IAEH2 SHTHPOS ME- 
NANAPOT. 
Reverse. Warrior, in right-hand holding a dish of grapes or fruit, the 
left-hand upraised, holding a bundle of darts. Legend Pehlevi. 
This is a beautiful silver drachma, procured at Kabul, by M. Martin. The 
figure on the reverse admirably illustrates the just ideas which influenced the illus- 
trious sovereign in his government. We need no excuse for introducing any token 



172 Memoir on the Ancient Coins [April, 

which renders us more familiar with the youthful, the beautiful, and beloved 
Menander. 

Fig. 43, Obverse. Figure of Hercules, with club. Legend Greek. 
Reverse. Macedonian infantry soldier. Legend Pehlevi. 
Fig. 44, Obverse. Figure with tridental staff. Legend Greek. 
Reverse. Figure seated. Legend Pehlevi. 
These coins have before been alluded to, they were procured by M. Martin. 
Fig. 45, Obverse. Horseman, with Greek legend, portion legible, BA2IAEA2 BA- 
SIAEflN 
Reverse. Figure of Ceres. Legend Pehlevi. 
Fig. 46, Obverse. Horseman. Greek legend, portion legible, BA2IAEH2 BA2IAEHN. 

Reverse. Figure probably of Ceres. Legend Pehlevi. 
Fig. 47, Obverse. Horseman. Legend Greek, but obscure. 
Reverse. Figure of Ceres. Legend Pehlevi. 
These coins evidently refer to the Nyssean princes, they were procured at Jelala- 
bad by M. Martin — the inscriptions are in pure Greek characters. These coins 
were originally coated over with silver. 
Fig. 48, Obverse. Bust. 

Reverse. Horse with fore-foot raised. Legend Greek, but obscure. 
This coin has been before alluded to, it was procured by M. Martin I believe 
at Jelalabad. 

Class Indo-Scythic — Series No. 1. 
Fig. 1, Obverse. Figure of prince sacrificing on altar. Legend Greek, but partially 
preserved, portion visible, A€VC BA IAEbJN KA 
Reverse. Female figure standing to the right : before her, a four-pronged 
symbol. Legend Greek, NANAIA. 
This is one of seven copper coins of the same size and type in my possession, the legend 
is unquestionably from a comparison of the specimens BACIAEVC BACIAEUJN KA- 
NHPKOT or " The King of Kings Kanerkos." These coins have attracted much 
attention. I have taken the liberty of making my remarks generally on tbem in the 
former part of the memoir. With reference to the legend Nanaja, I may observe, 
that, there are numerous shrines in these parts of Asia, called by the Muhammedans, 
the Ze&rats of Bib 4 Nanni, or, " the Lady Nannee." Hindus also resort to them, 
and each claim the shrine or Zearat as peculiarly his own. The most celebrated of 
these is at Hingohl, as called by the natives, (the Hinglatz I believe of our maps,) on 
the coast of Lus, in Belochistan, near the junction of the Pur alii river with the sea. 
Another famous shrine of Bibi Nanni is on the river Bolan, in the pass leading from 
the Dusht Bedoulet to Kyrta — two or three are in the vicinity of Kabul. I am not 
sure whether the Hindus do not refer these shrines to their deity ParbatL If 
Nanaia should have been the distinctive epithet applied to any of the Greek female 
deities or nymphs, she will be identified with the Hindu deity ParbatI, or the 
one whose shrine is visited at Hingohl, &c, and the Muhammedans in NannI, may 
have preserved the Greek name Nanaia. 

Fig. 2, Obverse. Figure of prince sacrificing on altar. Legend Greek, BAClA€VC 

BACIA€LIN KANHPKOT 

Reverse. Female figure standing to the left, in her front four-pronged 

symbol. Legend Greek HAlOC. 

This is one from fourteen copper coins in my possession of the same type, the 

legend proves them of the same princes as the former coins considered. The 



1834.] Discovered at Beghram in Kabul. 173 

legend HAIOC in Greek signifying the sun, the figure may be considered a 

priestess of Phcebus or Apollo. 

Fig. 3, Obverse. Prince sacrificing on altar, legend corrupted Greek. 

Reverse. Figure standing to the left, with wreath in right-hand. Legend 
corrupted, illegible Greek. 
Fig. 4, Obverse. Prince sacrificing on altar. Legend Greek. 
Reverse. Figure standing to the left. Legend Greek. 
These are two from twenty-two copper coins of the same size and similar types : 
they have an evident connection, notwithstanding the legends appear to vary. They 
are too obscure to allow me to attempt to decipher them until I have perfect leisure. 
Fig. 5, Obverse. Prince sacrificing on altar. 

Reverse. Figure in a running or dancing attitude. 
This is one from six copper coins of the same size and type in my possession. 
This species is easily distinguished by the Bacchanalian, (it may be inspired,) pos- 
ture of the figure on the obverse. 
Fig. 6", Obverse. Prince standing. 

Reverse. Figure standing to the right. Legend corrupt Greek — may be 
intended for NANAIA. 
Fig. 7, Obverse. Prince standing. 

Reverse. Figure standing to the left. Legend corrupted Greek — may be 
intended for HAIOC. 
These are two from sixteen copper coins of same size and similar types in my 
possession. I have introduced them into this series, of which the coins of Kaner- 
kos take the lead, notwithstanding the omission of the altar, as they agree in one 
grand feature marking this series, viz., of the prince standing on the obverse, and 
of a figure or deity standing on the reverse ; if my conjectural reading of the legends 
be admitted, they should follow the coins of Kanerkos, or they may even belong 
to him. 

Series No. 2. 
Fig. 8, Obverse. Prince standing and sacrificing on an altar, a club or other 
emblem to his right ; also a four-pronged symbol to his left, a 
tridental staff, the symbol of majesty. Legend Greek, portion 

legible, BACIA6VC BACIA6V OOHKAA<pICHC. 

Reverse. Female figure standing by cow, which looks to the right. Legend 
Pehlevi, but obliterated. 
Fig. 9, Obverse. As preceding. Legend Greek, BACIA6VC BACIA6UJN 
CUTHPH€TAC OOH KAA<t>ICHC. 
Reverse. As preceding. Pehlevi, legend more distinct. 
Figure 8, is one of eight, and Fig. 9, one of twenty-nine copper coins of similar 
sizes and types in my possession. Happily the legend is clear, and happily we are 
able to announce that the king of kings Kadphises was buried at Kabul, where 
his sepulchral monument was opened by M. Martin, and one of his gold medals 
extracted, a representation of which is given as a supplementary coin. The word 
CwTHPH€TAC occurring on the legends, somewhat perplexes me* : the letters OOH, 
if the era, and denoting 800, may be of some importance, as it maybe Budhist, and 
thatof Sakya; if theeraofGouTAMA be loosely taken at 600 A.C. that of Kadphises 
will be about 200 A. D. Now of Greek princes who must have ruled in these coun- 
tries before him, and subsequent to a known epoch, that of the overthrow of the 
* It is evi ently aa>n)p /xtyas again. — Ed. 



174 Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Kabul, &e. [April, 

Bactrian monarchy, about 130 A. C. we have the coins of at least fifteen, without 
reckoning unappropiated ones — and if we suppose Kanerkos to be Kaniska, and 
that he and his image preceded Kadphises, we have three if not four princes here ; 
allowing upon an average fifteen years for the reign of each of the nineteen princes 
we have a total of two hundred and eighty-five years, which calculating from 130 
B. C. brings us to 155 A. D. : the remaining 45 years may very readily be granted 
to unidentified Greek princes, and we shall have fair grounds for presuming the 
era HOO to be that of Sakya, and that Kadphises reigned at Kabul about 200 A. D. 
Figs. 10,11,& 12, Obverses. Princes sacrificing on altars. Legends corrupt Greek. 
Reverses. Figure standing before cow, which looks to the left. 
These are three from two hundred and fifty-four copper coins of various sizes 
but similar types in my possession. I have not leisure to note all the observations 
which arise from a consideration of these coins. That they refer to the series of 
Kanerkos and Kadphises is evident fromthe presence of the altars, andif they be 
Indo-Scythic, so are also these. While I so far agree with Schlegel and Col. Tod, 
I must differ from them in considering the figures on the reverses to represent 
" Siva and his bull Na.ndi." I know not what the bull may be, but the figure is 
certainly female. These are the most numerous types of coins found in these coun- 
tries. I think it probable they may be ultimately found to include those of several 
princes. They vary in point of execution from tolerable to wretched ; the earliest 
specimens, such as fig. 10, are of fair workmanship. 

Series No. 3. 
Figs. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, & 18, Obverses. Princes standing. Legends corrupt Greek. 
Reverses. Figures on elephants. Legends corrupt Greek. 
These are six specimens from fifty-six copper coins of similar sizes and types in 
my possession. The elephant on the reverse of these coins renders them easily 
recognizable. On these coins, although the costume and attitude of the princes 
are essentially the same with those of the two preceding series, yet the ab- 
sence of the altars suffices to arrange them distinctly — the legends appear 
to vary, but I think there can be little doubt but that the characters are 
intended for Greek. On the coins of this and the other Indo-Scythic series the 
exclusion of Pehlevi will be noted — the tridental staff and four-pronged symbol are 
continued on this and the succeeding coins to be noticed. 
Figs. 19, 20, & 21, Obverse. Princes standing. 

Reverse. Female figure seating on throne (?). 
These are three from fifty-six copper coins of various sizes and similar types in 
my possession — these coins evidently refer to the same line of princes as the former; 
and the legends are as manifestly intended for Greek. 
Fig. 22, Obverse. Prince standing. 

Reverse. Sitting female deity on clouds (?). 
This is one from six copper coins of similar size and type in my possession. 
Fig. 23, Obverse. Princes standing. 

Reverse. Female deity on throne, circles of glory around her feet. 
This is one from one hundred and thirteen copper coins of similar type in my pos- 
session. These coins, although so numerously found, afford no specimens more 
perfect or intelligible than the one here represented, which will suffice to give a fair 
idea of the type. 

I have no doubt but all these coins will be ultimately deciphered ; at present the 
reverses enable us to note four distinct sets, it may be they will have to be subdi- 
vided hereafter. 



Jottr. as. Sac. 



VH.M Fl/.VIir. 




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C Massen. del 



Jotir. us. Soc 



m.in. pl ix 



Jig. 13. 



CLASS. GRECIAN. Series 2 . 
Antilakides. 



JtyU 




J~Ti*|J^1 




Jy.-jfi 



Ausins. 



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Series 3. 
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ty. ZZ 



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CLASS GRECIAN Scries fa 
Coins oftJw Greek JfysaoH Kuup. 



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Jig. 34. 



Series £ 

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Jig- 3£ 



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J.B. Twin. litL. 



Jour, ax Sec. 



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CLASS GBF.CIAN. Series 5. 
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CLASS INDO-SCYTHIC. Series 1. 

CoiflS of JiANHPKVY &c 




Series 2. Corns of KAA <P i chc 8x 




C. .Mjxjjcn cUl. 



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fy.u. 



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J.fi. Tauten, 7tO,<. 



1834.] Journal of a Route through the Veziri Country , 175 

Supplementary Indo-Scythic Coins. 
Fig. 24, Obverse. Bust. Greek legend BACIA.6VC OOH MV KAA<t>ICHC 

Reverse. Standing figure, naked, with three tails ; staff in right-hand — left 
hand holds a ball — in the left, four-pronged symbol. Legend 
Pehlevi. 
This is a representation of the gold medal found in the sepulchral monument of 
the king at Kabul — on the legend we have besides OOH — the letters probably 
MV or MT : if these be also numerals, they may express the years of his reign or 
of his dynasty. 
Kabul, 28th Nov. 183.3. 



II. — Journal of a Route from Dera Ghazi Khan, through the Veziri Coun- 
try, to Kabul. By Dr. Martin Honigberger, in a Letter to Captain 
C. M. Wade, Pol. Agent at Ludiana. Plate XIV. 
[Read at the Meeting of the 20th March.] 
The annual kafila of the Lohdnis was very late in assembling at 
Dtra bend this year. We did not leave that place until the 18th of 
May, and reached Kabul on the 28th of June. The heat of the weather 
during our journey was excessive. It was greater than that of Lahor. 
In tents the thermometer rose to 38 Reaumur. Several persons perished 
from the effects of the heat, as well as a horse belonging to me. 

It has proved an arduous and fatiguing journey. The road through 
the hills was extremely difficult, and strewed over with large stones. It 
was so narrow in some places as not to admit the passage of a loaded 
camel. They were constantly falling down precipices with their kaja- 
tvas, and a good deal of property was sacrificed on the road from these 
accidents. No exertionswere made with success at the time to recover it. 
On reaching the halting place, people were seen complaining in every 
direction of the loss of something ; but those who formed the last part of 
kafila generally collected the property lying on the road, and delivered 
it to the owners on their arrival. 

From the time we entered the hills, until we reached Demendi, we 
were in constant alarm of the Veziris. They did not however shew 
themselves in such force this year as they usually do, yet they did not 
forego their habitual depredations, and notwithstanding the vigilance of 
the armed men of our party, who were to be seen flourishing their arms 
and beating nakaras along the line, the Veziris succeeded in carrying 
off several camels. Those that they could not take away, they killed on 
the spot, and made the best of their way to their fastnesses in the hills. 
At night they would descend and visit our camp, when if they found 
that our guards were not on the alert, they would steal any property 
that they could lay their hands on. There was no vestige of population 
where we were infested by these plunderers, and consequently the mer- 



176 . Journal of a Route [April, 

chants who frequent this route provide themselves with a stock of pro- 
visions sufficient to last them through the Veziri country before their 
entrance into the hills. 

As soon as we had passed the limits of the Veziri tribe, we came in con- 
tact with the Suleiman kheil, who resemble the Veziris in their predatory 
habits, and like them have the virtue not to take the life of their victims. 
When a man falls into their hands, they strip him of every thing they 
find about him, and let him go. On the same principle of forbearance, if 
any of these freebooters fall into the hands of Lohdnis, they spare his 
life, but inflict every other kind of injury on him, such as stoning and 
beating with clubs, pulling off his beard, and setting it on fire. In fact, 
they use almost every species of torture short of death. On the arrival 
of a kafila among the Suleiman tribe, they come and barter ghee, curd, 
ropes, and such like articles, with the merchants, for clothes, which en- 
ables them to see and ascertain the situation of the property belonging 
to a kafila, and as the night falls, and the travellers retire to rest, these 
pests come to the camp and carry off such things as they have previous- 
ly marked for their prey. 

There is a singular custom among these people : their women form 
their hair into ringlets, which they throw over their head, so as to cover 
their eyes, and half of the face ; and when these damsels wish to use 
their eyes, they raise their heads backwards, so as to move these 
ringlets from the line of sight. The Lohdni women invariably have 
a Venetian gold coin suspended on their forehead, and the generali- 
ty of these people wear black- coloured clothes. Their tents are of the 
same colour. They speak the Afghani language, which is very harsh 
and uncouth, compared with the Persian ; but the mercantile part of the 
tribe, who resort to Kabul, Hindustan, and Bokhara, have a knowledge 
of Hindustani, Persian, and Turki. Their wives are of great use to them. 
They share their toils, load their camels, pitch their tents, and perform 
every other domestic duty. On their journeys they travel in kajawas two 
and two on each camel. During the hot season, these people leave 
their homes and move towards Ghezm'n, to pass their time in the 
neighbouring mountains, which possess a cool and temperate climate 
from their superior elevation. They generally pass two months on this 
migratory excursion, and remain the rest of the year at De'ra bend. 
There may be altogether about one thousand families of these Lohanis, 
four hundred and fifty of which reside at Selkhir, a place which they in- 
herit from their forefathers, and the others live at Kara bdgh. They 
maintain a standing force of two hundred horse, besides a portion of foot 
soldiers. About one hundred of them separated from us at the fortress 
of Kheruti, and went towards Kandahar. They have altogether ten 



1834.] from Dera Ghd*(-Khan to Cabul. 177 

thousand camels of burden belonging to them, and trade in all the pro- 
ductions of Hindustan. Large quantities of indigo are exported annually 
by them from Mult an, Bhdwelpur, Dera Ghazi-Khdn, to Khordsan and 
Bokhara. Four lakhs of rupees is the estimated amount of duties which 
they pay every year to different branches of the Cabul Government, ac- 
cording to the following details, viz. two lakhs at Cabul, one lakh at 
Gheznin, and one lakh at Bamidn. 

In the course of my journey I intended to have made a collection of 
scarce botanical specimens, but partly owing to the extreme heat which 
had parched the vegetation, and partly to the ravages of locusts, I could 
not collect many, but have obtained a few, which I preserve. I wished 
very much to visit the Gul mountain, for the purpose of collecting plants. 
It is said to be remarkable for the richness and variety of its vegetation ; 
but I was advised not to make the attempt, as the Hazdras, to whom the 
district of Kara-bag h belongs, are in a state of rebellion. The Hazdras 
are a very extraordinary people, and have very uncommon features ; they 
have little eyes, small noses, and thick ugly lips, with scarcely any 
beards : those who have any, merely possess a few scanty hairs. 

When I was leaving Dera Ghazi-Khdn and Daman, the people had 
reaped their spring crops. On arriving midway at Gheznin, I was 
surprised to find that the grain had only just begun to spring up, In 
Daman, the thermometer stood at 38 Reaumur, and on ascendingtbe range 
which forms the proper limit of Khordsan in this direction, it fell to 27, 
which is nearly as cold as Simla. The difference in the climate of the 
two places is distinguished by a great change in their vegetable produc- 
tions. The sugar-cane, which grows at Daman, is not produced here. 
On approaching Khordsan, we began to feed our camels on a herb which 
is called " turk," produced in abundance in this quarter. 

There has been an extraordinary fall of snow this year in Cabul. 
The oldest inhabitants of the city do not remember ever having witness- 
ed such a severe winter. On the 5th of June, the thermometer at Cabul 
ranged from 15° to 25° Reaumur, (66° to 89° Fahr.) 

It was my intention on my arrival at this place to accompany a kdfila, 
bound to Bokhara, which was ready to start the next day, but Nawab 
Jabbar Khan would not let me depart without spending some days 
with him. He informed me that Bederuddin, the great merchant who 
conducts the trade between Cdbul and Bokhara, would set out for Tur- 
kistdn in a short time, and I could proceed with him. I have accord- 
ingly deferred my departure. 

There is an European here by name Mapson. He was several years in 
the Punjab. It appears that he has also been to Tabriz, and has lately 
come to Cabul by the way of Belochisldn ; he resided some time at Bami- 



178 On the Aptitude of the Himalayan [April, 

an, where he amused himself in making excavations, and has succeeded 
in finding several idols. At Cabul, he has been engaged in the same 
kind of pursuit, and has been rewarded here also by his discovery of 
several idols quite entire. Among his discoveries is an inscription on a 
piece of paper made of the leaf of a tree, but which unhappily is so 
worm eaten and injured by the lapse of time as not to be legible. 

The recommendatory letter which you wrote to Syed Keramet Ali, 
respecting me, has been delivered to him ; he frequently visits me, and 
shews me every attention in his power. A kdfila from Bokhara is ex- 
pected here either to-day or to-morrow. Nawab Jabbar Khan is very 
anxious to procure some platina, for making experiments in alchemy ; 
the mysteries of which, the credulous natives of this country labour in 
vain to discover. 

I send you herewith a rough map of the country lying between Cabul 
and Hera Ghdzi-Khdn, which we traversed, and hope that it will be 
acceptable, notwithstanding its imperfect execution from my want of 
skill as a draughtsman. (See the accompanying Plate.) 



HI. — On the Aptitude of the Himalayan Range for the Culture of the Tea 
Plant. By Dr. H. Falconer, Supt. of the H. C. Bot. Garden, Seha- 
runpur. 
[Extracted from a Letter to G. J. Gordon, Esq. Secretary to Committee of Tea 

Culture.] 
The most productive tea districts in China, according to all accounts, 
lie in the maritime provinces of Fokien, Kyanti, and Kyang-nau, chiefly 
between 27° 30' and 31°N. lat. and long. 112° to 117°. One kind, Lu- 
ngau-cha (a superior sort of Hyson) is said by the Jesuit missionaries to 
be produced so high north as 38° andE. long 100°, and another, PaeuU 
cha, brought from the province of Yunnan, is said to be procured from 
mountains in the lat. of 25° on the frontiers of Ava and Pegu. The 
tea plant is grown on the sloping sides of mountains or in valleys, but 
chiefly at the foot of mountains. It is also produced in level tracts, but 
less advantageously. Besides the explicit information given by Dr. 
Abel, from actual examination of one district, it is sufficiently certain 
that the rock formations in most of the tea districts, are chiefly primary, 
from their being productive of metals which are only found in such 
formations. The best tea soils are said to be light, gravelly, sandy, 
and whitish (blanchatre in Duhalde, probably calcareous), with little 
accumulation of vegetable mould. Le Comte says, the best Tea is pro- 
duced in a gravelly soil, the next best in a light or sandy soil, and the 
inferior in a yellow (jaune, probably clayey) soil. It is admitted on all 
hands that the teaplant thrives best with an open exposure to the south. 



Jour, cut. S0C. 



Vol.IU. P(- XIV. 




J. P. Tallin, Itfjv. 



1834.] Range for the Culture of the Tea Plant. 179 

The climate of the whole of China is remarkable in respect of tem- 
perature, and it must be duly weighed when the acclimatization of any 
of its peculiar vegetable productions in another country is concerned. 
Latitude alone is here no guide, the mean annual heat being much under 
what is observed in most other countries at an equal distance from the 
equator. Pekin, lat. 39° 54', nearly at the level of the sea, has a mean 
annual temperature of 54.36 ; calculated for the latitude theoretically by 
a formula* of very general application for the distribution of heat ac- 
cording to latitude without reference to other modifying causes, we get 
62° 5' ; — a difference of about 7°. 5 above the observed mean temperature 
of the year. But it is in the excesses of the summer and winter seasons 
that the climate is most remarkable. It has a winter temperature of 
26° .42, or nearly that of Upsal in lat. 59° 51' (20° further north) and a 
summer heat of 82°. 58. Its winter climate is that of Copenhagen, and 
its summer heats are as scorching as at Cairo. Between the mean 
temperature of the hottest month in summer and the coldest of winter, 
there is a difference of not less than 59° of Fahr., a climate of excesses 
almost without parallel in any part of the globe except Quebec in 
Canada. This condition, which is owing to the vast accumulation of land, 
extending from the arctic pole on through eastern Asia to China, is not 
confined to the northern provinces. It extends to Canton within the 
tropic, but modified there by the equalizing effect of a now tropical ocean 
about it. The mean annual heat of Canton, lat. 22° 10', calculated 
theoretically for this latitude, gives 7 5°. 5, Fahr. ; reduced from a regis- 
ter in the Transactions of the Medical Society of Calcutta, the observed 
mean temperature is 73° nearly. The mean of the coldest winter month 
is 54° ; of the hottest summer month 85°. 5. I am not aware that any 
determination has been made of the climate in the provinces between 
Pekin and Canton, and I have not access to the later writers on China. 
But an approximation may be made to the temperature of the tea dis- 
tricts from the facts known regarding Pekin and Canton. Assuming 
that the most productive tea districts extend from 27° to 31° N. lat. 
and taking 29° as the central tract, by calculation for this latitude we 
get 71° Fahr. for the mean annual heat at the level of the sea. As- 
suming further, that the refrigerating influences on the climate of China, 
which have been seen to be 7°. 5 at Pekin and 2°. 5 at Canton, amount 
to 5° Fahr. in the parallel of 29° lat., and deducting this from 71°, we get 
66° for the mean annual temperature. The elevation of the tracts of 
tea cultivation above the sea will form another abatement on this sum. 
But on this point I have no grounds to form any thing like a precise 

* Mean temperature=81 Cos. Lat. 
t Vol 6t'a, by Mr. Pearson. 



180 On the Aptitude of the Himalayan [ApRii, 

conclusion. It is stated by Duhalde that the tract from which one 
of the finest green teas, Song-lo-cha, is brought is a mountain in the 
district of Whey-choo-foo of the province Kyang-nau, of no great height 
or extent (peu de hauteur et d'etendue). Supposing that the Tea 
cultivation reaches the height of 3000 feet above the sea, and making a 
reduction for this altitude, the resulting mean temperature might be a 
range of 56° to 64°. What the range of temperature between the cold 
of winter and the heat of summer is, it may be difficult to say. The heat 
of summer cannot be less than at Pekin, which is 10° higher north : and 
it has been seen that the difference between a summer and a winter 
month at Canton within the tropic is 30°, while at Pekin N. lat. 40°, 
it is 59° Fahr. ; it may therefore be assumed that in the lat. of 28* 
the range of the thermometer from the mean of summer to that of win- 
ter is not less than 40° Fahr. 

In regard to the moisture of the climate, there is little precise in- 
formation, and what is known is chiefly as confined to Canton. The rains 
are not regularly periodical, as is the case on this side of the continent 
of Asia, within the same parallels ; rain seems to fall all months of the 
year, although heaviest from August till October. The mean fall of 
rain, as entered in the above quoted Canton register, is for 1829, 
42 inches; 1830, 50 inches ; 1831, 70 inches. Average of the three years 
56 inches. In the tea districts the quantity must be less, excepting at the 
greater elevations. At the northern limit, snow falls abundantly during 
the winter. At the southern limit, in the province of Canton, where 
large quantities of the inferior teas are produced, snow is never seen. 
It is probable that it falls occasionally in the centre districts on the 
higher elevations. 

The circumstances of climate therefore, in regard of temperature and 
moisture, under which the tea plant is cultivated in China, may be 
stated thus : that the tea is produced, over an extent of country where 
the mean annual heat ranges from 73° to 54° 5' Fahr. : where the heat 
of summer does not descend below 80°, and the cold of winter ranges 
from 54° to 26° ; where the difference between summer and winter heat 
is on the northern limit 59°, and on the southern 30° Fahr. ; that it 
is cultivated in highest perfection where the mean annual heat ranges 
from 56° to 64°. That rain falls in all months of the year, and that 
the moisture of the climate is on the whole moderate. 

The foregoing remarks will apply in a great measure to Japan, in 
some parts of which excellent teas are produced. Without entering on 
details, it may be sufficient to say, that at Nangosa-ki the mean tem- 
perature of the year is 60°. 8 ; the greatest observed heat in summer, 
98°; the temperature of January, the coldest month, 35° ; that rain falls 



1834.] Range for the Culture of the Tea Plant. 181 

periodically about mid-summer ; that in the higher parts of the coun- 
try heavy snow falls in winter, with intense frost ; that the mean 
temperature of the summer is 83°, and that of winter, 39°. 

It may now be worth considering the countries into which the tea 
plant has been introduced and failed. 

At Penang, close to the line, with a mean annual heat of 80°, and equa- 
ble climate the whole year round, and an excessive fall of rain, amounting 
to nearly 80 inches for the year ; the climate is in every respect so much 
in contrast with that of China, that the tea could not be expected to 
be grown. The same is the case with St. Helena, where although the 
mean heat for the year is 73°, the thermometer does not fall in winter 
below 55°, and the climate is moist and cloudy. Of the causes of failure 
in Java I am less able to judge, but they are likely to be found in its 
low latitude, 6° 9', the excessive moistness of the climate, and the 
great fall of rain during the year. At Rio Janeiro, tea was tried under 
a colony of Chinese, and failed, perhaps from being within the tropic, 
and its too great heat, with a moist and generally equable climate. It has 
been twice attempted by the French in the Carribee Islands. The first 
occasion in Martinique was a failure. I do not know the result of the 
second, but a lat. any where between 11° and 19°, with the kind of 
climate consequently implied, gives little chance of success. 

There is perhaps no part of the Company's territories in India which 
supplies all the conditions of the tea districts of China, in respect of 
climate. But there are situations which approach it so nearly, as 
strongly to bear out the conclusion, that tea may be so successfully 
produced in this country as to be an object of high commercial import- 
ance. It appears to me that this can be expected in no part of 
the plains of India. The mean annual heat of the climate from 30° N. 
down to the parallel of Calcutta, is much beyond that of the tea culti- 
vation in China. We have in addition to an excessive summer heat, with 
either hot winds or a close scorching air during the day, a barely 
temperate winter cold, and heavy periodical rains. We certainly get some 
Chinese fruits, such as the lechee, the loquat, and the wampee to grow, 
but the tea plant appears to require a greater cold to thrive in. It 
has been seen that the annual heat of the southern limit of tea cultiva- 
tion in China, assumed to extend to Canton, is 73°* Fahr. At Seharun- 
pur, which may be considered as at the northern limit nearly of the 
plains of Hindustan, 8° of lat. higher and 1000 ft. above the sea, the 
mean temperature of the year is 73° Fahr. ; the temperature of June, i* 
90°, and of January, 52°. 

* At the level of the sea. 



182 On the Aptitude of the Himdlay an [April, 

As we go south towards Calcutta, the temperature increases, al- 
though not uniformly, as may be seen from the observed heat of 
Futtygurh, Benares, Ghazipur, and Calcutta. 
77°. 5 77°. 81 77°. 36 78°. 3 

In the Himalaya mountains, the case is widely different : excepting 
periodical rains, all the conditions of a temperate climate are here found, 
and, here above all parts of India, we may look for the successful culti- 
vation of tea. Our not possessing mountain territory below 29° may 
alone exclude the consideration of the fitness of the southern tracts. 
My personal knowledge of the hills is chiefly confined to the tract be- 
tween the Ganges and Jumna. In consequence of being tied to 
Seharanpur, from having the medical duties of the station to attend to, 
in addition to the Botanic Garden, I have not been able hitherto to see 
much of the mountains: but, as the rock formations and the configuration 
of the hills are the same along an immense tract, the remarks which 
I have to make will apply very generally to the hills. 

The Himalayas have a direction running from N. W. to S. E. 
They consist, on this side of the snowy range, chiefly of primary rocks, 
inclined at a considerable angle. The dip of the strata is to the E. of 
N. and their abutment to the W. of S. On the flank of the great 
range there is a line of low hills, the Sewalik,which commence at Roopur, 
on the Satlej, and run down a long way to the south, skirting the great 
chain. In some places they run up to, and rise upon, the Himalayas ; in 
others, as in this neighbourhood, they are separated by an intermediate 
valley. Between the Jumna and Ganges they attain their greatest height, 
which Captain Herbert estimates at 2000 feet above the plains at their 
foot ; or 3000 above the sea. Seharanpur is about 1000 feet above the 
sea. About 25 miles north are the Sewalik hills. They are here 
about six or seven miles wide. To the east of the Ganges and west of 
the Jumna, they gradually fall off. They have the same direction with 
the great chain, and agree generally in dip ; their slope being towards 
the north and abutment to the south. They rise at once against 
the plains, with an abrupt mural front. They are serrated across their 
direction, forming a succession of scarcely parallel ridges, with a steep 
face on one side, and slope on the other. The strata are inclined at an 
angle of 25° to 30°. They are of recent tertiary or alluvial formation, and 
consist of friable sandstone or gravelly conglomerate, agglutinated by a 
calcareous cement, containing subordinate beds of clay : the upper 
strata are entirely gravel. Beyond these hills lies the valley of Dehra, 
1200 or 1400 feet above the sea, and then the great chain of the 
Himalayas. The following rude sketch will perhaps give you an idea 
of the whole better than description ; the distances are not in proportion 
in the section. 



1834.] 



Range for the Culture of the Tea Plant. 



183 



r 



\ N 



2J c c d c c c c a 

(a) level of the sea at Calcutta ; (b) level of Sehiiranpur, 1000 feet above the 
sea ; (cc) the Sewdlik hills ; (cV) the strata of sandstone and conglomerate ; (c"c") 
strata of gravel ; (dd) the valley of D£hra ; (ee) strata of the Sewalik hills, in 
some places rising on the Himalayas ; (ff) outer ridges of the Himalayas ; (gg) pri- 
mary strata ; (h) the valleys or hollows between the ridges. 

I regard these hills as an upheaved portion of the plains at the foot 
of the Himalayas, and that they are formed of the debris of the mountains 
washed down by streams, and other natural causes. They are covered 
with vast forests of saul, toon, and fir, and are uninhabited. 

The soil of the Sewalik hills and of the valley of Dehra takes the 
character of the rocks. It is dry sandy or gravelly, with a considerable 
quantity of calcareous matter, and it appears to me to possess the cha- 
racter indicated for the tea districts in China. 

The great chain of the Himalayas rises in a ridge with an abrupt 
steep face against the plains of about 6000 feet in height ; there is then 
a slope from the crest of the ridge towards the north. This is the 
general character of the Himalayas : the mountains on the side of the 
snowy range consist of a series of nearly parallel ridges, with inter- 
mediate valleys or hollows. They throw off spurs in all directions into 
the hollows, forming subordinate valleys. There is nothing like table- 
land (perhaps in the whole of the mountains, with the exception of Ni- 
pal), and the valleys are rather broad, wedge-shaped chasms, contracted 
at the bottom to a mere water-course, than any thing else ; in fact, the 
ridges and intermediate valleys, as a general law, form a series of salient 
and re-entrant angles, as seen in the sketch. In consequence the 
quantity of level or nearly level ground to be met with is most inconsi- 
derable. From the dip or slope being towards the north, and the 
abutment to the south steep, the great mass of vegetation has a northern 
exposure, and the southern faces of the mountains are generallynaked. 

The formations are primary ; the first towards the plains consist of 
vast strata of limestone, lying on clay-slate, crowned by slate, greywacke, 
or sandstone. Beyond the limestone tract, gneiss, clay-slate, and other 
schistose rocks occur. Granite, so far as I know, is not found in the outer 
ridges. It occurs in the mountains nearer the snowy range. I have 
not gone that length, and have not yet seen granite in situ. The igneous 
rocks, which have been concerned in the upheavement of the outer tracts, 
are of the green-stone trap series, and are very generally met with in 



184 On the Aptitude of the Himalayan [April, 

dykes intersecting and rising through the regular strata. The forma- 
tions have a remarkable feature : — the strata are in all directions frac- 
tured or comminuted : the slaty rocks are broken into small fragments, 
as if they had been crushed ; and the limestone rocks are vesicular or 
cavernous, and broken up into masses. 

The arrangement and nature of the soil take their character from 
the rocks. From the high angle at which the latter are inclined, 
and the northern direction of the slope, the soil is chiefly accumulated on 
the northern sides, where is also the vegetation. From the prevalence 
of schistose strata, and limestone, the soil under-lying the vegetable 
mould is clayey and calcareous, or limestone gravel. There is little 
sandy soil, or sandy gravel. From the extreme richness of the vegetation 
undisturbed for ages, and the moisture of the climate, there is usually a great 
accumulation, on the northern slopes, of vegetable mould ; on the south- 
ern faces, the great steepness leaves little room for the accumulation 
of soil; where it occurs, it is in patches, and consists of clays or limestone 
gravel, mixed up with vegetable mould. There is here also little sandy 
soil. Towards the crest of the slopes, the soil is usually drv, from the 
moisture running speedily off; but lower down, and wherever the ground 
is tolerably level, the soil is quite damp, and perhaps it is rarely dry 
in the most parching seasons. 

Cultivation is laborious and difficult. From the absence of table-land, 
and the angular and contracted shape of the bottom of the valleys, there 
is little or no level ground. The most favorable slope is taken, and 
besides the usual tilling of the ground, it has to be divided into patches, 
which are built up into inconsiderable terraces, rising the one above 
the other like the steps of a stair. These circumstances might make 
the cultivation of tea scattered, and prevent it from being produced in 
any great quantity on one spot. 

The climate of the Himalayas is decidedly damp. The periodical rains 
commence about the middle of June, and continue till the end of Septem- 
ber. They are greatly heavier than in the neighbouring plains, and 
continue at times for many days without intermission ; occasional rains 
occur in most months during the year. The mean annual fall has 
been estimated by Mr. Traill, Commissioner of Kemaon, at Hewalbagh, 
near Almora, about 4000 feet above the sea, and lat. 29° 30', at from 
40 to 50 inches. But this I imagine is too little. From the middle of No- 
vember, till the end of February, occasional falls of heavy snow take place, 
down to the level of 6000 feet above the sea ; on the outer ridge of the 
mountains, and lower down within the hills, perhaps to 3500 feet. It is 
a great cause of the richness of vegetation and dampness of soil. In 
the poorer tracts (such as the district of Jounsar) if snow does not 
fall during the winter, the subsequent crop invariably fails. 



1834.] Range for the Culture of the Tea Plant. 185 

From the end of February till the middle of June, and from October 
till the middle of November, the sky is generally clear and unclouded. 
During these months, in consequence, very heavy dew is deposited dur- 
ing the night : so that as a general fact, it may be stated, what with 
rain, snow, and dew, that moisture in one shape or other falls abundantly, 
every unclouded day during the year : and the cloudy days without rain 
do not amount to a month in the year. 

In respect of heat the climate of the Himalayas, lat. 29° 30', at an 
altitude of 4000 feet above the sea, is temperate; thehot winds cease, and 
the vegetation takes on a European character. In those parts of the 
mountains, such as Masiiri, where the outermost ridge rises at once 
from the plains to the height of 5000 or 6000 feet, the climate is perhaps 
equal to any thing known. About three hours after sun-rise, the heated air 
of the Dun or valley, particularly during the hot months, rises and esta- 
blishes a current upwards. It gets rarefied, and consequently cooled, and 
causes a cool fresh breeze across the hills towards the interior, which 
diminishes the effects of intense solar radiation at this season. It is as 
regular as the sea-breeze of a tropical island. At Masuri, 6000 to 7000 
feet above the sea, the mean annual heat is 57°; the hottest months 
June and July, have a mean temperature of 67° ; the coldest months are 
December and January, the mean heat of January is 42°. At Hawul- 
bagh, below Almora, nearly 4000 feet above the sea, the mean temperature 
for the year, deduced from Mr. Traill's* register, is 60°; that of Janua- 
ry is41°, and of July, 70°, givinga range of 39° between the coldest and 
hottest months of the year. Between the temperature at 7 a. m. in 
January and 2 p. m. in July, there is a difference of 53°. On one 
occasion, the thermometer stood at 18°, shewing a range of not less than 
60" between the greatest observed extremes of summer and winter. 

In the valley of Dehra, according to the Honorable Mr. Shore, the 
mean temperature of the year is about 70°. 5. The mean of the hottest 
month is 84°, and of the coldest 5 3°. 2. The greatest observed heat 
was in June 101°, and the maximum cold was in January 37°. 7. The 
greatest range of temperature in a month was in April, the maximum 
being 93°, and the minimum 53°, a difference of 40° ; the least range 
was in August, the maximum being 90° and the minimum 72°, a differ- 
ence of 18°. The extreme difference for the year was 63°.2; shewing one 
of the most " excessive" climates known. Speaking generally, it may 
be stated of the Dun, that the cold weather commences earlier, and 
lasts longer than in the plains in the neighbourhood ; and that the cold 
of winter is greater : that the hot winds of the plains are shut out by 
the Sewalik lower hills, on the S. W. of the valley. A partially hot 
wind is at times felt, but the European residents do not use tatties for 
* Transactions, Asiatic Society, vol. xvi. 

A A 



186 On the Aptitude of the Himalayan [April, 

refrigeration. No register of the fall of rain, so far as I know, has 
been kept, but it may be said that more falls than on the plains near 
the Dun, and less than on the mountains above it. According to 
Mr. Shorb, the average of three years was 112 rainy days in 365. 
The climate is decidedly damp, and remarkably so in contrast with the 
plains. This is a necessary consequence, from its situation between 
the Himalayan mountains and the Sewalik Hills, and from the great 
quantity of jungle with which it is still covered. In the hot 
winds, on entering the Dun, after leaving the parched and withered 
aridity of the plains, the eye is filled with a refreshing vista of luxuriant 
verdure. Parasitical orchidese or air plants, which require a combination 
of great moisture and heat to thrive in, cover the trees in the greatest 
profusion : while at Seharanpur, they are kept with difficulty alive, 
under a constant supply of artificially afforded moisture. Very rarely, 
perhaps once or twice in the memory of man, snow falls in the Dun. 
Mr. Shore records an event of this kind as having occurred in Feb. 1814. 
From what has been mentioned above, it appears to me that there is a 
great similarity between the climate of the tea districts of China, and 
that of the lower heights, or the outer ridges of the Himalayas, in the 
parallel of 29°30\ The chief difference is perhaps more moisture in 
this country. How extensive a range of temperature may be had will 
be seen by collating in a tabular form, the temperature of four places 
already given, as below : 

Annu 
Seharanpur, 1000 feet above the sea, plains, 
Dehra valley, 12 to 1400 feet do. Himalayas, 
Hawulbagh, 3887 feet do. do. 

Masuri, 6500 feet do. do. 

By varying the altitude the temperature could be graduated to any 
point that might be desirable, and as temperature is the mean condition, 
I am of opinion that tea might successfully be cultivated in this part of 
India. It is an experiment which can be conducted properly only by a 
Government. On an extensive scale, the risk would be too great for pri- 
vate speculation, and on a small one, the advantage too inconsiderable. 
There remains now to consider what situation is best adapted for a trial. 
Besides fitness of climate, there are other circumstances to be taken into 
account as affecting a favorable experiment : — such as abundance and 
cost of labor, facility of communication, and distance from the plains. 

Three stations in the mountains within the Company's territories might 
be thought of, Almora, Subathu, and Masuri. The hills about Al- 
mora, although favorable enough in climate, are separated from the 
plains by a broad belt of Terai, which is only passable at certain sea- 
sons of the year : and it is so unhealthy as to be unsafe at all times to 
pass through. The population in the neighbouring hills is scanty, and a 
great portion of the Terai is uninhabited. Were the tea cultivated, be- 



iean heat. 


Summer heat. 


Winter heat 1 


73° 


90° 


52°. 


70°.5 


84 


53 ? 


60 


70 


41 


57 


67 


42 



1834.] Range for the Culture of the Tea Plant. 187 

sides a permanent establishment, at the season of gathering, a number 
of additional hands would be required, which could only be advantage- 
ously provided where labour was plentiful and cheap. On these ac- 
counts, I am inclined to think, that Almora would not be an elegible 
district to make a trial in. 

Of Subathu I cannot speak from personal observation, but I imagine 
it would be a good situation. It is immediately over the plains. 
There is some level ground about it; there is no Terai jungle in front of 
it, and the country at the foot of the mountain is inhabited. The 
valley of Pinjor, in the neighbourhood, is populous. The climate is 
like that of corresponding heights on the hills north of the Dun. 

I am inclined to think the best ground would be near Masuri on 
the hills north of the Dun. The district lies between the Jumna 
and Ganges, which are navigable till within a few marches from the 
foot of the hills. The communication with the plains is open almost all 
months of the year, and the valley of the Dun is inhabited. There 
might be had here within a short distance a great variety of situations 
in respect of soil, climate, and exposure. I imagine that the best posi- 
tion would be a tract on the southern face of the outermost ridge, 
situated from 3000 to 6000 feet above the sea, or where the hot winds 
cease, up to the limit of winter snow. On the northern slope, it 
should be at a lower level, and perhaps here the finer sorts of tea might 
be produced. The valley of the Dun has a gravelly or sandy soil, 
which appears closely to resemble what is described as best for the tea 
cultivation in China, and the climate is such that it is probable that the 
inferior kinds of tea, such as are grown in the province of Canton, forming 
perhaps a large proportion of the article exported to Europe, if not 
superior teas, might be produced in it. In some places, as at Nahu, 
the rocks and soil of the Sewalik hill formation rise upon the Himalayas 
to the height of 3000 feet, and in situations of this sort all the most fa- 
vorable conditions of soil and climate are combined. 

I shall conclude by stating compendiously the opinions in this letter: 

1 . That the tea plant may be successfully cultivated in India. 

2. That this can be expected no where in the plains from 30° N. 
down to Calcutta. 

3. That in the Himalaya mountains, near the parallel of 30° N. not- 
withstanding some circumstances of soil and moisture of climate, the 
tea plant may be cultivated with great prospect of success ; that a climate 
here may be found similar in respect of temperature to the tea countries 
in China ; that in the direction and great slope of the hills, the absence 
of table-land or elevated valleys, and the contracted figure of the existing 
valleys, are the chief difficulties in the way of cultivation, which may 
prevent tea from being produced in great quantity on any one spot. 



188 On the Saline Efflorescence [April, 

4. That the most favourable ground for a trial is a tract on the 
outer ridges, extending from 3000 feet above the sea, or the point 
where the hot winds cease, up to the limit of winter snow. 

5. That in the valley called the Dehra Dim, if not the better, the 
inferior sorts of tea might be produced. 



IV. — On the Efflorescence of Khar i Nun, or Sulphate of Soda, as found 
native in the soil of Tirhdt and Sarun, in the province of Behar. By 
Mr. J. Stephenson,. Supt. H. C. Saltpetre Factories, #c. 
The first time I had an opportunity of observing the efflorescence of 
this salt, took place in the month of January, 1831, between the vil- 
lages of Mow and Jandaha, in Tirhiit. I was travelling between the first 
place and Singhea, a distance of 40 miles. It being night time, and my 
bearers having stopped to refresh themselves, I looked around and 
was surprised to find the ground covered white in all directions. Being 
then a stranger to this part of the country, and the weather very cold, 
I thought the white appearance might be caused by frost rind*, or a 
shower of snow ; but on further examination, I found it to be an efflores- 
cence of saline matter, covering the earth to the depth (in some places) 
of a quarter of an inch. In a few minutes, I collected a sufficient quan- 
tity for future examination, and I subsequently subjected -the same to 
analysis. The result I found as follows : 

Examination by tests. 

Litmus test paper, No change. 

Turmeric do Do - do - 

Oxalic acid," No precipitate. 

Prussiate of potass, No change. 

Muriate of barytes, Copious precipitate. 

Nitrate of silver Precipitate not very copious. 

The two last precipitates being carefully washed, dried, and weighed, 
gave on the scale of equivalents, a percentage of 

Sulphate of soda, 58 

Muriate of do 22 

Insoluble matter, 20 



100 

Several other samples, which I tried, varied in the quantity of insolu- 
ble earthy matter, but very little in the composition of the saline con- 
tents. Of course the insoluble matter will vary according to the care 
taken in collecting the article at the surface of the ground, the upper 
part of which is the purest. 

I have during a three-years' residence had many opportunities of 
observing (in my frequent journeys in Tirhut and Sarun) the efflores- 

* A circumstance of no unusual appearance in Behar during the cold season. 



1 834.] of the Soil of Tirhiit. 1 89 

cence of this salt, which is in almost inexhaustible abundance during 
the dry season of this country. The natives collect and manufacture it 
into a salt called by them khdrinun (bitter salt,) which is given to cattle 
as a medicine, and used in the process of tanning, or rather dressing and 
preparing the hides to be tanned. It forms a considerable native article 
of commerce in these districts, and as the process of making it differs 
somewhat from that of saltpetre, I shall on a future occasion attempt a 
description of the native manufacture. An examination of the water from 
about 20 wells at different distances from each other, on the road be- 
tween Singhea and Mow, (about 20 coss,) produced the following 
nmount of saline matter, contained in a standard English gallon : 

Sulphate of soda, 26.4 grains 

Muriate of do 1 1 .2 do. 

Nitrate and carbonate of lime, 12.8 do. 

Total of saline mater in solution, .... 50.2 per gallon. 

The above samples of water forming an average from 20 wells was 
taken in the month of April, 1833, and forming a line of considerable 
distance east and west through the south part of Tirhiit. This result is 
a tolerable approximation to the contents of the saline nature of the soil. 

A sample of the water of the river Gandak, taken from the stream 
opposite Singhea, this present month, gave me nearly 2 grains of mu- 
riate of soda in 16 oz. or a pint measure. The tests did not indicate any 
other kind of saline matter in solution. It is worthy of remark, that the 
water of the river Son at this time is perfectly pure, at least I could not 
detect any saline matter in solution by various re-agents. It ought in con- 
sequence to be used in preference to any other at this season by every 
one, even at a distance, who can afford the expense of carriage. I have 
ventured an opinion, that the tumours or swellings of the throats of the 
natives dwelling on this side of the Ganges are caused by the saline na- 
ture of the water they are under the necessity of using at this season 
of the year. Be this as it may, the hint may not altogether be uninter- 
esting to the medical gentlemen of these districts, and who may here- 
after establish as a fact what I have merely hinted as a crude opinion. 

In conclusion, I have to remark that the above efflorescence of sul- 
phate of soda may hereafter, when European skill and capital becomes 
more abundant in these productive districts, be converted into a valua- 
ble article of commerce ; for it is manufactured in England and France 
at a great cost from the muriate of soda, by sulphuric acid, and was 
valued in the London market in the year 1830, at from £8 to 10 the ton. 
It is almost unnecessary to add, that there is a sufficient quantity of 
this article in Tirhdt and Sarun to supply the whole of India with Glau- 
ber salts to be used in cooling wines, and water, or along with other 
salts used for the purpose. 



190 Meteorological Register for 1833, kept at Bancoora. [April, 
V. — Meteorological Register for 1833, kept at Bancoora, by J. McRitchie, Esq. 



Month. 



January, 

Feb 

March,~~ 
April, — 



Ther. Ther. . 

Low- High- Bar. Bar. 10 
est. est. I Noon. p. m. 



62.1 



67.8 



89.1 



May, ~ 
June, 

July, 



Augt. 



Sept 



95.2 



86.6 92.6 



93. 



97.5 



Oct. 



Nov. ~. 
Dec — 
Ther. and 
Bar. aver. 

1833. 



1832. 



1831. 



86.2 90. 



85.5 88.8 



85.7 90.1 



29.75 29.86 



81.5 



75. 

70.5 



77.5 



76,9 



76,1 



88. 



81. 

75. 



82.6 



82.1 



82.2 



.56 



.45 



.37 



.34 



.39 



.40 



.61 



.80 

.72 



.55 



Rain. 



Wind. 



W. 



550 w. 



w. 



.550 



N. W. 



.46, 6.803 



.36 



.33 



7.513 



7.171 



s. w. 



w. v. 



s. w. 



.38 10.235 w. n.w, 



.40 



.77 



.78 



7.0111 



s. 



1.600 S. E. 



29.57 29.59 



.59 



.60 



2.198 



43.633 



.57 



N. W. 
W. 



wy. 



W.N. W. 



Avar. 
Rain 4 
years. 

.41 



1.068 



1.340 



2.109 



Strs. 



Gen . Remarks. 



4.197 



9.359 



11.470 



11.250 



7.584 



3.587 



1 384 
.909 



54.451 



21st 
I 

sevr. 



6 days obser- 
vation-fine and 
dry ; the out- 
side, 7 a. m.42. 

Sometimes clou- 
dy, generally 
dry. 

Strong westerly 

winds; very hot; 
eddies. 

Occasionally va- 
riable winds ; 
showers two 
and three, with 
thunder and 
lightning. 

Winds variable 
after 21st; very 
hot and close. 

7 days' obser- 
vations—awful- 
ly hot till 10th ; 
rains set in with 
slight showers. 

Heavy showers 
first, lighter 
afterwards. 

26th, f past 11 p. 
m. two shocks ; 
rn. very heavy 
occasionally. 

Some heavy sho- 
wers, light to- 
wards the end 
of the month. 

Generally hot, 
cloudy wea- 
ther ; partial 
showers. 

Fine throughout 

Cloudy, with a 
good deal of 
rainy weather. 

May 21st, rain 
fell 3.285. in. 

Var. in Bar. .26 

Oct. 7th, rain 
fell 3.895. 

Var. in Bar. .480 

Oct. 31st, rain 
fell 4460. 
* Var. in Bar.700. 



7 one 
sev. 



Oct. 

31 

one 

very 

sev, 



Note. — We have omitted the columns of rain for 1830, 1831, and 1S32, which will 
he found already printed in the Journal — (see volume I. page 154, and vol. II. page 
183.)— Ed. 



1834.] On the Preservation of Sheet Iron from Rust. 191 

VI. — Experiments on the Preservation of Sheet Iron from Rust in India. 
By James Prinsep, Sec. 8(C. 

The proposed enteimve employment of iron steam boats for the navi- 
gation of the Ganges, rendered it a desideratum to ascertain what 
varnish or composition would best preserve the exterior surface of such 
vessels from the rapid corrosion to which iron is so peculiai-ly subject in 
a hot climate. A series of experiments was undertaken with this view 
by myself at the requisition of Government ; and it may perhaps be 
useful to record the principal results in a journal of science. 

Two sets of six wrought-iron plates, each measuring three feet by two 
feet, were fixed to two iron triangles, the plates being prevented by studs 
from coming into contact with each other. The same varnishes were 
applied to both sets, one being intended for entire submersion under water, 
the other to be only half immerged, in order to feel the united influence 
of air and water. 

The following were the coatings applied : 

1. Common coal tar, laid on hot, and the plate heated. 

2. Theetsee varnish of Ava, one coat. This took a very considerable time 
(two months) to dry, kept first in a cool-room, and afterwards in a room heated by 
furnaces*. 

3. Native Dhuna, applied to the iron hot, in a thick uneven coat. 

4. Best white-lead paint, three coats; allowed to dry and harden for nearly 
three months. 

5. Coach-makers' varnish, two coats ; dried rapidly. 

6. Spirit varnish, several coats ; warmed. 

7. White wax, melted on the surface. 

8. White wash, of pure lime water. 

9. The surface of the iron plate cleaned and guarded with an edging of zinc 
soldered on. 

10. The natural surface of the rolled iron sheets, covered with its usual hardened 
grey oxide. 

Many of the foregoing were employed from curiosity only, especially 
No. 6, the spirit varnish, which had on many occasions proved quite 
ineffectual in preserving the surface of polished iron and steel from rust 
in the atmosphere of Calcutta. 

The two frames were suspended as above described, one under water, 
the other half immersed, from one of the unused dredging boats near the 
Chitpur lock gates of the Circular canal, where they were left undisturbed 
for three months, during a period of the year, when the water of the canal 
was only slightly salt. 

* Major Burney states, that three or four days are sufficient for the varnish to 
dry when laid on wood, (Journal, Vol. I. p 172.) I had not a damp vault in which to 
expose the plate as recommended by that officer, and that may partly account for the 
delay in drying ; but all varnish and paint takes longer to dry on metal than on wood, 
from its non-absorbent nature. 



192 



Experiments on the Preservation. 



[April, 



They were then taken up for examination, and presented the following 
appearances. 



No. 


Varnish. 


Plates under water. 


Plates half above water. 


1 


Tar 


Perfectly preserved and free 
from rust. 


A few dots of rust between 






wind and water. 


2 


Theetsee, .... 


Perfectly uninjured in ap- 


A line of rust at the level 






pearance. 


of the water. 


3 


Dhoona, .... 


White and pulverulent ; 


Large cracks from the con- 






soft and easily rubbed off while 


traction of the part exposed 






wet : rust here and there. 


to the sun, whitened where 
thick, black where thin ; 
plate preserved, above water. 


4 




Almost wholly disappeared, 


Paint uninjured above water 






and blotches of rust on the 


mark, and plate preserved, but 






surface. 


below water entirely removed. 


5 


Copal varnish, 


Whitened, pulverulent, and 


In air less, whitened spots 






soft ; but not much oxidated. 


of rust breaking out every 
where. 


6 


Spiritvarnish, 


Whitened and very rusty. 


Very much corroded. 


7 




No trace of wax left, and 
very rusty. 


This plate was all under water. 


8 




Flaky ; peeled off, and very 


In air remains on and acts 






much corroded. 


pretty well. 


9 




The clean iron excessively 


Much more rusty in the 






corroded and bad : the zinc 


lir than under water, where a 






also oxidated. 


kind of crust was formed. 


10 




The natural surface was a 


Rusty on the edges or where 






little whitened and pretty well 


it had been scraped ; else- 






preserved. 


where little injured. 



The superior preservative power of the coal-tar to all the substances 
tried, with the exception perhaps of the theetsee, was evident ; the Bur- 
mese varnish laboured under the disadvantage of being a single coat, 
otherwise it would doubtless, from its hardness, its firm adherence, and 
its inalterability by water, prove fully equal as a lacquer to the coal-tar : 
the latter has on the other hand the advantage of drying and hardening 
as soon as laid on. 

The change effected on the resinous varnishes is produced by an ac- 
tual chemical combination with the water ; the soft pulverulent matter 
is analogous to the white powder obtained by the addition of water to 
an alcoholic or of acid solution of rosin. 

The failure of the zinc guard, which was expected to act as an elec- 
tro-positive protector to the iron, may I think, be attributed to its being 
adulterated with lead, which being negative with respect to iron, would 
cause, as was actually the case, a more rapid oxidation of the latter 
metal : (the impurity of the zinc was afterwards fully proved.) 

The wax and the white paint had entirely disappeared from the sur- 
face of the metal under water before the plates were taken up ; it is im- 
possible therefore to say in what way their removal was effected. 

The bituminous (coal-tar) coating was finally adopted, and it has been 
successfully applied to the iron steamer, the Lord William Bentinck, 
lately launched under Captain Johnston's superintendence. 



1834.] Asiatic Society . 193 

VII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 
Wednesday Evening, the 30th April, 1834. 

The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Read the Proceedings of the last meeting. 

Messrs. Wm. Martin and Thomas Spiers, were proposed as members 
by Mr. Bagshaw, seconded by Mr. J. Prinsep. 

Also, Captain W. Foley, porposed by Mr. Prinsep, seconded by Dr. 
Waiaich. 

Read letters from Messrs. N. Carlisle, Secretary to the Society of An- 
tiquaries, and J. C Morris, Secretary to the Madras Literary and Auxiliary 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, expressing the thanks of those Societies for 
the xvii. volume of Transactions. 

Read a letter from M. Jules Desjardins, Secretary of the Mauritius 
Natural History Society, acknowledging his election as an Honorary Mem- 
ber of the Society. Mr. Charles Telfair, President of the same Society, 
died before he became acquainted with the honor the Asiatic Society had 
equally intended for him. Mons. J. Desjardins forwards a 5th Annual Re- 
port of the Mauritius Society in manuscript for the Asiatic Society's Library. 

Read a letter from the Committee for concentrating Government offices, 
inquiring on behalf of Government, whether the Asiatic Society would feel 
disposed to afford space in their rooms for, and undertake the charge of, 
the books belonging to the College Library, upon their removal from 
Writer's Buildings at the close of the Charter, reserving the proprietory 
right of the books with Government. 

It was the opinion of the Committee of Papers that the College Library 
could not be properly accommodated without some additions to the museum 
on the north of the building : this perhaps the Government might consent 
to make, as the books were to remain public property : in other respects 
the measure appeared highly desirable and the offer should be accepted. 
The subject was dropped on an intimation that an arrangement had been 
made, subsequent to the Committee's letter, for retaining the library in the 
premises it now occupies. 

Library. 

The following Books were presented: 

The Indian Journal of Medical Science, Nq, 4. — By Messrs. J. Grant and J. T. 
Pearson, Editors. 

Madras Journal of Literature and Science, No. 3. — By the Madras Literary 
Society. 

Ramcomul Sen's English and Bengalee Dictionary, 2nd part, translated from 
Todd's edition of Johnson's Dictionary. — By the translator. 

Lieut. J. Braddock's Memoir on Gun-powder. — By the Author. 

Proceedings of the Natural History Society of Mauritius, from July 1833, to 
January 1834. — By the Society. 

Report on the Inland Customs and Town Duties. — By Mr. C. E. Trevelyan. 

Illustrations of the Botany and Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains, 
fcc. Part 1st.— By J. F. Royle, Esq. F. L. S. G. S. and M. A. S. &c. 

Mr. Bagshaw stated that it would be a great convenience to Members 
to have a revised catalogue of the library : whereupon, finding that the 
b a 



194 Asiatic Society. [April, 

former edition was nearly expended, it was Resolved, that a new catalogue 
be printed, comprising also the objects in the Museum. 

Mr. J. T. Pearson, inquired whether any steps had been taken regard- 
ing the matter of compounding for subscriptions : Resolved, that a report 
be requested from the Committee appointed on the 26th June last, to con- 
sider the subject. 

Physical. 

Read a letter from Major Burney, Resident of Ava, forwarding a col- 
lection of mineralogical specimens, consisting of : 

Ores of lead, copper, antimony, iron and arsenic : and rock specimens, from 
the Shan country to the east of Ava. 

Sulphate of lime, from the petroleum wells at Yenangyoung. 

Specimens collected by Captain Macleod in a journey to Manipur : of copper 
ore from Laypadoung on the Khyendwen river : — also of hornblende, volcanic 
rocks, and saline efflorescence from a sulphureous lake called Myouk dwen 
(northern well) near Lemye on the left bank of the Khyendwen. 

Also, coal from the Angoching bills, fossil wood from Taroup myo, left of the 
Irawadi river ; and the sand from which gold is washed at Kenau immediately above 
Kendat on the Khyandwen river. 

Waters from the lake above mentioned and from a well in the neighbourhood 
(unexamined), and a root from Shan, smelling like celery, used with clothes to give 
tLem a scent. 

Major Burney writes : — " During my last journey up here I collected a good 
many fossil specimens near Yenangyoung, and particularly teeth of the Mastadon, 
and Elephantoides. Captain Macleod also during his late journey by water to 
Kendat (Gendah of our maps) found much of the country in that quarter indicating 
the presence of fossil remains, and picked up several portions of the jaws of the 
Mastodon, and Elephantoides with teeth. The Burmese ministers have ordered 
their officers at Yenangyoung to gather all the fossil bones they can for me, and 
as soon as I procure a large collection, I will send the whole to you for examina- 
tion." 

A series of geological specimens from Southern India, was presented by 
Lieutenant Braddock on the part of a gentleman at Madras. 

They consisted principally of : 

Gneiss, greenstone, laterite, aud magnetic iron ore from the Neelgiris. 

The garnet-gneiss, of Coimbatoor and Salem. 

The decomposing mica-schist, and gneiss ; yellow earth ; — felspar with magne- 
tic iroc, and quartz with ochreons clefts ; — all which are washed (with or without 
previous burning) for gold, in the large gold district of Mysore. 

Two handsome varieties of porphyry from Seringapatam. 

Shell limestone from 12 miles W. of Pondicherry used for ornamental pur- 
poses. 

Sandstone, slate-clay and other rocks of the Southern diamond formation, 
which have been fully described by Dr. Heyne and Voysey. 

Specimens of the volcanic mud from Kyook Phyoo, presented by Captain 
Warden. 

Antiquities. 

The Secretary submitted a translation of the inscription in the Pali and 
Burma character on the large monumental stone from Arracan, presented 



1834.] Asiatic Society. 195 

to the Society by H. Walters, Esq. in May, 1833 ; the notice of which at 
the time was deferred in expectation of receiving a translation and ac- 
count from the donor. 

The translation lias been made by a native Christian of Ceylon named Ratna 
Paula, who is well versed in the Burma language, and who prepared the catalogue 
of Burma MSS. in the Society's library. 

The inscription (although very recent) is of considerable interest as describing the 
early history of the introduction of the Buddhist religion into Arracan from Cey- 
lon, and the reform of various abuses in dress, and corruptions in the holy texts 
which had from time to time crept in. The principal object, however, is to com- 
memorate the erection of a temple called Kalyani Simtokri at Rom6,vat£ in the 
island of Yanbya Koyan, in the year of Sakha raj 1148, (A. D. 1786.) 

Read, letters from Captain Cautley, forwarding a further supply of 
coins and other relics discovered in his occasional visits to the site of the 
subterranean town at Behat, with a plan of the neighbouring country, and 
an explanatory notice by the discoverer. 

[This will be printed in our next.] 

Captain Cautley's last letter notices that on a revisit to the spot at the Ka- 
lawala pass, where he had in 1827 made the discovery of what was then supposed 
to be a bit of fossil wood*, but which proved on Dr. Falconer's examination to 
be bone, he has been so fortunate as to find another silicified bone, some teeth and 
a number of other remains, all apparently belonging to the Saurian family. Dr. 
Falconer has also made further discoveries in the Timli pass, and we are led to 
expect an account of the whole shortly from the pen of the latter gentleman. 

A memoir on the ancient coins discovered at Beghram in the Kohistan 
of Kabul, by Charles Masson, was read. 

[Printed in the present number.] 

This highly interesting paper was communicated by Doctor J. G. Gerard, 
who fell in with the author at Kabul, on his return from Persia. Doctor 
Gerard founded upon the very successful issue of Mr. Masson's researches 
a distinct proposition addressed to the " President of the Meeting of the 
Society." 

The Right Reverend the Vice-President, proceeded to read Dr. Gerard's 
paper to the meeting ; whence it appeared that two offers were laid before 
the Society : 

1. To employ Mr. Masson, on the part of the Society, to continue the 
prosecution of his researches in Afghanistan. 

2. To secure by purchase the possession of the valuable relics he has 
already collected. 

The two questions, as connected with the present means of the Society, 
were referred to the Committee of Papers for consideration and report. 

A Memoir on the Topes of Afghanistan, by Doctor J. G. Gerard, also 
addressed to the Presiding Member of the meeting, was laid on the table. 

A paper by Mr. B. H. Hodgson, Resident at Kathmandu, entitled Classi- 
fication of the Newars, or aborigines of Nepal proper, preceded by a legen- 
dary account of their early history, was also submitted, but not read on 
account of the lateness of the hour. 

* See Asiatic Researches, Vol. xvii. 



196 De Candolle's Essay [April, 

VIII. — European Science. 

On the Longevity of Plants, and the Means of Ascertaining their Age. 
[Translated for the J. A. S. from the Original of Professor de Candolle, at Geneva.] 
A tree may be considered in two points of view, either as an assemblage of as 
many individuals linked together as there are buds developed on its surface ; or as 
a single being, analogous to what is called an individual when speaking of an 
animal. According to the first, which is probably the most rational view, it 
cannot be astonishing that, while new buds are incessantly being added to the old, 
there should be no necessary term to the existence of the aggregate body. By 
the second, which is the most common, it must be allowed that, as in the greatest 
number of trees a fresh layer of wood, and in general new organs, are formed every 
year, there cannot exist in the vegetable world that hardening or that obstruction 
of the old and permanent organs which produces death from old age properly so 
called, and that consequently trees should never die but from accidental causes. 
By either of these hypotheses it is equally shewn that trees do not die of old age 
in the real sense of the phrase ; that there is no definitive term to their existence ; 
and that consequently some may be found that have attained an extraordinary age. 
But it is not sufficient to advance such an opinion ; we must endeavour to prove 
its truth. Already two remarkable examples have been quoted ; that of the Baobab) 
which Adanson by ingenious and plausible calculations, has proved to be 5150 
years old, and that of the Taxodium (Cupressus disticha, Lin.J which from analogous 
reasoning may be considered still older. (See the notice on these trees by Mr. 
Alph. de Candolle in the Bibl. Univ. April, 1831.) Other, though less remark- 
able cases, seem to confirm the idea that there still exists in the world trees of 
prodigious antiquity, that have witnessed perhaps even its last physical revolutions. 
It is easy to imagine that many errors may creep into calculations of this sort ; 
and that they can only be depended on as correct, when multiplied cases of 
vegetable longevity shall be discovered to confirm the fact. I have long 
occupied myself with this subject, as the publication of the Principles of Botany, 
inserted (in the year 1805,) in the first volume of the Flore Francaise, will prove ; but 
the life of man is too short for such researches : opportunities are rare ; and exam- 
ples should above all be sought for in those countries which are not subject either 
to frost or to the destructive hand of man. The methods also of proving the 
age of old trees is not perhaps sufficiently known to travellers, or to those who 
interest themselves in these kinds of inquiries, and I am therefore induced to 
call the attention of the public to the subject by means of this pamphlet. 

A considerable degree of interest would attach to the longevity of certain trees 
were it only from curiosity. If we consider all the other documents of antiquity as 
precious, surely we cannot lightly pass over the knowledge that such a tree is 
contemporary with the oldest times ; in some instances, this knowledge might 
throw light on the history of monuments, as in like manner the history of monu- 
ments may assist our inquiries into that of their neighbouring trees. This question 
might even become of great utility in the history of the globe. If the certified 
number of these veterans in the vegetable kingdom were to become very consider- 
able ; if in the course of time their age were ascertained with greater certainty ; 
might we not find in these facts some means of fixing the approximate date of the 
last revolutions of the earth ? If inquiries of this kind were made in volcanic or 



1834.] on the Longevity of Plants. 197 

madreporic islands, might they not give some idea of the date of their origin ? 
But ceasing our conjectures on subjects of such magnitude, if we reflect on the 
means of attaining the solution of the question, we shall see that they are all 
founded on an exact appreciation of the laws which govern the growth of trees ; 
and this knowledge may throw light on many parts of vegetable physiology 
and of the forester's art. I believe therefore that such researches may become 
useful ; but even should they prove but curious, I should still not think them 
unworthy of being offered to the public ; for curiosity is an insatiable appetite 
that the mind of man takes pleasure in satisfying, in proportion to the quantity of 
food which has already been provided for it. 

It is well known that plants destined to attain the character of trees may all be 
classed under two heads. The first, which are the most numerous, have the trunk 
composed of a body of wood coated with bark ; they grow by the annual addition of 
a new layer of wood, which is produced outside the old wood, but within the bark ; 
these layers of the young wood being the most exterior, the name exogenous has been 
given to such plants when speaking of their growth, and that of dicotyledonous when 
alluding to their germination. Under the second head are placed, on the contrary, 
all those plants whose trunks, being sensibly cylindrical and generally unadorned 
by branches, show only a body of wood without any bark properly so called ; of 
which the exterior fibres are the oldest and most hard, and the interior fibres the 
softest and youngest. They have obtained from this last circumstance the name of en- 
dogenous, by which they are distinguished when alluding to their growth, and which 
is synonymous to that of monocotyledonous, used when speaking of their germination. 
We will rapidly examine the means of ascertaining the age of individuals belonging 
to these two classes, and will afterwards add a few remarks on vegetables more 
humble in their appearance, but whose duration offers matter for special consider- 
ation. 

Almost all trees that are natives of the temperate zones, and consequently of the 
most civilized parts of the world, are exogenous : their nature and history have 
therefore been examined much more closely than any others, and may afford us 
the most interesting data. 

It is now ascertained beyond a doubt, that exogenous trees increase annually by 
a new layer of wood, and consequently the number of concentric zones visible on 
the transversal or horizontal section of a trunk may give an idea of the number 
of years that have elapsed since the part of the tree under examination began to 
vegetate. It follows that a slice cut at the bottom of the branch will give the age of 
the branch ; another made at the bottom of the trunk, or at the neck, will give the 
age of the tree. If, as has been asserted, irregularities may occasionally occur, and 
this is a very doubtful point, it may at least be affirmed, that the probability of 
deviation from the law are so slight, that we may boldly argue on the hypothesis 
that a given number of layers indicates the same number of years' growth ; conse- 
quently, whenever a clean section of the trunk can be attained, this very simple cri- 
terion is sufficient to discover the age of a tree. But the inspection of these 
concentric zones ought to be made with greater care than has hitherto been bestow- 
ed on it. The zones, by their number, give the age ; but by the proportion of their 
thickness they give the mean rate of increase. It is not sufficient therefore to count 
them, they must be measured. The following is the very simple means I made use 
of to attain this end. When I met with a clean cut of an old tree, sufficiently heal- 
thy to observe its layers, I placed on the branch a slip of paper, reaching from the 



198 



De Candolles Essay 



[April, 



centre to the circumference ; on this slip I marked with a pen or pencil the 
meeting of each zone, the size of the pith, and that of the bark ; writing on it 
the name of the tree, the country to which it belonged, and any particulars which 
deserved notice. My collection of these slips, (which have no small resemblance to 
the measures preserved in a tailor's shop) gives me an exact estimation of the 
different growth of different trees, and the means of comparing one with another. 
I take the precaution of marking in a more decided manner every tenth ray, which 
gives mc the average rate of increase for every ten years growth. 

My measure, being taken from the centre to the circumference, expresses the 
radius. I double it, if I require the diameter ; I take six times if I wish to have 
the circumference of the woody substance. It is not so useful, except in some 
particular instances, to make these observations on young trees ; for in working 
on the older ones, of which every species may be procured, there is the 
advantage of being able to judge of the trees in every stage of their growth. As 
it would be inconvenient to publish an exact copy of these slips of paper, which 
are sometimes several feet long, I shall give an idea of their results, by the following 
table : [We have converted the French lines into English measures. — Ed.] 
Table of the growth of some exogenous trees, as measured by their increase of dia- 
meter in periods of ten years, expressed in inches and tenths, English. 



Years of age. 


Oak 

(peduncu- 

lata,) 
aged 130 
years. 


Oak 

(Sessili- 

flora) 

aged 210 

years. 


Oak 

(ditto,) 

aged 333 

years. 


Larch, 

a>ed 255 

years. 


Elm, 

aged 335 

years. 


Fir, 

aged 120 

years. 


Yew, 

aged 71 

years. 

I 


1 to 10 


4.8 


0.9 


1.6 


4.2 


1.4 


3.6 


0.7 


10 to 20 


5.5 


1.4 


2.9 


5.4 


3.8 


4.7 


1.0 


20 to 30 


4.8 


2.0 


3.4 


5.1 


5.1 


4.6 


1.1 


30 to 40 


5.3 


1.1 


3.3 


6.4 


6.4 


3.9 


0.9 


40 to 50 


4.2 


1.2 


2.1 


4.0 


7.7 


3.0 


0.6 


50 to 60 


3.9 


1.3 


1.1 


5.0 


6.8 


3.1 


1.1 


60 to 70 


4.9 


1.0 


0.8 


4.0 


6.9 


1.6 


0.7 


70 to 80 


3.9 


1.0 


0.8 


2.6 


5.8 


1.5 




80 to 90 


2.8 


0.8 


0.7 


2.6 


5.2 


1.2 




90 to 100 


2.8 


0.8 


0.7 


2.2 


3.9 


1.2 




150 to 160 




0.7 


0.7 


1.9 


1.7 






200 to 210 




0.8 


0.7 


2.0 


3.0 






250 to 260 






0.7 


1.8 


2.1 






300 to 310 






0.8 




1.4 






320 to 330 






0.7 




1.9 







It results from these observations, that in the advanced periods of their life, 
trees continue to form layers which do not yield in thickness to those of a middling 
age ; that every species, after having grown rapidly in its youth, appears at a 
certain age to attain a stated and regular growth. In fact, a tolerably good 
reason may be assigned for these differences, by assuming, that during the 
first period, that is to say, before 60 or 80 years, the roots and the branches of 
forest trees, not being confined by their neighbours, grow freely ; but" that, after 
that age, they grow less rapidly, on account of their encountering the roots and 
branches of neighbouring trees ; finally, that inequalities of growth are owing 
either to the quality of the zone or stratum of earth from which the main portion 
of the roots are drawing their nourishment, or to the circumstance of the neigh- 
bourhood of the tree being more open and clear at some periods. Such calcula- 
tions made on a great variety of species, and on individual trees of every species, 
would give the most interesting results regarding the progress of vegetation : 



1834.] on the Longevity of Trees. 199 

1st. They would establish for each species an average of its annual increase, so 
that by knowing the circumference of an exogenous tree, its age might be also pretty 
accurately ascertained. It must be kept in remembrance that great variations take 
place during the first period, and that afterwards a more uniform growth is estab- 
lished. 

2ndly. The mean growth and mean solidity of any species of wood being given, the 
thickness of the layers of an individual specimen will enable us to judge, whether it 
possesses all the natural qualities belonging to its species ; thus it may be inferred, 
that the oak No. 1 of the table, is very inferior to the oaks 2 and 3, because the 
thickness of the layer is too great for the wood to have acquired its full hardness. 

3dly. If the law I have assumed is true, that at a certain age (60 or 80 years 
for oaks) every tree ceases its more rapid growth, and assumes a more regular pro- 
gress, then we may deduce precise rules as to the most suitable period for cutting down 
certain trees. I am inclined to believe, therefore, that tables of horizontal cuts 
would be of very great use, and I recommend their preparation as well to travel- 
lers as to those engaged in extensive timber-works and building concerns. 

2. When the transverse section of the stump cannot be obtained, a second 
method presents itself, by which the growth may be determined ; which is, to look 
for the old individuals of every species of which the date is ascertained, to measure 
their circumference, to deduce from thence their average growth, and to make use 
of this to calculate the age of other trees of the same species ; bearing in mind, 
that, except in local circumstances, a measure taken from a young tree always pro- 
duces too great a result for the growth, and too small a one for the age, of old trees. 
Evelyn mentions, that a Dane, named Henri Ranjovius, planted in Ditmarches, in 
the year 1580, a certain number of trees of various kinds ; that he placed near each a 
stone recording its date, that posterity might know their age. It would be very 
interesting to ascertain, whether these trees are still in existence, and if so, to know 
their circumference ; in fact, it would be interesting to have the circumference of 
every ancient tree the origin of which is known. I invite all who have such par- 
ticulars, either to publish them, or to communicate them to me ; for such obser- 
vations can only prove useful by comparing them with other recorded facts. 

3. For trees of slow growth (s^culaires), it is useful to have their circumferences 
at different known periods, so that they may be compared one with another, or with 
other measures of the same tree which may be taken sooner or later ; these compa- 
risons would afford means for better calculating the law of growth, and of appreciat- 
ing the influence of differences in age ; thus, for example, the cedar in the 
garden at Paris, which was measured when 83 years old, was 113 inches in circum- 
ference, which would indicate an average of nearly 0.44 in. growth in the year, 
but it was measured when 40 years old, and had then already 84 in. cir- 
cumference ; from which it seems that it grew 0.66 in. a year during the first 
40 years, and only 0.23 during the following 43 years : consequently if the age of a 
very old cedar were required to be calculated, we should not probably go far wrong 
in taking this last number as a multiplier ; thus the cedars at Liban measured in 
1660, by Maunorell and Pocock, which were 12 yards and six English inches in 
circumference, must have been about 609 years old ; and in 1787 when they were 
again measured by Mr. Labillardiere, about 800 years. But the calculation is 
doubtful since it only rests upon a single example : it would become more certain 
in proportion as the number of instances becomes greater. 

4. It would moreover be useful to take the circumference of very old trees, 
whenever met with, even when their date is not known. These measures repeated 



200 De Candolles Essay [April, 

at certain intervals would shew the law of increase in the diameter of old trees, 
and compared with other measures, would afford approximate means for estimating 
their age. Thus we find from Evelyn that there existed in 1660, an immense oak at 
Welbeck-lane, which was 33 feet 1 inch in circumference, (nearly 11 feet diameter) ; 
this same oak, though mutilated, still existed in 1775, and had a diameter of 12 feet . 
it had grown 12.6 in. in 120 years, a little more than a tenth of an inch yearly. From 
whence it may be concluded, that the law of increase, indicated by the oak in my 
table which was 333 years old, holds nearly good for a tree of much greater age : 
therefore, if the oak of Welbeck-lane be calculated by the tabular data of the oak of 
333 years, it will be found that, in Evelyn's time, it must have been nearly 1300 
years old; and more than 1400 years old, in 1775. 

5. Finally, in cases where it is impossible to obtain the transversal cut of an 
old tree, there may be opportunities of making a slight incision on the side and 
discovering how much it has grown in a given number of years, and thus provid- 
ing a minimum of its mean growth. This is the method by which Adanson dis- 
covered the age of the Boababs. He saw how much these trees had grown in three 
centuries, and knowing at the same time the growth of young trees, he was able, by 
an average, to estimate the general law. The age of the Taxodium of Chapultepec 
in Mexico might be examined in the same way. 

By following out the five methods indicated above, either separately or unitedly, 
the age of old exogenous trees maybe ascertained in a manner which will sufficiently 
answer the subject of this inquiry. Let us now point out the trees to which our 
attention ought principally to be directed. The greatest longevity in the vegetable 
kingdom ought to be found, 1st, in trees which by their hardness, their incapacity 
of decay, or their size, are the best able to resist destructive agents ; 2nd, in countries 
which are not liable to frost or to other causes which too frequently tend to kill large 
vegetables. 

Among European trees, we may mention the following examples : 

1st. The young Elm, as is known, grows to a large size ; but its growth is tolerably 
rapid. The particular one which I have marked in the table above grew near the town 
of Morges: the observation of its layers, and the account of its fall, was kindly com- 
municated to me by Mr. Alexis Forel ; its section shewed it to be 335 years old ; 
it was at the period of its fall perfectly healthy, and had grown in a humid and 
light soil: its stem was 17 feet 7 inches in diameter at the neck, 30 feet cir- 
cumference below the spring of the branches, at 12 feet from the ground ; and 
one of the fine large branches attained 16 feet in circumference ; the tree fell in 
fine weather, the soil having been probably injured by the waters of Lake Leman. 
It had grown at an average 0.3 in. a year, but if the period be divided into cen- 
turies, it will appear that it grew .33 a year during the first century, .23 during the 
second, and .25 during the third ; these calculations accord with those which are 
generally afforded by young elms planted in front of the French churches by order 
of Sully. It is important to distinguish the progress of increase in elms with 
large from the rate in those ivith small leaves ; the latter are most long-lived and 
appear to grow more slowly. 

2nd. I saw in 1814, at Gigean, near Montpellier, an Ivy tree the stem of which near 
the ground was six feet in circumference, and which attracted attention by its extra- 
ordinary size. Another ivy, 45 years old, was only 7§ inches in circumference. Were 
this to be taken as an example, the ivy at Gigean must have been 433 years old in 
1814, and must now be about 450 years old, if as I hope, it still exists ; it is pro- 



1834.] On the Longevity of Trees. 201 

bable, if there be tbe same degree of error in this as in the following instances, that 
I have made too low a calculation of the age rather than otherwise. 

3rd. I have given in the above table the measure of a Larch 255 years old. On 
its authority, we may believe that there exist some which are five or six hundred 
years old, but the measures of their layers must be increased in number before the 
fact can be decided. 

4th. The Linden (Tilleul) is a tree of Europe, which up to a certain period appears 
capable of acquiring a very great diameter. That which was planted at Fribourg 
in 1476, in commemoration of the battle of Morat, is now 13 feet 9 inches in diameter, 
which shews an increase of diameter of about »20 in. yearly/ This ratio, equal 
to that of the oak, appears to me to shew that the tree had not encountered very 
good soil, and I am inclined to believe that we should be nearer the truth if we 
allowed an average of .35 in a year. As there are in Europe a great num- 
ber of large lindens, it would be interesting to note the circumference of those, 
the dates of which are known. I shall mention, on account of their size, the 
following trees : — that of the Castle of Chaill£, near Melles, in the department of 
Deux-Sevres, which in 1804 was 49.2 feet in circumference, and which was I 
imagine then about 538 years old ; that of Trons in the Grisons, known so early as 
1424, which in 1798 was 54 feet in circumference, and I imagine 583 years old ; 
that of Depeham near Norwich, which was 8§ yards in circumference in 1664; that 
of Newstadt in Wurtemberg, which was large enough in 1550 to require support, 
and which in 1664 was 37 feet four inches in circumference, &c. Should any 
attention be hereafter bestowed on lindens, those with large and those with small 
leaves ought to be carefully distinguished ; the former appear to grow more rapidly 
than the latter. 

5th. The Cypress is certainly, among the trees which belong to the South of 
Europe, one which lives to the greatest age, and the usual custom of planting these trees 
in church-yards has gained for them a degree of respect, and preserved them con- 
veniently for our present object. Hunter says that in 1776, there was one in 
the palace garden at Grenada which had acquired celebrity at the time of the Moorish 
kings, which were then called Cupressos de la Reyna Sultana, because a Sultan 
there met with Abencerage. But I can discover nothing certain regarding the 
growth of these trees, which I therefore point out for the attention of naturalists. 

6th. Chesnuts appear capable of attaining a very great age ; but I do not found 
this opinion on the celebrated chdtaigner des cent chevaux on Mount Etna. Mr. 
Simond and Mr. Duby have communicated to me particulars regarding this tree, 
which appear to prove that its circumference, which is 70 feet, is owing to the 
union of several trunks in one. The growth of thi6 tree must be calculated on 
single stems : there were several very large ones on Mount Etna. Pcsderle 
mentions having seen one of fifty feet circumference in the county of Gloucester, 
which was believed to be 900 years old. It would be desirable to possess 
accurate information regarding the growth of this species. 

7th. The East Indian Plane-tree (if it may be numbered among the European 
trees) is certainly one of the largest, but the law by which its growth is governed 
is not known. There is in the valley of Bujuk-d^r^, three leagues from Constantino- 
ple, a plane which reminds us of the one on which Pliny has conferred such celebri- 
ty ; it is 150 feet in circumference, and has a central cavity of bO feet circumference. 
I would beg travellers to prove first, if this forms a single tree, or whether it be form- 
ed by the union of several. Secondly, how much it has grown during a certain period } 
CC 



202 De Candole's Essay [April, 

this maybe determined by alateral cut which will allow the layers to be counted. Third- 
ly ; what law governs the increase of plane-trees for the first century of their growth ? 

8th. < — The Walnut tree is also worthy the examination of observers. Scumozzi, 
the architect, mentions having seen at St. Nicholas in Lorraine a table made of a 
single piece of walnut wood, which was 25 feet in width, and at which the Emperor 
Frederick III gave a celebrated repast. No conclusion can be drawn as to the age 
of such a walnut, seeing that the progress of the growth of these trees when old is 
unknown ; this might however easily be verified. 

9th. — The Orange and Citron are among the number of trees cultivated in Eu- 
rope, which grow the most slowly, and arrive at the greatest age. It is asserted 
that the orange tree of the Convent of St. Sabine at Rome was planted by St. Do- 
minique in 1200, and that of Fondi by St. Thomas D'Aquin in 1278. The mea- 
sure of these trees, and the verification of these traditions, might give an approxi- 
mation as to the annual growth of the Ayrumi of Italy. 

9th. — The Cedars which I have already mentioned, though they appear to me 
younger than they are believed to be, are still worthy the attention of observers. 

10th. — Oaks certainly stand among the veterans of Europe, but their study 
is still involved in mxich uncertainty, either because this tree is one of those 
which according to the acknowledgment of all foresters are the most modified 
by the soil, or because the wood of the Quercus peduncidata, which grows quickly and 
runs to a great height is almost always confounded with that of the Querents sessiliflora, 
which grows more slowly, and becomes harder and more crooked. The result of 
this confusion, is an impossibility of making comparisons from the documents we 
already possess. In Evelyn's Sylva, a valuable work, from which Ihave frequently 
taken useful hints, many examples may be seen with regard to the size which oaks 
may attain. I have reason to believe that there still exist in our own councry, oaks 
from 1500 to 1600 years old ; but it would be desirable to have these dates verified 
by further careful inquiries. 

11th. — The Olive is also a tree possessed with the power of growing to an astonish- 
ing age in countries where it is not subjected to the pruning knife. Mr. de Cha- 
teaubriand in his Itineraire, says, that the eightolives in the garden ofthe same name 
at Jerusalem only pay one medin each to the Grand Seigneur, which would tend to prove 
that they already existed at the time of the Turkish invasion, for those planted 
6ince that period, pay the half of their fruit. The largest olive in Italy, men- 
tioned by Picconi, is at Pescio : it is 25 feet in circumference. If we admit the es- 
timate given by Moschettini that the olive grows 0.13 in. yearly, it must be 
about 700 years old ; but this estimate taken from younger olives must be below the 
truth. 

12th. — The Yew appears to me, of all European trees, the one which lives to the 
greatest age. I have measured the layers of an yew, 71 years old ; Oelhafen, of one 
of 150 years old ; and Veillard, of one of 280 years : these three measurements 
agree in proving that the yew grows a little more than 0.10 in. a year during the 
first 150 years, and less than a 0.1 from the age of 150 to 250. If we allow an 
average of one-tenth a year for the oldest yews, it is probable that this exceeds 
the reality, and that by considering the number of their years to equal the number 
of lines in their diameter, they will be pronounced younger than they really are. 
Now I find four measures of remarkable yews in England ; those of the ancient Abbey 
Fontaine near Reppron, in the county of York, known in 1133, were in 1770, ac- 
cording to Pennant, 1214 lines diameter, or more than 1200 years old. 



1834.] On the Longevity of Trees. 203 

Those in the church-yard of Crowhurst in Surrey were in 1660, according to 
Evelyn, 1287 lines in diameter. If, as is asserted, they still exist, they must be 
1450 years old. 

That at Fotheringale, in Scotland, had in 1770 a diameter of 2588 lines, and is 
consequently 25 or 26 hundred years old. 

That in the church-yard of Braburn in Kent had in 1660 a diameter of about 
2880 lines, and if it still exists, it must be 3000 years old. 

I point out these trees to the botanists and foresters of England, in order that 
they may confirm their measurements, and if possible, prove the law which governs 
the increase of diameter, for it is in England that the veterans of European vege- 
tation are to be met with. 

With the same motive, 1 recommend to those who may have an opportunity o 
doing so, to study the law of growth, and the dimensions, of the following trees ; — 
the Indian Date, the Box, the Carob tree, the Beech, the Phylliricp, the Cercis, the 
Juniper, &c. regarding which we have little information. 

Among the exogenous trees in countries between the tropics, the two following 
have been mentioned, the Cheirosternon, (because there is a tree at Toluca, which 
his been known since 1553,) and the Ceiba, which has attracted attention from its 
size ; but it is not probable that trees with such soft wood should live to a 
great age. I confess however that the instance of the Boalab, which although not 
a very hard tree, exceeds 5000 years, according to Adanson, shews the neces- 
sity of circumspection in making this assertion. I would rather draw the atten- 
tion of travellers to large trees with hardwood, such as the mahogany, which gene- 
rally attains seven feet diameter ; the Courbaril, which it is said acquires a diameter 
of 20 feet in the Antilles ; its great hardness is an argument for its very slow 
growth. The different trees known by the name of Iron-wood, the Pinus 
Lambertiana of California, which is said to be from 150 to 200 feet high, and has 
a circumference of from 20 to 60 feet ; the fig trees of the Indian pagodas, &c. 
I would especially recommend travellers to examine all that regards the Taxodiums 
(Cupressus disticha, L.) of Mexico. The immense tree of Chapultepec, which is 
said to attain 117 feet 10 inches circumference ; is it really a single tree or formed 
by the union of several others ? Has it a hollow cave at its base like those of 
Louisiana, which is said to belong to the same species ? Has its measure been 
taken above this cone, as probably ought to be done, if the cone exist ? I recom- 
mend a fresh examination of this gigantic tree : it concerns perhaps the oldest tree 
on the globe. 

The age of indogenous trees is more difficult to ascertain than that of exogenous, 
both from the country to which they belong having been less studied, and on ac- 
count of the absence of the woody layers, and the preservationof the same diameter 
at differentperiods, which renders their examination more difficult. Indogenous trees 
generally appear under two forms ; the first, such as palms, have, almost all, the 
trunk single and marked, at least during the greater part of their life, with circu- 
lar rings placed at very nearly regular distances ; the others, such as the Dracaena, 
have the trunk adorned with branches and are without rings. The age of palms may 
be estimated in two ways, very analogous to each other, namely ; 1st, by the 
height which the trees reach at, compared with the experimental knowledge of the 
rate of growth of each species ; 2nd, by the number of rings, and their mean 
distance compared with the length of the trunk. These two methods rest 
chiefly on the knowledge of the height of trees, as the study of the age of exo- 



204 



De Candolles Essay 



[April, 



genous trees depends on their thickness. It is necessary then in the first place 
to recommend travellers to note exactly the circumference of the trunk of every 
species of palm. It should also he required of them to determine the height of 
palms of every species, and to decide from observation, whether the rings visible 
on the exterior really indicate, as is asserted, the annual growth, or any other de- 
finite period. 

The first method applied to the Date-palm appears to give results which are con- 
formable to truth. Thus in 1809, at Cavalaire, in Provence, a date was known that 
had been sown in 1709 ; it was then 50 feet high ; the greatest height of those 
of Egypt and Barbary., is 6'0 feet, and the Arabs consider their longest life to be 
from 200 to 300 years. It would be necessary to ascertain in what proportions 
the rapidity of growth decreases at different periods. 

By allowing that the rings on the outside of the trunk mark the years, the 
approximate age of the palms of Brazil might be discovered according to the prin- 
ciples furnished by M. de Martius, in his magnificent work, as follows : 



(Enocarpus Batavia 
Euterpe oleracea 
Euterpe edulis. 
Iriartea exorhiza. . . 
Gulielma speciosa. . 

Cocos olea'acea 

Cocos nucifera 



Height of 
trunk. 



feet. 
80 

120 

100 
80 to 100 
80 to 90 
60 to 80 
60 to 80 



Diameter of 
trunks. 



inches. 

12 
8 at 9 
6 at 7 

12 
6 at 8 

12 
4 at 12 



Distance of 
Rings. 



Probable age. 



inches. 

7 
4 at 
4 at 
4 at 
4 at 
1 at 



3 at 12 



years. 

134 

300 

300 

250 to 300 

250 to 300 

600 to 700 

80 to 233 



I give these approximations to travellers as mere indications, and to induce them 
to verify my theory. 

As to indogenous trees, which are covered with branches, and are without regular 
rings, no means have yet been discovered by which to calculate their age, and the 
entire problem must be left for the solution of local observers. It is known that 
some trees belonging to this class live to a very great age ; such is the celebrated 
Dragon-tree (Dracaena draco) in the garden Franchi at Orotava, in the Island of 
Teneriffe, which was considered remarkable in 1402, at the time of the discovery 
of the island, and which was even then an object of veneration to the people. Mr. 
Berthelot (Mem. cur. Nat. vol. 13, p. 781,) who has published a good description 
of this tree, says that in comparing the young neighbouring Dragonniers with this 
giant tree, the calculations which he had made regarding the age of the latter 
have more than once astonished him. In 1797, according to M. Ledru, it was 
65 feet in height, 42 in .circumference at the middle, and 78 at the bottom. Since 
then the hurricane of the 21st July, 1819, has reduced its height very much. 

I am inclined to believe that among the perennial grasses and the shrubs there 
are many much older than they are generally believed to be, but no inquiry has been 
made on this subject. I may cite a few imperfect facts, which may lead observers 
to turn their attention to the duration of life in these humble plants. I mentioned, 
in my work on the Organography of Vegetables, the " herbaceous willow," which 
growing on the thin soil of the Alpine rocks, at the feet of a declivity, gradually 
lengthens its stem as the earth fills up, so as just to enable it to shew its head above 
the soil, the top of the tree resembling a grass-plot of several yards diameter. I 
have tried to lay open the stem of this singular tree, but I never could reach its 
base : the length laid bare, compared with the extreme slowness of its growth, 
already indicated a very advanced age. 



1834.] On the Longevity of Trees. 205 

In the downs of the South of France, the perennial stalks of the Erynxium and 
the Echinophora lengthen as the level of the ground rises : 1 never could succeed 
in extracting their real root, and I incline to believe that these plants are some- 
times contemporaneous with the downs themselves : the runners of the nymphaea, 
the shave-grass, and various ferns, ought also to furnish examples of extraordinary 
longevity, but I know no certain method of appreciating it. 

T will even descend to plants of a still lower class. M. Vaucher watched a 
lichen for 40 years, without observing any sensible change of size. How know we 
that among the patches of moss which envelope our rocks, some may not be coeval 
even with their birth or elevation ? and thus in the beds of certain rivers, some 
weeds may have been existing ever since their waters began to flow ! 

But setting aside these obscure objects, and confining ourselves to the noble 
trees whose history is a matter of general interest, we must acknowledge the solution 
of the problem, above proposed, to be full of curiosity. Let us hasten to do it before 
the progress of industry, the calculations of the timber merchant, the change of 
property, the development of civibzation, — have united to destroy the objects of 
our search. The change of religious opinions, and the extinction of many respect- 
able, though superstitious, feelings, are quickly tending to diminish the veneration 
that certain old trees were wont to inspire in our ancestors. Let us hasten then to 
record the dimensions and the dates of those that are still left, and if it be possible, 
preserve the monuments of ages gone by. I raise my voice on behalf of these me- 
dals of anticpiity. — I would preserve them from sacrilegious destruction — whether 
as historical monuments, or as pleasing memorials for the imagination to dwell on. 
I address myself to the forester, the naturalist, the traveller, the artist ; to all 
public authorities of all nations : I call on them to measure all the oldest trees in 
their neighbourhood, by the process I have pointed out. — All who have the power of 
publishing, should at once commit their researches to the press, the only lasting 
medium of record in our days ; — to those who have not, I offer to make the record 
myself in their names, when possessed of the facts, in a work expressly on the age 
of trees, for which I have collected materials. Those travellers who are not sufficient 
botanists to give the right name to a tree, should forward a dried specimen of a 
branch in flower, to which a few specimens of the wood itself may be added, to 
serve as the means of measuring the ratio of annual increase. 

Note. We have for some time sought to give this highly interesting memoir to our 
readers in its entire shape, because India seems to be peculiarly adapted for the species 
of research which the author so zealously enjoins. The ancient forests of India, in all 
ages venerated and fostered by the Hindus, may still contain trees under which 
Rama abode in his banishment, or Hanuman assembled his monkey ranks! Let us 
hasten to determine the age of those within our reach. The celebrated banian-tree in 
Tirhut, for instance, has lost its parent stem, but taking the outermost offset now be- 
come a large tree, and tracing the period of its taking root, and applying the same 
calculation to all the intermediate dependents, we shall doubtless find a very high 
antiquity for the original tree. 

A young friend in the Midnaptir district has already commenced the inquiry on 
other trees: the following is an extract from his letter. 

" The largest tree I have met with was & pipal at Chiliana. It measured 53 feet in 
circumference at the ground, and 37 at the height of 6 feet. I cut into it and mea- 
sured 7 rings in 3 inches: now at Midnapur the pipal trees give a circumference of 
6 feet 1 inch on an average of about 15 to 20 years growth, deducting the bark, 11 inches 
radius; therefore the Chiliana tree in being 6 feet in radius, should be about 100 year? 
old, which is not much after all." The pipal is a loose grained wood, and easily liable 
to decay. — Ed. 



206 Miscellaneous. [April, 

IX. — Miscellaneous. 
1. — Note on the description of the Iron Suspension Bridge near Sagur. 

In our account of Major Presgrave's bridge, vol. TI, page 538, there are a few 
typographical errors, and inaccuracies of expression, which those interested in 
similar works may desire to see corrected. 

In page 540, in lieu of " the tension, to be sustained at each point of suspension 
would be 85.632 tons, including the load," we should have said, following the 
authority of the printed account of the work, that the " tension of the bridge and 
chains unloaded at either point of suspension, is estimated to be 95.632 tons 
while supposing the clear portion of the platform, 190 feet by llj, or 2,185 
square feet, to be crowded with men, at 69 lbs. per superficial foot, the loaded 
bridge •will have a weight of 120 tons ; and the tension on each point of suspension 
will result, 217.674 tons. This gives 10 tons for the maximum strain that can be 
applied to the square inch of sectional area of iron. The general tension will of 
course be less than half that quantity. There are 780 factory maunds of iron in 
the bridge, which cost in its finished rate about 19| Ca. Sa. Its. per maund. 
2.- — Mr. Previte'smode of preserving bread for Ships, &fc. 

We said nothing of Mr. Previte^s prepared milk, because we did not think that 
its quality was very agreeable to the palate, in fact we doubt whether it be possible 
to evaporate milk to dryness without changing its properties; but of Mr. Previt^'s 
bread we can speak in the highest strain of encomium, from having made abreakfast 
off his regenerated rusk of November last, in preference to other fresh loaves 
and rolls on the table ! The mode of preservation adopted is simply to drive off 
all the inherent moisture from the bread by a moderate heat, and hermetically 
seal it in tin boxes until required. It is then exposed to steam, to supply the 
natural moisture, and rebaked lightly and rapidly on the surface. 

Without detracting in any way from the merit of Mr. Previte's invention, we 
may mention, on the authority of Lieut. Braddock, that the same principle has 
been long practised at Madras. In the parching land winds in the interior, 
when bread becomes perfectly dry and hard during a march, the native cooks 
sprinkle it with water, and place it between two hot earthen pans over a fire ; the 
steam penetrates, and softens the whole mass ; the heat is then raised, sufficiently to 
rebake the surface. We do not know if the same simple plan prevails in Hindustan, 
but the hint is well worth the consideration of travellers in our hot winds by land 
or river. 

3. — Illustration of Herodotus' 1 account of the mode of obtaining gold dust in the 

deserts of Kobi. 

In Heeren's Asiatic nations, vol. 1, we find the following remarks on this 
subject, commencing with an extract from Herodotus : 

" There are other Indians living near the city Caspatyras and the country of 
Pactyica, (the city and territory of Cabul,) situated to the North of the rest of 
the Indian nations, resembling the Bactrians, their neighbours, in their manner of 
life. These are the most warlike of all the Indians, and the people who go to 
procure the gold. For in the neighbourhood of this nation is a sandy desert, in 
which are ants, less in size than dogs but larger than foxes, specimens of which 
are to be seen at the residence of the king of Persia, having been brought from 
that country. These creatures make themselves habitations under ground, throw- 
ing up the sand like the ants in Greece, which they nearly resemble in appearance. 
The sand, however, consists of gold-dust. To procure this the Indians make 
incursions into the desert, taking with them three camels, a male one on each 



1834.] Miscellaneous. 207 

side, and a female in the centre, on which the rider sits, taking care to choose one 
which has recently foaled. When in this manner they come to the place where 
the ants are, the Indians fill their sacks with the sand, and ride back as fast as 
they can, the ants pursuing them, as the Persians say, by the scent ; the female 
camel, eager to rejoin her young one, surpassing the others in speed and per- 
severance. It is thus, according to the Persians, that the Indians ohtain the 
greater part of their gold ; at the same time that the metal is also found, though 
in less quantities, in mines." 

Herodotus has so accurately marked the situation of these auriferous deserts 
that it is impossible to be mistaken. The nation in whose neighbourhood they are 
situated "live near to Bactria and Pactyica, to the north of the other Indians," 
and consequently among the mountains of Little Thibet, or Little Bucharia ; and 
the desert in their vicinity can be no other than that of Cobi, which is bounded 
by the mountains of the above countries. 

There is no doubt that the account of the historian is applicable to this region. 
We have already remarked that the lofty chain of mountains which limit the de- 
sert, is rich in veins of gold ; and not only the rivers which flow from it west- 
ward, through great Bucharia, but the desert-streams which run to the east and 
lose themselves in the sand, or in inland seas, all carry down a quattity ot gold- 
• sand. Besides, who knows not that the adjacent country of Thibet abounds in 
gold ? Nor can we be surprised if, at the present day, the rivers in question 
should be less abundant than formerly in that metal, as must, always be the case 
when it is not obtained by the process of mining, but washed down by a stream. 
As late, however, as the last century, gold-sand was imported from this country 
by the caravans travelling to Siberia ; and under Peter the Great this gave occasion 
to abortive attempts to discover those supposed II Dorados, which were not with- 
out some beneficial results for the science of geography, though utterly unprofit- 
able for the purposes of finance. 

That these were not ants, but a larger species of animal, having a skin, is 
apparent not only from the account of Herodotus, but from that of Megasthenes 
jn Arrian, (India, OP. p. 179,) who saw their skins, which he describes as being 
larger than those of foxes. The count Von Veltheim in his Sammlung einiger 
Auisatze, vol. IT, p. 268, etc., has started the ingenious idea that the skins of 
the foxes, (Canis Corsak, Linn.) found in great abundance in this country, were 
employed in the washing of gold, and which, as they burrow in the earth, may- 
have given rise to the fable. Bold as this conjecture may appear, it deserves to 
be remarked, as it is in perfect agreement with what we know of the natural his- 
tory of the country. The actual observation of fresh travellers can alone afford us 
a complete solution." 

This idea of ttie skins of animals being used in the washing of the gold sand 
elucidates well the marvellous tale of the Grecian author. It is a common practice 
in Savoy to this day. Perhaps however the simple account published in the first 
volume of the present journal, page 16, of the mode employed by the Burmese in 
collecting the gold dust of the Kyeuduen river by fixing the horns of a peculiar spe- 
cies of wild cow in the small streams coming from the hills, to entangle the gold dust 
in the velvet or hairy coat with which the young horns are enveloped, may throw 
some fresh light on the subject. The horns (Mr. Lane was informed, although him- 
self rather incredulous) are sold with the gold dust and sand adhering to them for 
12 or 13 ticals a piece. Now may it not be very probable that in the gold streams 
to the north of Himalaya, whole fleeces of some small animal were employed for the 
lame purpose, and were occasionally sold entire ? 



208 



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gcn/J 






JOURNAL 



or 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



JVY>. 29.- -May, 1834. 



I. — Translation of an Inscription in the Pali and Burma Languages on a 
stone slab from Ramdvati, (Ramree Island,) in Arracan, presented to the 

Asiatic Society by H. Walter, Esq. C. S. as explained by Ratna Paula. 

The first line contains the name of the temple, the erection of which 
is commemorated, in the Burma character. (See Plate XV.) 
kalian! sindogi (the prosperous temple). 
[Then follows in the Pali character and dialect of the Sanscrit the 
following asloka.] 

Invocation to Buddha. 

Paramananta-gyanassa varachakinda rajino, — gunacbint^ya punnassa chirang 
dibbatii sasanam. 

To the divine authority of infinite wisdom, of supreme majesty, and 
incomprehensible virtue, be glory, for evermore. 

[This is followed by an interpretation in Burmese, also written in the 
Pali character : after which come some more aslokas, and a prose account 
of the purport of the record, which is then detailed at length in the com- 
mon Burma language, forming the main portion of the inscription.] 

Bikhu sangb£na ajjena s£ta naginda namena — rattha rajinda raj^na migasira pun- 
uamayam, 

Cbbidra-champa-rama-netan sampat£ jina chakMta — Th£ra vansa padfpaka 
pitak^kovida th£ra 

Vimala'vansa Dhaja maharaja guru pamakha Mahinda Pamukhaviya sall^kha 
vuttino pancha, 

Patittha p^sum sasanam, — tisuna n^sang agautva ima sim^cha Kaliaiii samat£ 
tebi th£r£bi ch^tiya pabat6 tamm(;, t£su tesucba gam^su tatba katbapi siinayu 
vansanu rakhaka tesang. 

Bahavo kula, putato patbata anusasani— samudda tala t£langv£ santa rakhantu 
sasanam. 

Sarna. devacha rajauo dibantu dcamraa vadiuo, cbandova puana masiyam pahi- 
aatu asanyaka. 
D D 



210 Translation of a Burmese [Mat, 

In concert with his assemhiy of priests the illustrious king of kings, 
Raja Seta Naginda*, in the full moon of the month Mrigasiras (Feb.) 
in the year 2329f of the sacred or Jina era, having nominated the 
venerable priest, learned in the three volumes, Vimala vansa dhaja, 
of illustrious family, chief Guru, and saint, after the manner of the 
holy MahindaJ, and five eminent divines, established the Bauddha 
religion throughout the country : three of these having come, founded 
the kaliani temple : as many villages as there were, so many chaityas 
did these guardians of mankind erect on the joyful hills. 

May the dignified of men, stand fast in the holy precepts, unruffled 
like an ccean of oil, and with saints, rajas, and good devas, spreading 
illumination as the full moon, in multitudes attain freedom §. 

Burmese text. 

Four months after attainment of final emancipation by Buddh, 
and after the dispersion and extermination of those who conformed 
not to the dictates of his shastras were complete, 500 Arahanta\\ 
entered into a general conference on the remarkable sayings, maxims, 
and doings of Buddh. From this time to the third general conference 
Dasaka sonaka siggava,Moggaliputtatissather, and their successors, 
preserved the shastras in purity. In the third general conference, and 
in the 218th year of the annihilation of Buddha, when his doctrines and 
dogmas were established and become the rule and standard amongst his 
votaries, a certain minister, MoGGALipUTTATissATHERby name, in union 
with the votaries, companions, and guardians of the Arahant, employed 
appropriate instruments to circulate Buddhism amongst mankind. It 
was on this occasion first established in Ceylon, where it has been ever 
since maintained and preserved by Mahinda Sonather, Aritha, Tis- 
saatta Kalasumana, Dighasumana, and by their respective succes- 
sors to this day. In the country of Suvannabhummi (in Burmah called 
Sativum) it was first introduced in the 236th year of Buddh annihilation 
by Sonather and Uttarather, and has been preserved with purity 

* Lord of the white elephant, a translation of the Burmese Raja's name Simpyi* 
myaskhcn menturagl. (See the same name correctly written in page 212). — Ed. 

f In Pali, as in Sanscrit, the date is expressed in words : chhidra, champa, rama, 
and netra, (hole, a flower of two kinds, Ram, and eye,) signifying respectively 9, 2, 
3, and 2 : (see page 3 of the present volume,) and forming invertedly the year 2329 
of the Gautama era, which corresponds with A. D. 1785-6. — Ed. 

J A Buddha saint, son of Dharma. Asoka. 

§ The Pali text was made out with the help of Hindu pandits ; it may not he 
quite correctly rendered, though most of the words are readily convertible into 
Sanscrit. — Ed. 

|| By Arhant is meant those who have achieved an entire conquest over their 
evil passions, witnout a possibility of these passions ever obtaining the predomi- 
nance. 



1834.] Inscription from Ramrce Island, Arracan. 211 

ever since by his successors In the 1600th year, when the Arahanta 
became paramount in the country of Pukkam, and in the kingdom of 
Arimaddana, the sovereign thereof, Anorathacho, in the greatness of 
his regard and esteem for the shastra, invited the learned from the coun- 
try of Sathum, and planted it in his own dominions, which was done 
through the instrumentality of Sonathera and Uttarathkr, and their 
disciples and survivors. Those who planted the shastras in Pukkam in 
union with the transcendently wise, as also with Uttarajivather (the 
guide of the king of Pukam country), the disciple of Aryavansamather, 
who was the disciple of Mahakalather (of Dassita), in the year 1714, 
with the view of performing the puja of Buddh, Utharajivamather 
and the rest went to and united with the followers and successors of 
Mahindather and other great personages in Ceylon, and there engaged 
in religious exercises, and held discussions on the shastras ; he felt great 
pleasure in finding the shastras pure and unalloyed, went to the temple in 
a body with them, and engaged in holy exercises. His disciple Chhapa- 
dasaimane was on this occasion ordained a minister, and accordingly 
began to study the shastras with intensity in Ceylon, and in due course 
was promoted in ministerial rank, and installed one of the paramount 
ministers. In the year 1724, and in the reign of Narapatichesu, he 
uniting with Sivalithera of Temulitte village, Tamalindather of Kam- 
boja, Anandather of Kingchipura, Rahulather of Ceylon, all unusually 
versant in the shastras, which they had wholly committed to memory, 
they came to Pukam country, where siuce the introduction of the shas- 
tras, as above stated, to the year 2314, the shastras were maintained 
and preserved by Mahindather, Sonather, and Uttarather, and 
their survivors and successors. After the death of his spiritual guide, Vi- 
chitta lankara samme began to study the volumes called Nayattika, 
Gandhara, and Abhidhamapitakat (metaphysics) under the guidance of 
Dhammavilamaharajaguru. It happened that in the Burmese year 
1 132, and in the reign of Chhangprurhang, he entered a society called 
Suddarma, and standing before the highest minister, addressed him thus : 
" I am your follower, and in order to have myself confirmed in the 
career in which I have started, I would choose you as my chief spiritu- 
al guide," and turning himself to Maha Srisaddhappavarachharato 
and Buddharakkhita mahasamicharato (who was the superior minis- 
ter of the temple of the Pukam country), he besought them to become his 
secondary guides. 

It happened in the 100th year, that in the country of Vesali, the mi- 
nisters who had come there from Vajji, made ten several additions to 
the shastras, and which were in full prevalence, thus endangering the 
orthodoxy of the shastras. 
d d 2 



212 Translation of a Burmese [Mat, 

In the reign of Mahamanygolarhve bhungathop kridayaka 
mangtara, in the year 2323, certain unholy priests violated the laws of 
the holy Buddh by inventing in the Pali language ten heterodox 
doctrines of their own, and substituting them in the stead of the 
dictates of Buddh. It was amongst other things directed, that a piece 
of yellow cloth of four cubits long and one span in breadth, tied around 
the breast, should form the only raiment of priests — a doctrine to which 
they gave all the force of their own example. These inconsistencies 
made the monarch anxious to exhibit and elucidate to all his subjects, 
both foreigners and aborigines, the laity and the priesthood, the true 
shastras with commentaries : he therefore convened a general meeting, 
where those versed in shastrical lore, by long discussion and close scru- 
tiny, came to the conclusion that the use of the yellow cloth in the manner 
stated was a violation of the shastras, and that priests should roll part of 
their cloth, and pass it under their arms ; when it was also enjoined that 
the uninitiated priests should study Sehhiyavatha, (a volume which regu- 
lates dress and ceremonies,) and correct by its dictates their system of 
mendicancy, habiliments, and general demeanour. Many holy volumes, 
teeming with sapient comments, were brought to demonstrate the incon- 
sistency of the practices prevalent, which could not be gainsaid or coun- 
teracted by the advocates of the new system, who formed a class living 
by themselves in the village of Dum. 

Another general conference was held, in which presided Mahayasa. 
There was a class of priests called Chhabbaggi, who used to practise ten 
several kinds of inconsistencies, when in the year 2326, it was deter- 
mined and ascertained that the practice was founded on tradition, and 
not in the shastras. Chhangpru mrahsakhang mang tarah kri, 
the king of Amarapura, to whom were subject several tributary rajas, 
being displeased at the perversion, he by the power he was invested 
with by the institutions of Heaven, as well as by those of the laws of 
his own kingdom, suppressed unholiness,and amongst the rest destroyed 
the evil practices alluded to, and what was impure he filtered into re- 
finement, so that the conduct and holy exercises of the priests were 
brought to concord and harmony, and those who followed wrong 
dogmas, or their own whims, were brought within the pale of orthodoxy. 
In fine like Sridhammasoka, king of the world, he directed the cir- 
culation and establishment of the shastras in all accessible countries. 
Having heard that the shastras were made light of in a country called 
Mahavisa, he took possession of it, and brought and charmed away 
thence the statue of Mahamuni, and deposited it in a temple decorated 
with gems. 

In Brother Changprurhang's reign, Vichitta lankara being ex- 



1834.] Inscription from Ramree Island, Arracan. 213 

traordinarily versed in shastrical learning, the sovereign invested him 
with the joint office of Vimala vansa-dhaja-maharaja guru, and the presi- 
dency of the five several religious denominations ; and they are as follow : 
Punyavansaparama maharaja Gurucharato, Munindasridhaja maharaja 
Gurucharato, Chandamedhabhidhara maharaja Gurucharato, Paramasri- 
dhaja maharaja Gurucharato. 

After a consultation between the king and the priests of the countrv 
it was determined upon, that some should be employed in extending 
and circulating the shastras beyond the limits to which they were 
confined. To this end those who had the shastras bv heart started in 
the year Sakkaraj 1148 (a. d. 1786), with a view to plant and introduce 
it in Rammavati, in the island of YanbyaKvyan, accompanied by a numer- 
ous retinue and attendants to answer every purpose. But before the con- 
veyers of the holy word arrived at the destined place, they were escorted 
with honor thiiher by (the governor) Narasamankvyo, the general 
Chichkayray khongsiha kvyo chva, &c. Chiksihanakhangnat 
mhang takngoralhakyotan, and the chief secretary Chare krive- 
rasungorasu miung, and other chiefs of the country, who introduced 
the body composing the mission into the country. So great was the effect 
produced by their arrival, that from the 5th day of Tabodoa, (February,) 
to the end of the month, the very flower of the country were ordained 
priests of different degrees in the great temple called Mahavihara. 

In the full-moon of Tabongla, (March,)a temple called Kalyani simtokri, 
was duly consecrated ; in short, the various parts and villages of the 
island abounded with temples and pagodas, which were on this occasion 
built and consecrated. They also fixed the holy shastras in Dvdrdvati 
and Meghdvati*, and brought into operation the holy institutions, so that 
the very government and all its members, with the subjects of the island 
heard with attention the three several classes of holy science, read ex- 
pounded, and proclaimed, in which they were eventually established. 
Thus holiness was attained, ministers of different ranks and decrees com- 
menced the study of the shastras, so that the very island shone with 
yellow robes, characteristic of the prayers of holiness. During this state 
of things, it was earnestly prayed by all the zealous, that the unholy 
should separate and divide themselves from the righteous within 5000 
years, and that the excellent of the land with their votaries may shine 
and prosper, in order that they may at last obtain that most transcendant 
of all bliss, Nirbhan, (final emancipation.) 

* Sandoway and Cheduba, according to Mr. Walter's free translation of the 
same inscription, which has reached us too late to be otherwise available than for 
general comparison with Ratna Paula's version. — Ed. 



214 Translation of a Burmese Inscription. [May, 

II. — Translation of an Inscription in the Pdli character and Burmese 
Language, on a stone at Buddh Gya, in Behar. Plate XVI. 

When the Burmese ambassador Mengy Maha Chesu and his suite 
were on their way to the Upper Provinces, to visit the Governor Gene- 
ral ; they took the opportunity of paying their devotions at the cele- 
brated Buddhist temple near Gya. There, as usual making notes of 
every occurrence, they took copies of an ancient inscription in the Pali 
character, discovered by them, in a half-buried situation near the Maha 
Bodhi gdch or sacred pipal tree, on the terrace of the temple. A copy 
of their manuscript having come into Ratna Paula's hands, he has 
obliged me by lithographing the text, as a sequel to the more lengthy 
inscription from Ramree in the present number. 

It will be remarked that there is a near coincidence in the names of 
the kings of Ava, alluded to in the two inscriptions ; although an inter- 
val of more than 500 years separates the two in date : this can only be 
cleared up by a better knowledge of the history of the country, than 
we now possess. In the Burmese chronological table, published in 
Crawfurd's Embassy, Sato-mang-bya (probably the same as Sado-meng) 
only founded Angwa or Ava in the Sakkaraj year 726. In 667-8, Ta- 
chi-shang-si-ha-su reigned in Panya : his grand-son founded and 
reigned in Chit-gaing. 

At page 111, Lieut. Burt refers to an unintelligible inscription at Gya, 
mentioned by Mr. Harington ; but that contained only one line, and 
was in a different locality. The present inscription seems therefore to 
have escaped attention up to the present moment : it is now recorded 
as furnishing an authentic note of the construction of the Buddha Gya 
monument in the year 1305 a. d. ; for it maybe presumed that the pre- 
vious Chaityas and Buddhist structures had been long before levelled 
with the ground, and the inscription states, that previous missions to 
reconstruct the edifice had been unsuccessful. As proving that this spot 
is held in peculiar veneration by the Burmese, it may be remembered that 
in 1823, a deputation of Buddha priests was sent from Amarapura, 
by the Burman emperor, to perform the obsequies of his predecessor, 
recently deceased, at the shrine of Buddha Gya. 

Translation. 

"This is one of the 84,000 shrines erected by Sri Dharm Asoka, 
ruler of the world (Jambodioip), at the end of the 218th year of Buddha 
annihilation, (B. C. 326,) upon the holy spot in which Bhagava'n 
(Buddha) tasted milk and honey (madhupayasa :) In lapse of time, 
having fallen into disrepair, it was rebuilt by a priest named Naik- 
mahanta. Again, being ruined, it was restored by RajaSADO-MANG. 
After a long interval it was once more demolished, when Raja Sempyu- 



1834.] Classification of the Newdrs of Nepal. 215 

sakhen-tara-mengi appointed his guru Sri-dhamma raja-guna to 
superintend the building. He proceeded to the spot with his disciple, 
Sri Kasyapa, but they were unable to complete it, although aided in 
every way by the Raja. Afterwards Varadasi-naik-thera petitioned 
the Raja to undertake it, to which he readily assented, commissioning 
prince Pyutasing to the work, who again deputed the younger Pyusa- 
kheng, and his minister Ratha, to cross over and repair the sacred 
building. It was thus constructed a fourth time, and finished on Friday 
the 10th day of Pyadola, in the Sakkaraj year 667 (a. d. 1305). On Sun- 
day the 8th of Tachhaon-mungla, 668 (a. d. 1306), it was consecrated 
with splendid ceremonies and offerings of food, perfumes, banners, and 
lamps, and piija of the famous ornamented tree called calpa-vriksha : and 
the poor (two ?) were treated with charity, as the Raja's own children ? 
Thus was completed this meritorious act, which will produce eternal 
reward and virtuous fruits. May the founders endure in fame, enjoy the 
tranquillity of Nirbhan, and become Arahanta on the advent of Arya 
Maitri (the future Buddha)." 



HI. — Classification oftheNe'wdrs, or Aborigines of Nepal Proper, preceded 

by the most authoritative Legend relative to the Origin and Early 

History of the Race. 

The S vvoyambhu Piirana relates in substance as follows : That former- 
ly the vallev of Nepal was of circular form, and full of very deep water, 
and that the mountains confining it were clothed with the densest for- 
ests, living shelter to numberless birds and beasts. Countless water- 
fowl rejoiced in the waters. The name of the lake was Naga Vasa ; it 
was beautiful as the Lake of Indra ; south of the Hemachal, the resi- 
dence of Karkotaka, prince of the Nagas ; seven cos long, and as many 
broad. In the lake were many sorts of water-plants ; but not the lotos. 
After a time, Vipasyi Buddha arrived, with very many disciples and 
Bhikshus, from Vindumati Nagar, in Madhya Desa, at the Lake of 
Na^-a Vasa, in the course of his customary religious peregrinations. 
Vipasyi, having thrice circumambulated the lake, seated himself in the 
N. W. (Vavi'ikona) side of it, and, having repeated several mantras 
over the root of a lotos, he threw it into the water, exclaiming, " What 
time this root shall produce a flower, then, from out of the flower, Swo- 
yambhu, the Lord of Aknishtha Bhavana, shall be revealed in the form 
of flame ; and then shall the lake become a cultivated and populous 
country." Having repeated these words, Vipasyi departed. Long after 
the date of this prophecy, it was fulfilled according to the letter. 

After Vipasyi Buddha, came Sikhi Buddha to Naga Vasa with a great 
company of respectful followers, composedof rajas and persons of the four 



216 Classification of the NAvdrs of Nepal. [May., 

caste? (chatiir varana). Sikhi, so soon as he beheld Jyoti-rup-Swo- 
yambhu, offered to him many laudatory forms of prayer : then rising, he 
thrice walked round Naga Vasa, and, having done so, thus addressed 
his disciples : " This place shall hereafter, by the blessing of Swoyambhu, 
become a delightful abode to those who shall resort to it from all quar- 
ters to dwell in it, and a sweet place of sojourn for the pilgrim and pas- 
senger : my apotheosis is now near at hand, do you all take your leave of 
me and depart to your own country." So saying Sikhi threw himself 
into the waters of Naga Vasa, grasping in his hands the stalk of the 
lotos, and his soul was absorbed into the essence of Swoyambhu. 
Many of his disciples, following their master, threw themselves in the 
lake, and were absorbed into Swoyambhu, (i. e. the self-existent ;) the 
rest returned home. Viswabhu was the third Buddha who visited 
Naga Vasa. Viswabhu was born in Aniipama-puri-nagar, of Mad- 
hva desa, (in the Trita yuga ;) his life was devoted to benefitting his 
fellow creatures. His visit to Nepal was long after that of Sikhi, and, 
like Sikhi, he brought with him a great many disciples and Bhikshas, 
Rajas and cultivators, natives of his own land. Having repeated the 
praises of Swoyambhu -jyoti-rupa he observed. " In this lake Prajna- 
surupa-Guhyeswari will be produced. A Bodhisatwa will, in time, make 
her manifest out of the waters : and this place, through the blessing of 
Swoyambhu, will become replete with villages, towns, and tirthas, and in- 
habitants of various and diverse tribes." Having thus prophesied he thrice 
circumambulated the lake and returned to his native country. The Bod- 
hisatwa above alluded to is Manju Sri, whose native place is very far off, 
towards the north, and is called Pancha Sirsha Parvata, [which is situated 
in Maha China Des*.] One day in the Trita yuga, and immediately after 
the coming of Viswabhu Buddha to Naga Vasa, Manju Sri, meditat- 
ing upon what was passing in the world, discovered by means of his di- 
vine science that Swoyambhu-jyoti-rupa, that is, the self- existent, in 
the form of flame, was revealed out of a lotos in the Lake of Naga 
Vasa. Again, he reflected within himself : " Let me behold that 
sacred spot, and my name will long be celebrated in the world ; and 
on the instant, collecting together his disciples, comprising a multitude 
of the peasantry of the land, and a Raja named Dharmakar, he assum- 
ed the form of Viswakarma, and with his two Devis (wives,) and the 
persons above-mentioned, set out upon the long journey from Sirsha 
Parvata to Naga Vasa. There having arrived, and having made puja 
to the self-existent, he began to circumambulate the lake, beseeching 
all the while the aid of Swoyambhu in prayer. In the second circuit, 
when he had reached the central barrier mountain on the south, he 

* The bracketed portions are from the commentators. 



1834.] or Aborigines of Ntpal. 217 

became satisfied that that was the best place whereat to draw off the 
waters of the lake. Immediately he struck the mountain with his 
scimitar, when the sundered rock gave passage to the waters, and the 
bottom of the lake became dry. He then descended from the moun- 
tain, and began to Walk about the valley in all directions. As he ap- 
proached Guhyeswari*, he beheld the water bubbling up violently from 
the spot, and betook himself' with pious zeal to the task of stopping 
it. No sooner had he commenced than the ebullition of the water 
became less violent, when, leaving bare only the flower of the lotos, the 
root of which was the abode of Guhyeswari, he erected a protecting 
structure of stone and brick over the recumbent stalk, and called the 
structure, which rose into a considerable elevation as it neared the 
flower of the lotos, Satya Giri. This work completed, Manju Sri 
began to look about him in search of a fit place of residence, and at 
length constructed for that purpose a small hill, to which he gave the 
name of Manju Sri Parbata, (the western half of the little hill of Sam- 
bhii Nath,) and called the desiccated valley, Nepdld — Ne signifying the 
sender (to paradise), who is Swoyambhu; and pdla, cherished, implying 
that the protecting genius of the valley was Swoyambhu or Adhi 
Buddha. Thus the valley got the name of N6pala : and, since very 
many persons had came from Mount Sirsha [or China] with Manju 
Sri, for the residence of Dharmakar Raja and his suite, Manju 
constructed a large place of abode, half way between Mount Swoy- 
ambhu and Guhyeswari, and named it after himself, Manja Pat- 
tana, and established therein Dharmakar [of Maha China] , as Raja, 
subjecting the whole of the inferior sort of people who came from Sirsha 
Parbata to Dharmakar's rule, and providing abodes for them in the 
city of Manja Pattana. 

Thus was Nepal peopled : the first inhabitants of which came all 
from Mount Sirsha [which is in Maha China], and thus the valley got 
the name of Nepala, and its inhabitants that of Nepali, [whose primi- 
tive language was Chinese.] [This language in course of time came to 
be much altered by the immigration of people from Madhya desa, and 
by the necessary progress of corruption and change in a new country, 

* The site of the temple is near the centre of the valley, on the skirts of the 
lovely grove of Pasupati ; and above 2$ or 3 miles east from mount Sambhu. 
The fable says, that the root of the lotos of Guhyeswari was at the former place, 
and the flower at the latter ; the recumbent stalk being extended throughout the 
interval between them. Swoyambhu or Adhi Buddha is supposed to reside in 
the flower, in the form of flame ; Prajana Paramita or Guhyeswari, in or at 
the root, in the form of water, 

E E 



218 Classification of the Newars [May, 

till a new language arose in Nepal by the natural course of things. The 
primitive inhabitants of Nepal were all of one caste, or had no caste. 
But their descendants, in the course of time, became divided into many 
castes, according to the trades and professions which they followed ; and 
of these, such as abandoned the world and shaved their heads, became 
Bhikshu, Sramana, Chailaka, and Arhana, and took up their abode in 
forests or in monasteries. The latter four orders are all ascetical ; and in 
strictness absolutely excluded from all worldly commerce. But should 
any of them, still retaining the custom of tonsure, become worldly men, 
such are called Sravaka, &c. to a great extent of diverse names]. Man- 
ju Sri, having by such deeds as these acquired the highest celebrity in 
Nepal, ostensibly, and for the instruction of the people, relinquished his 
mortal form, and became nirviin ; but, in truth, departed for Mount 
Sirsha with his two Devis, and in due course arrived at Pancha Sirsha 
Parvata. Some time after the disappearance ofMANju Sri [in the Trita 
yug] Karkut Sand Buddha came to Nepal, with some Bhikshukas, Dhar- 
mapala Raja, and a multitude of the common people, from Kshemavati 
nagar, of Madhya desa. The beauty of the country delighted him, and he 
remarked that in such a land the cultivator must be sure to reap as he 
sowed. He paid his devotions to Swoyambhu, and then launched out in 
praise of the merits of Manju Sri theNipalese patriarch. Afterwards, he 
performed piija to Guhyeswari, and then ascended Sankhocha mountain 
(Siva Pura) : the prospect of the valley from that mount filled him with 
fresh delight, and he again celebrated the excellence of the country. 
Gunadhvaja, a Brahman, and Abhayandada, a Kshetriya, and others of 
the four castes (chatiir varana), respectful followers of Kurkut Sand, 
here solicited at his hands the favour of being made Bhikshukas, in order 
that they might remain in this happy land, and by the worship of Swo- 
yambhu attain to high merit and honour. Kurkut cheerfully complied, 
and agreed to make a great many of the company Bhikshukas; and since 
the mountain top afforded no water for that ceremony, he by his divine 
power caused a spring to issue from the rock, and with its waters gave to 
his followers the requisite Abhisheka or baptism. He called the river 
that originated with this spring VangmatiJ ; and then related to his 
followers both the past and future history of the valley watered by the 
Vangmati. Then, having left behind him at Nepal, Raja Dharmapal 
and some Bhikshus and common folks, who had come with him, and 
desired to stay, Kurkut Sand departed with the rest of them to his 
native city of Kshemavati. These companions of Kurkut Sand, or Kra- 
kucchand, were the first natives of the plains of India (Madhya-desa) 
who remained in Nepal. Many of them, addicting themselves to the 



1834.] or Aborigines of Ntpdl. 219 

business of the world, became householders and the founders of several 
towns and villages in Nepal ; whilst others, who adopted the ascetical 
profession, dwelt in the forests and Vihars. When these Madhya- 
desiyas had became numerous in Nepal, they and their descendants 
were confounded with the former or northern colonists under the 
common appellation of Nepali and Newari ; being only separated and 
contradistinguished by the several trades and professions which they 
hereditarily practised. Thus, in the early ages. Nepal had four classes 
of secular people, as Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Sudra, and four 
ascetical classes, namely, Bhikshu, Sramana, Chailaka, and Arhanta, 
dwelling in forests and monasteries ; and all were Buddh-mdrgi. 

Account of Dharmakar Raja and Dharmapdl Raja. 

Dharmakar, the before noted Chinese prince of Nepal, being dis- 
gusted with the world, abandoned his sovereign power, and placed Dhar- 
mapdl, the Raja of Gour-des, already mentioned, upon his throne. Dhar- 
mapdl governedhis subjects with perfect justice and clemency, and made 
puja at the Chaitya erected by Dharmakar, and regarded with equal 
favour his subjects that came from Mount Sirsha [or Maha China], and 
those who emigrated from Madhya-des. 

Account of Prachanda Deva. — Prachanda Deva, a Raja of Gour-des, 
(which is adjacent to Madhya-des,) and of theKshetriya tribe, was the wise 
man of his age and country. At length, being inspired with the ambition 
of becoming nirvan, he abandoned his princely sway ; and taking with 
him a few sages, he began to wander over various countries, visiting 
all the shrines and pilgrimages, and in the course of his peregrinations 
arrived at Nepal. He was delighted with the beauty of the country, 
and having visited every tirtha, and pith, and devata, and having 
made puja to the Tri Ratna, or triad, he went to the temple of Swo- 
yambhu, and there performed his devotions. He then ascended Man- 
ju sri Parvat, and offered his prayers to Manju Sri, and finished by be- 
coming a disciple of Gunakar Bhiksau, a follower of Manju Sri. One 
day Prachanda Deva so delighted Gunakar with the display of his ex- 
cellent qualities, that Gunakar made him a Bhikshuka, and the said 
Raja Prachanda after becoming a Bhikshu obtained the titular appellation 
of Santa sri. A great many Brahmans and others who accompanied 
Prachanda to Nepal received the tonsure, and became Bhikshus at the 
same time with Prachanda, and took up their abode in the monasteries 
of Nepal. Some others of those that came with Prachanda to Nepal, 
preferring the pursuits of the world, continued to exercise them in Ne- 

X From Vach, speech. 



220 Classification of the Neivars [May, 

pal, where they also remained and became Buddhists. A third portion 
of Prachanda's companions returned to Gour-des. After a time, Santa 
Sri represented to his Guru Gu'nakar his desire to protect the sacred 
flame of Swoyambhu with a covering structure. Gu'nakar was charm- 
ed with the proposition and proposer, and having purified him with 1 3 
sprinklings of sacred water {trayodas abhiseka),gdive him the title of Dik- 
shita Santikar Vajra Acharya. [From these transactions is dated the arri- 
val of the people of Gour-des at Nepal, and their becoming Buddhists.] 

Account of Kanaka Muni. — Once on a time, from Subhavati-nagar 
of Madhya-des, Kanaka Muni Buddha, with many disciples, some 
illustrious persons, and a countless multitude of common people, arriv- 
ed at Nepal, in the course of his religious peregrinations, and spent 
some months in the worship of Swoyambhu, and the Tri Ratna, and 
then departed with most of his attendants. A few remained at Nepal, 
became Buddh-margi and worshippers of Swoyambhu ; [and these too, 
like all the preceding, soon lost their name and character as Madhya- 
desiyas, and were blended with the Nepali or Newari race. 

Account of Kashyapa Buddha. — Once on a time, in Mrigadaba-vana, 
near Benares, Kashyapa Buddha was born. He visited Nepal in pil- 
grimage, and made his devotions to Sambhu-nath. [Most of the people 
who came with him staid in Nepal, and soon became confounded with 
the aborigines.] 

Account of Sdkya Sinha Buddha. — Some time after Kashyapa's visit, 
in the beginning of Kali yuga,] on the shores of Ganga Sagara, in the 
sthan of KapilaMuni, and city of Kapila-vasta, and reign of Sadhodana 
Raja, of the Sakya vansa, was born (as the son of that Raja) Sarvar- 
tha Siddha, who afterwards became a Buddha with the name of Sakya 
Sinha. Sakya, with 1 350 Bhikshukas, and the Raja of Benares, se- 
veral counsellors of state, and a crowd of peasantry of that kingdom, set 
out on the pilgrimage to Nepal. Having paid his devotions to the self- 
existent, in the form of flame, he went to the Chaitya on Puchhagra 
Hill, and repeated to his disciples the past history of Nepal, as well as 
its whole future history, with many praises of Manju Sri Bodhi satwa : 
he then observed, " In all the world are 24 Piths, and of all these 
that of Nepal is the best." Having so said, he departed. His compa- 
nions, who were of the Chatur varana, or four castes, [Brahman, Kshe- 
triya, Vaisya, and Siidra,] and belonged to the four orders, [Bhikshu, 
and Sramana, and Chailaka, and Arhanta,] being much pleased with 
Nepal -des, continued to dwell in it ; [and in course of time were 
blended with the aboriginal Nepalis, and became divided into several 
castes, according to the avocations which they hereditarily pursued.] 



1834.] Further account of an ancient Town, fyc. 221 

Some time after the date of the above transaction, Raja Gunakama 
Deva, prince of Cathmandu, a principal city of Nepal, became the dis- 
ciple of the above-mentioned Santikar Vajra Acharya. Gu'n Kam 
Deva, with the aid derived from the divine merits of Santikar, brought 
the Nag RajaKARKiArAKA out of the lake or tank of Adhar, and conveved 
him to Santipur with much ceremony and many religious rites. The 
cause of this act was that for many previous years there had been a defi- 
ciency of rain, whereby the people had been grievously distressed with 
famine ; and its consequence was, an ample supply of rain, and the re- 
turn of the usual fertility of the earth and plenty of food. 

Subsequently, Sri Narendra Deva became Raja of Bhagat-pattan, (or 
Bhatgaon) ; he was the disciple of Bandudatta Acharya, and brought 
Aryavalokiteswara (Padma Pani) from Putalakaparvat (in Assam) to 
the city of Lalita pattan in Nepal. The reason of inviting this divinity 
to Nepal was a drought of 12 years' duration, and of the greatest 
severity. The measure was attended with like happy results, as in the 
case of conveying the Nag Raja with so much honour to Santipur. 
[The classification will be given in an ensuing number.] 

IV. — Further Account of the Remains of an ancient Town, discovered at 
Behat, near Sehdranpur. By P. T. Cautley, Art. Supt. Doab Canal. 

[In a letter to the Secretary, read at the Meeting of the 30th April.] 
With more coins and other articles that have been found in our 
Herculaneum, I have now the pleasure of sending a sketch of the 
country in the neighbourhood of Behat, which will be more descrip- 
tive of the ancient town, with the size and extent of the mountain 
torrents in its vicinity, than any explanation that I could give in writing : 
the total absence moreover of any tradition of its having existed, and 
the little information to be gained from natives on subjects of this nature, 
unless coming under their immediate observation, places me in depend- 
ence solely on the few notes that I have by me, which I fear are 
hardly worthy of the notice of the Society. 

Tradition, but even that of the vaguest description, carries us back to 
the reign of Shah Jehan, as well as to that of Muhammed Shah andhiu 
successors at the dissolution of the empire. Shah Jehan built apalace or 
hunting seat at the foot of the lowerrangeof hills on a branch of the Jumna 
river, about 14 miles north of Behat: this place which consists of a main qua- 
drangle of 800 feet square, with numerousbuildings and minor courts attach- 
ed, is now in perfect ruin, the superstructure only remaining in a few places, 
and that entangled and held together by arms and roots of the Bur 



222 Further account of the [May, 

(Ficus Indica) and other jungle trees ; at Raipur, Nyashahr, Fyzabad, 
and other places between Behat and this palace are remains of the 
same period in mosques, tombs, &c. and the forests in the neighbour- 
hood contain marks of a more extended cultivation, and of a country 
more thickly inhabited than it is at present ; it may be fairly presumed 
that all the Musulman buildings now in existence here are dependent on a 
period posterior to the middle of the 17th century. Behat itself con- 
tains a mosque and tomb near it, with only one brick house orenclosure, 
but a number of pukka wells, and is said to have been a large town at 
the period alluded to ; but the ruins and tombs pointed out as the 
remains of this era are south of the present town, and in quite a different 
direction to the antiquities that have been now discovered. 

To a person at all acquainted with the strange revolutions that take 
place on the surface, in the proximitv of these mountain torrents provin- 
cially termed rows, the mere change of the river's course, or an 
extensive deposit of sand on a wide surface, thereby laying waste large 
tracts of cultivable soil, would not be at all surprising : such changes 
are in constant progress, and things of annual occurrence ! The course 
of the Nogaon row, as shewn in the map, has been so altered within 
the last half century, agreeably to the information of a respectable ze- 
mindar, or landholder who resides at Behat, that the features of the 
country are perfectly changed since his childhood : he mentions ( a cir- 
cumstance borne out by my excavations) that in his recollection, "all 
the country between the two rivers through which the present canal 
runs, and on which the Belka falls are now constructed, was a low clay 
soil (dhaka), with rice cultivation ; that this tract now is raised five hat'hs 
by a deposit of sand, caused by one very severe rainy season, in which 
the present town of Behat was in jeopardy ;" this exactly corresponds 
with the canal excavations, the superficial 5 to 7 feet of which was 
sand, reposing on a reddish sandy clay, the section at the point where the 
ancient town is buried shews the same deposit of 4| feet with the same 
sub-stratum of clay ! The Behat khala or ravine opening out into the 
Muskura river is said to have been much enlarged by the ancient canal, 
when great mischief was done to the neighbourhood ; referring to the last 
attempt at making use of this line as a canal by the Rohilla Zabitha 
khan, who has the credit of having carried water to the town of Jelala- 
bad and his fortified camp Gousgurh. I take the liberty of referring 
you to the strange tortuous outline of this ravine, of which the map 
gives a faithful representation, (PI. xvii.) as near this ravine lies the old 
Town at a depth of 17 feet from the surface, with a super deposit of 12£ 
feet of a reddish sandy clay. 



dotcr. ({•>'■ Sac. 



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SahabJipoor 



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nil 

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'IvmliLfreU 



I,edtjeJi, 8t « Tbrrds 






JJt^a% Grass 



Jell iliscoveredat this p 



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SKETCH 

of theTown of Behut and its vicinity; 

Uvcutdisig th&Dvah Canal as 
Connected/ wiffi/fJu, J&aaons and 
iMuskurrasJiiverSj iC Us /mssaae, 
dtHvrutfieJtedofihi Behut Khala 

Lnilluf(ralLo7vtf£he'p<xHfoin,oft7i4, ancient? 

7c*um, discovered below tht surface, as shewn 

hy (he red tint in the- aJwveSketch: 



Dam ft.Ch&Ju' 

1 ' Rfjtila/i/ui 
I BritLie, 



ri tS vc 14- 28 3* 3600 F*** 
i 1 i 1 1 1 — I 



Scale of 800 Yards to an Inch 



T.T.Cd 



'Ute-u iid' 



X J>'. Tassin IM . 



1834.] ancient Town discovered near Seluiranpur. 223 

The fall or difference in level between the bed of the Nogaon and 
that of the Muskura river, at the point where the khala joins it, was 
previous to the present canal works being constructed about 21 feet, 
on a line with all its tortuosities not exceeding three miles ! Nowitwould 
be supposed that had the canal formerly passed over this line, without 
masonry or other works to protect it from erosion, the wear and tearof 
such a rapid would in a very short space of time have connected the 
Nogaon with the Muskura, and thrown all the waters of the former 
down the latter's channel. It is perfectly evident, that this did not 
take place, for such an event must, when once established, have 
remained ; a point which almost ensures one of two surmises ; — ei- 
ther that the ancient canal never was opened, or kept open for 
any length of time ; or that works were constructed in this neigh- 
bourhood. These works might have been at the spot where these 
antiquities have been found : such was my idea on the discoveries 
being laid open, and such was the impression under which I visited 
the spot after it had been pointed out to me, and I must confess that 
the reasons were so strong in favor of this being the mere ruin of old 
canal works, that I was considerably biassed in favor of the supposition, 
that at this spot had been the descent or fall by which the difference 
of level had been accomplished. On examination however, this idea was 
completely annulled, for the distinct stratum of black soil, filled with bits 
of pot and bone so exactly corresponding with the sites of ancient vil- 
lages now existing on the surface, and this stratum extending for a 
continuance, placed the matter in a far different light, completely laying 
aside the possibility of this either having been the remains of a canal 
work, or with reference to the coins, &c. the probability of its being a 
mere deposit caused by transportation. There is not a doubt on my 
mind of this being a town submerged, the reasons and causes of which 
may be ascribed not only to the proximity of rows, but to the effects of 
winds; in short the filling in of a hollow. But when this happened, 
or what were the features of the country's surface at the period 
previous to this taking place, may well remain an enigma ; for look- 
ing around us at the present day, we find the position of towns 
and villages invariably fixed either on the highest spots or on 
the slopes of valleys ! Now, was this town at the period of its existence 
high or even partially so, with reference to the surrounding country, to 
what date can we possibly look to its existence ? And how picture to 
ourselves the face of the neighbouring country ? There is no doubt 
however that this town is of great antiquity, and to those conversant in 
these matters, and I cannot refer myself to one more so than yourself, a 



224 Further account of the [Mat?, 

door may be opened, from the great number of coins that have been 
found, to fix the probable date, when this town was inhabited. 

The level of the country does not exhibit any distinct basin or 
hollow ; but, taking a line from the Nogaon river at the dam over the site 
to the Muskura, one continuous slope will be found, with indentations 
at each of the rivers ; the proximity of the lines of sandhills and their 
directions might lead to speculations ; but these are just as well avoided ; 
for if, as we must allow, (from finding shingle and old beds of rivers 
many feet below the present surface,) the present surface has been con- 
siderably raised, we have with the agency of these mountain streams, 
and the soil acted on by winds, data sufficient to shew that the inhuma- 
tion of a city, or whatever was at the spot in question, was nothing at all 
extraordinary. 

It may be interesting, with reference to the constant change of sur- 
face in this region, to mention, that when engaged in constructing a 
bridge at the village of Gandewar, about two miles higher up the canal 
than the Nogaon row, the difficulty of obtaining water for the works 
was such, that I was induced to sink a shaft in the canal bed. The well 
was sunk 30 feet to water, the upper 20 feet was through the reddish 
sandy clay above-mentioned, below which was shingle or boulders ex- 
actly resembling those found now in the beds of all these rivers : through 
10 feet of this shingle water was found. This nearly corresponds with 
the bed of shingle now laid bare south of the Belka Falls, and amongst 
which the coin, &c. have been found, and I have no doubt that it is all 
part of an extensive line formerly the bed of the escapes from the lower 
mountains. If this is true, it goes far to prove a circumstance that 
I before mentioned in a communication to the Society, that the enor- 
mous discharge of matter from the debouchements of these lower hills 
is, in the reduction of themselves, gradually giving a rise to the whole 
country skirting their bases ! I may also mention, that near a village 
named Jytpur, three miles south of theKalowala Pass, (at which pass water 
is within 10 inches of the surface,) I sunk a well for the reasons aforesaid 
60 feet deep through a succession of beds of shingle, and left off, finding 
no water ! At a place six miles south of this again, water is within eight 
feet of the the surface. This phenomenon extends apparently on the whole 
line between the Jumna and Ganges, that is to say, water is near the 
surface at the foot of the hills, and shews itself again near the surface about 
10 miles south, being in the intermediate distance at a great depth. In 
building the masonry dam on the Nogaon river, water was found at a 
depth of 29 feet from the bed of the row ; the excavation through beds 
of sand and clay, but no shingle. The only mark of building which has 



2834.] ancient Town discovered near Sehdranpur. 225 

been as yet found on this site is the remains of a foundation, the great- 
er parts of which had been cleared out and broken by the canal : the 
bricks were soft and friable. This foundation was sunk about four feet 
in the black soil, terminating- on its surface ; the great quantity of 
bricks however scattered in the canal bed proves distinctly that many 
more foundations had been cleared out, and it is possible that when I 
have time to sink wells in neighbouring points, so as to detect the 
boundaries of these ruins, I may bring to light matters of greater inter- 
est than those even now before us. The bricks discovered are of a 
large size, and generally speaking, badly burned, (similar to some that 
were found on a former occasion at Manukmow, near Seharunpur, where 
a quantity of old foundations were discovered, consisting entirely of the 
same sized bricks :) a number of them wedge- shaped 5 9 inches _; ac , :f 

D r i— i 6 inches S 

intended for well building, and better burned than the square ones. 
Amongst the fragments of pots, were some which the natives recognised 
as resembling those now used in making indigo, long elliptical vessels ! 
the fragments of pots, bones, teeth, and articles of this description are in 
abundance. In sinking three wells on the west of the canal near the spot, 
the same section of soil appeared, and the same articles were discovered 
on reaching the black stratum. I look forward with great interest to the 
time when I can have leisure to make further excavations in the neigh- 
bourhood, enabling me to form an idea of the extent of the discovery. 

At a spot considerably south (marked A in the map) a large pukka 
well was also exposed in the canal channel. I had this cleared out and 
partly removed, supposing that there was a probability of making further 
discoveries. I send to the Society an article (either lead or pewter)* 
which was the only thing of metal found : a great quantity of g haras or 
water pots were taken out whole, as if they had fallen into the well and 
sunk ; the bones also of two deer (barasinghas), the horns broken in 
pieces, but the jaw bones and other parts tolerably perfect : from the 
circumstance of finding so many gharras the natives seem to conclude that 
this was a town or village well, and not that in use for irrigation. If the 
ancient town extended to this point, it would be extensive indeed, but 
of this there does not appear to be any probability. 

The presence of the deer's bones is easily accounted for, as a number 
of these, as well as other wild animals, are constantly lost in galloping 
over the jungles, and falling into deserted wells. The well in question 
was doubtless one of this description, for a long time after either 
the town or cultivation for which it was intended was deserted, and 
remained long open amongst the high grass and jungle which so rapidly 
-obtain in this part of the country when the hand of man is absent : all 

* This small disc or wheel does not bear any marks of antiquity. Ed. 

f p 



226 Further Account of an ancient Town, %c. [Mat, 

marks of this well were so completely obliterated, that the present canal 
was excavated over it without its being discovered. The bricks used 
appear to have been of the same description as the square ones above 
described. 

Amongst the metal articles found in the site of the old town, are a 
great number ofselais orinstruments in use in a Hindustani lady's toilet for 
applying surma to the eyes, made of copper apparently. To this circum- 
stance my attention was drawn by a native sonar, who observed that now 
articles of this description were never made of that metal ; the great 
quantity of rolls of metal and wire found would lead a person to suppose 
that the main exhumation at present consisted of a smith's shop ! There 
are some other things, one bearing in some respects a resemblance to a 
small cannon (17), another to a button hook,&c. &c. The quantity of slag 
of iron smelting furnaces is a singular circumstance, for although iron ore 
is found in the mountains at no great distance, it is not the practice 
now to import it in that state into the plains. 

The number of coins found, and in my possession, is 170, amongstwhich 
are two intruders that would, if they belonged to this town, very consider- 
ably reduce the antiquity of it ; but from the circumstance of there only 
being two, and from their appearance (having no mark of that antiquity 
so eminently conspicuous in all the other coins found), I am much inclined 
to suspect that some of my myrmidons have been false, or that there 
are stray coins* ; both of them are sent with this letter. My method of 
collection was by giving new coin for old, that is to say, new pice for all 
the old ones, and new rupees for all the old rupees discovered, and re- 
muneration according to the value of other articles : this may have rais- 
ed the cupidity of some speculator to introduce these two Musulman coins 
into my cabinet. All those upon which any mark is apparent, and all other 
articles worthy of transmission, will be sent to the Society's museum. 

I will conclude with a remark, that the accompanying map will give 
a good idea of the Doab Canal works in the neighbourhood of Behat, 
shewing its connection with two of its greatest impediments, namely, 
the Nogaon and Muskura rivers, and the descent between the two at 
the Belka Falls. During the rains and floods, the regulating bridges being 
closed with gates, and the dams thrown open, no water whatever passes 
down the canal, and each river or torrent has its own flood kept to 
itself ; the size of these rivers, and the quantity of water that they carry, is 
in high floods very great ; at other seasons they are quite dry, and consist 

* Our author need be under no alarm whatever from the presence of these two 
coins, which must have been purely accidental, and in no way connected with the an- 
tiquities of Behat ; for on examination, one turns out to be a pice of Indore, the other 
of Lakhnao, both known by their respective symbols, and quite modern. — Ed. 



Jourii. As. Soc . 



Voi.in.pi.xvni 



from tii^e a.n^lerot ruins of Bchat. Jiear Sehara^npur. 




J.J 1 -..!/. <*«(. ./ «.",»/ 



1834.] Note on the Coins found by Capt. Cautley. 227 

of extensive beds of sand with scarcely any vegetation. The falls at Belka 
consists of two chambers thirty-five feet in total breadth, passing in two 
descents of brick masonry, a fall of 15 feet, a power for machinery that 
would in any country but this be duly appreciated, and have long ago 
led to the establishment of a town or city in its neighbourhood, which 
would have thrown into the shade the submerged city. These falls are 
worthy of the attention of speculators under the new charter, a point which 
although not directly coming under the views of the Society, may be 
well referred to, as bringing to notice the dormant claims that the 
Doab Canal has on those possessed of capital, combined with mechanical 
skill and energy. 

V. — Note on the Coins, found by Captain Cautley, at Behat. By James 

Prinsep, Sec. , %c. 

The accompanying plate (xvii.) exhibits faithful representations of 
some of the coins presented by Captain Cautley to the Society. Those 
numbered 1 to 6 are all of the same character, and, as far as I am ac- 
quainted, entirely new to Hindu numismatology, although connected 
by a peculiar symbol with the fifth series of Col. Tod's plate* (fig. 19 
of the present plate) ; also with the copper coins 68, 69, of Mr. Wilson's 
third platef (fig. 22 of the present plate) ; and with fig. 19 of Mr. 
Masson's collection, in plate 9 of the last number of the Journal ; all 
three series in other respects differing materially from one another. 
Fig. 1. May be looked upon as the type of this new series. It is a 
silver coin of the size depicted in the engraving, and weighs 20 grains. 
The silver has been so acted upon by long continued burial, that on 
arrival in Calcutta, wafered on to the folds of a letter for security, 
the removal of the wafer stripped off a thin film of silver from its 
surface. The impression however is still perfect and in deep relief. 
Obverse. On one side we perceive a female figure clothed, holding 
in her right hand a stalk, bearing on its summit a large open flower : — 
(this emblem will be seen below to be common to another class of Indian 
coins ;) on her right stands an animal, of the precise character of which 
it is difficult to make any positive assertion : — it has a stout straight 
trunk, which might pass for that of a deer, or of a horse, but the head more 
resembles that of a bird, and it is surmounted with a radiated crest, 
which at first sight wears the appearance of horns. On the left of this 
nondescript animal is a symbol or monogram much resembling charac- 
ter 5 of the Allahabad inscription, No. l,but square, instead of round, 
in the body. There are other characters round the margin but partially 
visible. 

* Trans. Roy. As. Soc. vol. i. f As. Res. vol. xvii. 

p f 2 



228 Note on the Coins found by Capt. Cautley [Mat, 

Reverse. The opposite side of this curious coin presents an assem- 
blage of symbols, the purport of which it is difficult to divine. The 
principal figure in the centre seems to represent a temple, a pyramidal 
building, with three tiers of rounded suras, spires or domes, surmounted 
by a kulsa or pinnacle in the form of the letter T : the contour of 
this device resembles also the Hindu drawings of rocks and mountains, 
and it may be intended to pourtray some holy hill, connected with the 
mythology or with the locality of its place of coinage : beneath the 
pyramid is a waved line, which may also possibly depict the sea, and 
point to some fabulous mountain in the ocean, as Lanka or Meru. To 
the right is another curious emblem, which for want of more correct 
information, we may call a tree of triple branch, standing in a frame or 
on a kind of chabutra. To the left is the swastika emblem "f», of four 
legs conjoined : and below it a figure very similar in form to ££ or 25 
or some other compounded Greek characters on the Bactrian coins. 
There is a legend around the margin consisting of the letters hitherto 
called Pehlevi, but which I think we shall soon find reason to denomi- 
nate otherwise. 

Fig. 2. A copper coin similar in every respect to fig. 1, but of inferior 
execution ; in this the circles of the chaitya or temple are made 
square, and resemble common masonry. 
Figs. 3, 4, 5 ; are smaller copper (or rather white bronze) coins, 
stamped only on one side, except No. 5, which has a faint impress 
of a tirsul on the reverse. The form of the tree is altered, and the 
frame below has, in some specimens, four compartments instead of 
two : the swastika is also exchanged for four circular rings. 
Fig. 6. A copper coin weighing 163^ grains, in imperfect preserva- 
tion. The only variation in this coin from the type-coin fig. 1, is 
that the pyramid contains two tiers instead of three. This circum- 
stance, however, constitutes the link of connection with the other 
series of coins to which I have alluded. 
All of them having the symbol «g, in common. 
Fig. 7. Is a small square copper piece, with an elephant on one side, 

the other effaced. 
Fig. 8. Is a small copper coin procured by Lieut. A. Conolly, at 
Kanouj, upon which this mark & forms the distinguishing emblem. A 
similar coin is in Major Stacy's possession, obtained in Central India. I 
shall have to recur to the subject in describing figs. 19 and 22. 
Figs. 9 and 10. I have introduced these two coins to shew, that what 
has been called the Indo-Scythic series occurs plentifully among the 
'exhumated relics of Behat. 
The first of these, the raja and bull coin, must henceforward be 



1834.] in the mins of Behat near Sekdranpiir. 229 

entitled the Kadphises series, in compliance with the successful re- 
searches of Mr. Masson published in our last number ; the Kanerkos 
series, also occurs as commonly among the coins transmitted by 
Capt. Cautley, and as we know that these two coins bear Greek 
inscriptions, and that their epoch cannot consequently be much 
posterior to the Bactrian dynasties, we may presume that all the 
descriptions of coins having the chaitya or £ symbol, being proved 
to be contemporaneous with these, must belong to the first centuries 
of the Christian era, and consequently the destruction of the ancient 
city may be ascribed with tolerable certainty to the same early period. 
The circumstance of so much money being discovered in one place 
would seem to denote that the catastrophe which destroyed the place 
was sudden, but the destruction is as likely to have been effected by 
the ravages of war, as by any convulsion of nature ; and, when once 
depopulated, the place might easily have been buried under the gra- 
dual deposit of silt washed down by the hill streams, as described by 
Capt. Cautley. 

Figs. 11 and 12. These coins are connected with the above by the 
tree symbol, by their being stamped only on one side, and by their 
being of white bronze ; but in them the animal is decidedly the brah- 
many bull, and the inscription is in a different character. 
Figs. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18, are introduced to give an idea of 
the other curiosities from Behat. 

The first is a black and white enameled bead ; 14, an ornament of the 
headdress of some image ; 15, a ring probably worn while performing 
certain religious ceremonies ; 1 6, appears to be a weight moulded in 
the shape of a frog, as is the custom in Ava, and in many parts of India: 
it weighs 360 grains, (precisely two tolas,) or six Grecian drachma, and 
is not corroded. Fig. 17 is the metal handle of some vessel : it is bro- 
ken in half. Fig. 18, are the selais for applying surma to the eyes, 
spoken of by Capt. Cautley, as so numerous : in the present day they 
are generally made of zinc. Besides these articles, our nourishing little 
museum contains plain rings, arrow-heads, hooks, and rolls of lead, con- 
verted into semi-crystalline hydrated oxide by exposure to the moisture 
under ground*. Most of the copper coins likewise are in a very imper- 
fect state, the pure metal not resisting corrosion nearly so well as bronze. 
Hindu Coins from the ruins of Kanouj. 
To confirm the assertion made above of the connection of several 
other series with the Behat coinage, I have introduced at the foot of the 

* See note on a similar change produced in zinc plates, vol. ii. p. 437. The lead 
is partially converted into minium and partly into protoxide. In some rolls the 
interior is still metallic. 



230 Hindu Coins from the ruins of Kanouj. [Mat, 

present plate, drawings of some most interesting coins, procured by- 
Lieut. A. Conolly, of the 6th Light Cavalry, at Kanouj, and this mo- 
ment received from that officer at Cawnpore. 

Figs. 19 and 21. Silver coins, weighing 28 grains each (| drachm), 
corresponding in every respect with Col. Tod's fifth series, in the head, 
on the obverse, and in the circular inscription on the reverse : in 19, also, 
we find the central symbol <& with five dots on the side, as in his coin. 
Col. Tod's observations on these rare coins are as follows : 
" The fifth series is entirely novel and unexplored. All lean say of them is 
that they belong to a dynasty which ruled from Avanti or Ujjayan to the Indus, 
for in that whole tract I have found them. The first I obtained was from the 
ruins of ancient Ujjayan, twelve years ago,presentedto me by Mr. Williams, resi- 
dent at the Gykwar court, who first awakened my attention to their importance. 
He found them in Cutch, and in his company, I discovered others among the ruins 
in the Gulph. The character of the epigraphe I have met with on rocks in Saurash- 
tra, in the haunts of the Suroi, the bounds of the conquests of Menander and 
Apollodotus. I have little hesitation in assigning them to the Balhara sovereigns 
of Renandot's Arabian travellers, the Bhalla Raes of Anhulwdra Patau, who were 
supreme in those countries : " This Balhara is the most illustrious prince of the 
Indies, and all the other kings acknowledge his pre-eminence. He has, of these, 
pieces of silver called Tartarian drams. They are coined with the die of the 
prince, and have the year of his reign." — Renandot, page 15. " The Balhara 
dynasty had a distinct era, 375 years posterior to Vicramaditya." 

The character of the circular legend in all these coins strongly resem- 
bles Sanscrit : — if the place of their discovery be a test of the extent of 
empire in which they circulated, they will belong to a powerful monarch 
indeed, for Mr. MASsoNhas found twenty at Beghram, (of the same sym- 
bolat least,) while they extend to Kanouj, Behat, and Benares on the east. 
Fig. 20. A silver coin, weighing 34 grains ; is evidently of the same 
series ; but here the distinctive symbol is lost, and is replaced by a 
peacock with expanded tail : the letters are not decypherable. 
Fig. 22. A square copper coin, also from Kanouj, is already known as 
No. 68 of Wilson's plate, (see As Res. vol. xvii.) which was dug up 
by Capt. Vetch on the Allahabad road. It bears on the obverse an 
elephant and some other animal prostrate ; on the reverse, the <& 
symbol, the tree, and a cross, all of which prove its close alliance with 
the Behat coins. More of the general history of the whole series 
may yet be developed by future discovery. 
Fig. 23. A silver coin, weighing 7.7 grains, resembles a fanam of 
South India, but its type shews that it may be a genuine connection 
of the coins it accompanies. 
Fig. 24. A gold medal weighing 123 grains. Obverse, — a figure clothed 
in the Hindu dhoti, with armlets, holding a bow, as having just dis- 
charged an arrow through the head of a lion, or other monster, on 
the right ; in his left he holds another arrow prepared ; his right foot 



1834.] Hindu Coins from the ruins of Kanouj. 231 

rests on the tail of the lion. Inscription, in ancient Nagari TORTO 
fv^T^T^l Maharajadhiraja Sri. inverse— either the same person or a 
female figure clad in similar costume, seated upon the vanquished lion, 
holding a large flower in the manner of a cornucopia in the left hand, 
(see also figs. 1, 4,) and in the right, a kind of noose ; above which the 
lozenge symbol with four prongs ( 1 6 of plate xiv. vol. ii.) On the 
right in ancient Nagari, the words ^HI^T 3r#r Sri madghavakacho. 
It will be at once seen that this beautiful medal has no connection 
with the subjects of the foregoing remarks. I have given it a place 
that it might be as early as possible brought to the knowledge of numis- 
matologists, for it appears likely to prove the very key to our know- 
ledge of the valuable series of Kanouj coins, forming the fourth of Col. 
Tod ; and the second Plate of Wilson. 
The former author says of these coins : 

41 They are Hindu, of a very remote period, and have the same character which 
I have found wherever the Pandu authority existed, in the caves, and on the 
rocks of Janagurr Girna, on the pillar of victory in Meywar, and on the columns 
of Indrapresiha (Delhi) and Praydg (Allahabad). Some of them are not unlike 
ancient Pehlevi. These coins are of gold, and in fine preservation. L\ke all 
my medals, they are either from Agra, Mathura, Ujjayan, or Ajmere. Dr. Wit- 
kins possesses some found even in Bengal : he thinks he can make out the word 
Chandra upon them." 

It is well known, as Lieut. Conolly remarks, " that our love 
for the antique has induced certain cunning men of this famed 
city to set up a mint for the fabrication of moneys of the olden time," 
and many that are brought thence bear all the marks of having 
been cast in the mould of some original, of which they bear so imper- 
fect an impression that it has been hitherto impossible to assign the true 
nature of their inscriptions : Col. Tod, it is evident, supposed them to be 
in the Delhi character No. 1 ; — one was read as in the Mahabalipur alpha- 
bet (see vol. ii. page 412, 649) : and only now do we perceive for certain 
that the character is precisely that of No. 2, of the Allahabad column : 
of which the reader may convince himself by comparing the legend on 
the obverse with the titles of Chandragupta in Plate VI. of the present 
volume. Applying the same alphabet to the reverse, we find the name Sri 
mad-ghava kavo or kacho which the Rev. Dr. Mill remarks, by a slight 
alteration will become Ghatat-kacho, the very name read by himself as 
the father of Chandragupta in the Allahabad inscription*. I must here 
leave this important discovery to the elucidation of our learned Vice- 
President, having performed my own more humble duty of making 
known by the pencil the prize which has rewarded my friend Lieut. 
Conollt's researches. 

* In a paper read before the Asiatic Society on the 28th instant. 



232 A Sketch of the present state of Georgia. [May, 

VI. — A Brief Sketch of the Present State of Georgia, now a Russian Pro- 
vince. By Captain Robert Mignan, Bombay European Regiment, Fel- 
low of the Linncean Society, and Member of the Royal Asiatic Society of 
Great Britain and Ireland. 

The name of Georgia, which is applied by modern geographers to the 
country south of Mount Caucasus, lying between the Euxine and Cas- 
pian Seas, comprehends, according to the native historians, Kartueli, 
Imeritia, Mingrelia, and Guria, under the general name of Iberia. It is 
now exclusively applied to the four provinces, Kartalinia, Kakhetia, 
Kisik, and Georgian Armenia. According to several writers, the appel- 
lative Georgian is transmitted to us from the river Koor, Kooros, or 
Cyrus ; and they add, that the inhabitants ought to be named Koor- 
gians. By the Turks and Persians they have always been denominated 
" Goorjees," and their territory " Goorjistan." 

This country must be considered as one of the most interesting on 
the face of the globe. It is at this moment a small canton of Russia, 
included within the limits of that huge empire, but happily, as yet, not 
governed in so despotic a manner. In the map, it is situated in the 
centre of the isthmus ; though I shall describe it as comprising the 
territory between the great Caucasian ridge, and the river Arras, (the 
ancient Araxes) on the Caspian side ; and the redoubt of St. Nicholas 
below the mouth on the Phasis on the side of the Euxine. 

All was a blank, until the Russian Catherine, of notorious memory, 
sent Guldenstaedt to traverse these delightful regions, trace the ri- 
vers to their sources, make astronomical observations, examine the 
natural history of the country, and collect vocabularies of all the 
dialects he might meet with. He enumerates seven distinct nations, 
divided into numerous tribes, each speaking its own dialect. The Cau- 
casian isthmus contains innumerable small nations, They are compos- 
ed of indigenous and primitive tribes, although some are doubtless the 
remains of Asiatic hordes. Their physiognomy combines the charac- 
teristic features of the principal races of Europe, and of Western Asia. 
The writings of Moses, the allegory of Prometheus, the famous expedi- 
tion of the Argonauts, and several traditions of the Scandinavians, all 
combine to satisfy us that this kingdom was one of the most ancient of 
the globe. "We know for certain, however, that Georgia was conquered by 
the illustrious Nourchirvan, the contemporary and rival of Justinian ; 
became a portion of the empire of the celebrated Sultan Mahmoud of 
Ghiznee ; was invaded by Alp Arselan (the conquering lion) ; overrun 
by Timour ; ravaged by Ismail ; conquered by Tamasp, in the reign of 
our Elizabeth ; reconquered from the Turks by Shah Abbas : that, 



1834.] A Sketch of the present state of Georgia. 233 

although thus by turns overrun and pillaged by Turks, Tartars, and 
Persians, it never wholly lost its independence, but preserved itself as a 
kingdom nearly two thousand years ; and what is still more to its ho- 
nor, it preserved its ancient faith in Christianity for fourteen hun- 
dred years, in the very midst of countries enthusiastically devoted to the 
Mahommedan religion. The ruins of walls and fortresses, commanding 
its passes, and perched on the summits of its mountain ridges ; the 
remains of bridges in its streams ; the ruins of palaces, churches, and 
baths, in the midst of which are frequently discovered coins and medals 
of Media, Parthia, Persia, Greece, and Rome, attest the various nations 
that have been in possession of Georgia in ancient times. 

Towards the close of the last century, the aged Prince Heraclius, who 
had proclaimed himself King of Georgia, took advantage of the anarchy 
and confusion which existed in Persia, after the death of Kureem Khan, 
and by formal act renounced his dependence upon Persia, after having 
struggled against the depredations of its inhabitants during his whole 
reign, and placed himself under the protection of the Russian empress. 
Subsequently, however, he was obliged to abrogate his alliance with 
Russia, and to acknowledge himself tributary to Turkey. 

At the peace in 1791, Georgia was declared independent, and in 1795, 
Aga Mahommed Khan, the late king of Persia, advanced to its capital. 
His first act was an order for the slaughter of every human being in 
this large and flourishing town — his next was, to set fire to it ; and it 
was totally burnt down. Every brutal excess of cruelty that national 
hatred, inflamed by bigotry and infernal policy, could dictate, was com- 
mitted. Pillage, murder, and conflagration met the eye on every side. 
While some were occupied in plundering the villas of rich merchants, 
and others in setting fire to the hamlets, the air was rent with the 
mingled groans of men, women, and children, who were falling under 
the daggers of the Moslems. The only exception made during the 
massacre was of the young women and boys, who were preserved only 
to be sold as slaves. Many of the women, whose husbands had been 
butchered, were running to and fro frantic, with torn garments and dis- 
hevelled hair, pressing their infants to their breasts, and seeking death 
as a relief from still greater calamities that awaited them ! The number 
of those slain or dragged into slavery on those dreadful days was not 
less than twenty thousand. 

In the following year, this brutal eunuch determined again to visit 
Georgia, but he had only reached the town of Sheesha, in the fertile dis- 
trict of Karabagh, when his career was arrested by the hand of violence. 
Two servants, whom he had sentenced to death for a very trivial offence, 
entered his tent at night, and with their daggers put an end to one of the 

H H 



234 A Sketch of the present state of Georgia. [Mat", 

most cruel tyrants that ever ruled in Persia. It is beyond the limits of 
this paper to particularize his cruelties. In the first year of his govern- 
ment he deprived seventy thousand people of their eyes, and massacred 
at least a hundred thousand. In Persia (as we all know), they think 
no more of plucking out an eye, than we do of extracting a tooth. 

On the death of Heraclius.hi 1798, his eldest son, George Heracli- 
vitz, unable to withstand the attacks and intrigues of foreign and domes- 
tic enemies, ceded his states (under a stipulation of being handsomely 
provided for) to the Emperor Paul, who, deeming it safer to remove the 
queen and her children to Moscow, commanded that her supposed 
lover should make the proposal. Fixing her eyes steadily upon him, she 
said, " Forget not that thou art my subject — repeat not so hateful a 
proposal, or I shall know how to punish your audacity." Her lover 
persisted in his entreaties, and in an instant she drew her dagger, and 
laid him dead at her feet. She was, however, forcibly conveyed along 
with her two daughters and two sons to St. Petersburg, where they had 
precedence next to the imperial family, and though deprived of liberty, 
were liberally treated. Her youngest son, Alexander, possessing an in- 
dependent spirit, together with an ardent love of country, preferred 
liberty, although accompanied by every privation ; and vowing eternal 
enmity to Russia, he became a wanderer in the adjacent mountains. 
His hatred has increased by time, although any thing like resistance to 
the colossal power of Russia must be perfectly hopeless, even if support- 
ed by Persia, with the ruler of which kingdom he is still in constant 
communication, and watching a favorable opportunity of making the 
endeavour to recover his lost territory. 

The late Emperor Alexander found it expedient to grant to the Khans, 
or Princes of Daghestan and Shirwan (the ancient Albania), the enjoy- 
ment of their former privileges, and indeed, to change little of their 
ancient customs — except that they were prohibited from selling their 
children to the Turks and Persians, and of executing summary ven- 
geance on their subjects by mutilation or death. Several examples of 
severity did not prevent vast emigrations into Georgia. In the year 
1820, alone, not less than ten thousand Persian families crossed the 
boundary, to whom it was intended to assign lands ; and both Turks 
and Armenians are continually placing themselves under the Russian 
government. The Circassians, however, on the northern frontiers of 
the Caucasus, still bring up their children for the market of Constanti- 
nople. This is done by stealth, for the Russians use every means in 
their power to prevent the inhabitants quitting the country. In the 
year 1828, when I crossed the Araxes, the influx had been so great 
that I met thousands of both sexes, and all ages, returning again to 



1834.] A Sketch of the present state of Georgia. 235 

Persia, and execrating the name of Paskewitch, then Governor 
General of Georgia, to whom they attributed all their misfortunes, and 
from whom they had received the most flattering but fallacious promises. 

The whole of Georgia is beautifully diversified with mountain scene- 
ry, gradually spreading out into hill and dale. The climate is delight- 
ful, and the country well watered. It is remarkable that in Persia most 
of the inhabited places are situated in plains and valleys : in Georgia, 
on the contrary, the towns and villages are almost uniformly built upon 
the sloping sides of hills or heights, after the manner of the hamlets of 
Koordistan. The scarcity of rain in Persia, and the abundance of 
water in Georgia, has been assigned as the reason for this difference. 
The melting of the snows on Mount Caucasus causes floods to pour down 
from the hills with such violence as to sweep every thing before them. 
To give an idea of the enormous masses of snow which are constantly 
thawing during the summer season, I will mention, that in my journey 
across Caucasus, in August, 1828, a piece of frozen snow had detached 
itself from a neighbouring peak, and shelved down across the road, co- 
vering it to an extent of at least three quarters of a mile, and rendering 
the passage nearly impracticable. The Koor, however, does not rise 
above its banks. Generally speaking, the climate is mild and salubri- 
ous. From April to November, the sky is for the most part cloudless ; 
but during the night, the dews are frequently very heavy. As in Persia, 
the sultry days are not unfrequently succeeded by intensely cold nights. 
During the other parts of the year, there is no deficiency of rain ; and to 
this circumstance the fertility of Georgia is chiefly attributable. The 
winters are generally very penetrating ; every possible degree of tem- 
perature may be had on the sloping spurs of Caucasus. 

Among various indigenous productions may be enumerated thecedar, 
and other varieties of the pine ; the oak, the beech, the elm, the ash, the 
chesnut, the walnut, the apple, the pear, the citron, the peach, the plum, the 
apricot, the pomegranate, the raspberry, the quince, and many flowering 
shrubs, among which the vine entwines itself in wild luxuriance, loaded 
with the finest grapes. The most numerous, however, and that in which 
the riches of the country chiefly consist, are mulberry trees, on which 
they feed an infinite number of silk- worms. Georgia was famed for its 
silk long before this article found its way into Italy, in the reign of Justi- 
nian. Guldenstaedt describes Georgia as most fertile and fruitful. An 
Asiatic's ideas of fertility differ sufficiently from ours, to explain in part 
this assertion : for to him plantations of olives, almonds, and figs, with 
which the country is covered, suggests the same associations of plenty 
that are called up in our minds by rich tracts of corn land. 



.236 A Sketch of the present state of Georgia. [Mat> 

The same traveller characterises the country as flowing with milk and 
honey, and it still answers to this description ; for it contains the rich- 
est pasture lands, and the rocky portions are covered with aromatic 
plants, yielding to the wild bees who hive in the crevices of hollow trees, 
such an abundance of honey as to supply the poorer classes with an article of 
food, and with wax to be exchanged for cloths and stuffs. Honey from 
the rocks is repeatedly referred to in the Holy Scriptures, as a delicious 
food, and an emblem of plenty. (1 Sam. xvi. 25 : Psalm lxxxi. 16.) 
Guldenstaedt instances the growth of the date tree as a proof of the 
mildness of the temperature, and when to these we add the oil extracted 
from the almond (the amygdalus Persica) and olive, we shall be at no 
loss to account for the ancient fertility of the most barren districts of 
Georgia, or for the adequacy of the soil to the support of so numerous 
a population, notwithstanding the comparatively small proportion of 
arable land. Delicious wine is produced in the districts, and the valleys 
bear plentiful crops of rice, wheat, millet, and barley ; while cotton, flax, 
and hemp grow spontaneously on the plains bordering the Caspian. 

The streams are full of fish, but with the exception of the river Koor, are 
all brooks or torrents, and therefore unfit for internal navigation. In 
short, nature has rendered it one of the most beautiful and highly favored 
countries in the world. Wild animals are not numerous ; for every man 
being armed, they have ever met with constant enemies. On the plains 
however, there are deer and antelopes ; and the pygarg (cervus pygar- 
gus), or dishon of the Scriptures, called in Persia aha, bears, wolves, 
wild boars, and the rock goat (capra Caucasia) delight in the rugged 
summits of the schistose mountains. The chamois, on the contrary, pre- 
fers the lower calcareous hills ; as also do the hare, fox, and jackal. In 
ornithology I can enumerate from my own personal observation the 
eagle, the falcon (falcotinnunculus), the pheasant, the jack-daw, in the 
oak-woods; the bee-catcher (merops apiaster), the field lark, the red 
partridge (petrao rvfus), the quail (tetrao coturnix), and the ring-dove. 
Game is abundant, partridges in particular being found in large coveys, 
so fat and heavy, that they may easily be knocked down with a stick. 
The male species is a most beautiful bird. The females are not so pret- 
tily marked. Wild-geese, ducks, snipe, and water-fowl of every descrip- 
tion abound in some situations. I have seen several large snakes, but 
the only one much dreaded is a small slender species, spotted black and 
white, the bite of which is said to be instantly fatal. Flies of every 
species are annoying in the hot-weather, and a species of ant (termes 
fatalisj, is very numerous. 

Georgia was formerly celebrated for its mineral treasures, but its mines 
have been neglected, and now produce but little. Gold, silver, and iron 



1834.] A Sketch of the present state of Georgia. 237 

are found in the mountain range of Caucasus. Coal is also said to abound 
in different parts of the country. Strabo goes so far as to assert that 
the numerous small rivers carry down gold dust in vast quantities, which 
being stopped by sheep skins, placed on purpose, furnishes an explanation 
of the fable of the golden fleece, (Strabo, xi. passim.) 

I was assured that the total population of Georgia is four hundred 
thousand, of whom ninety thousand are Armenians, following chiefly 
the rites of the Greek Church, and partly their own. There are at least 
seventy thousand Russian and Georgian troops stationed throughout 
the districts. The number of the inhabitants is doubtless increasing, 
as previous to its connexion with Russia, the people were sadly reduced 
by the constant dissentions of the chiefs, who, possessed of unlimited 
power over their vassals, chose to be eternally at war with each other, 
chiefly, if not entirely, with a view of making prisoners of both sexes, 
for the hai'ams of the Turks and Persians. The incursions of these lat- 
ter, moreover, utterly desolated from time to time the provinces on the 
frontier. In 1603, when that accomplished despot Shah Abbas marched 
into Georgia, he carried off no less than ten thousand families ; but as a 
striking proof of his beneficent despotism, instead of making them 
slaves, and compelling them to change their religion, as his predeces- 
sors had done in similar cases, he settled them in different parts of his 
kingdom, and afforded them every encouragement. The Armenian colo- 
ny formed by him at Ispahan remains an honorable monument of his 
wise- and liberal policy. These drawbacks, how r ever, on population 
have of late years ceased, and it is said, that the measures now adopted 
for the encouragement of agriculture and commerce have already pro- 
duced the best effects. The capital is rising from a dismal-looking town 
into a cheerful bustling city, and its population, which, in the year 1826, 
was only 26,000, has risen in four years to 33,000. It would be super- 
fluous to allude to the beauty of the women of Georgia, which has be- 
come so proverbial. Their symmetrical form and regular features might 
serve asthemodelfor the fineststatues. " Itis in Georgia," says the elegant 
Gibbon, " that nature has placed, at least to our eyes, the model of beau- 
ty, in the shape of the limbs, the colour of the skin, the symmetry of 
the features, and the expression of the countenance. The men," he adds, 
" are formed for action, andthe women for love." Yet, Herodotus says, 
that the natives, in his time, w r ere dark complexioned (fj.c\avxpoes) and 
had crisp, curling hair (ovKorpiKes) ; such is the change produced by the 
mixture of nations, and the slow but powerful influence of climate. The 
women, however, not satisfied with the prodigality of nature, have re- 
course to the odious use of paint ; and although this is considered indica- 
tive of want of chastity, it does not prevent the beauties of Georgia using 



238 Geological Section of the Strata [Mat, 

then* detestable and deleterious cosmetics. Their chief delight is in 
bathing and champooing, which at Tiflis maybe enjoyed to perfection. 
The baths, situated in deep caverns,are impregnated with sulphuretted 
hydrogen, and their temperature I found at 112° Fahrenheit. 

Georgian girls are not unfrequently married by the wishes of their 
parents at the early age of twelve ; for, although they are not as former- 
ly, so easily smuggled out of the country for sale ; yet, the Russians are 
constantly seizing them to gratify their own gross and vicious inclina- 
tions. In every other respect, a spirit of forbearance is manifested to- 
wards those who have sought protection under the imperial crown : 
— whether it be to those hordes of barbarians which have intruded 
themselves into parts of the Russian territory already occupied by Rus- 
sian subjects, or to those restless and infatuated beings whom disorder- 
ed imaginations concerning points of religion would not permit to re- 
main quiet in more civilized countries. 



VII. — Explanation of the Sketch giving a geological Section of the Strata 
from Nimach to Me'rta, published in the Asiatic Researches, vol. xviii. 
p. 92. By James Hardie, Esq. Beng. Med. Service, 

[In the second part of the eighteenth volume of the Asiatic Researches, an ar- 
ticle is publishedby Doctor Hardie, on the geology of Central India, exclusive of 
Malwa, to which a geological section is appended of the " strata between Nimach 
and the British Residency at Merta." Owing to the transfer of the editorship from 
the then Vice-President Mr. J. Calder to ourselves when the volume was half 
through the press (the plates being at the same time in the publishers' hands), it was not 
perceived that the text did not contain any specific account of this particular plate, 
and it was only on lately recurring to the records of the Physical Class that a sepa- 
rate and detailed explanation by the author was found, which it has been thought 
advisable to make public at once through the pages of the Journal, as some apology 
to Dr. Hardie, for the imperfect justice done to his geological researches. Many 
of our readers will be able to refer to the volume of Transactions for the plate in 
question, and to others the nature of the country will be sufficiently intelligible 
from the explanation itself, with the aid of a map, the examination being of course 
confined to the surface and proceeding westward from Nimach. — Ed.] 

This section is not offered as being perfectly correct, but it will serve 
to give a general idea of the rocks which occur on the route from Ni- 
mach to Merta. The exact limits of the different formations are not 
laid down with precision, the surface is in so many situations covered 
with soil that I found it impossible to do this. I believe, however, that 
the whole will be found to approximate pretty nearly to the truth. I 
need scarcely add, that the exact position and breadth of the different 
alternating beds are not intended to be represented. This could not 



1834.] between Nimach and Merta, in Malwa. 239 

have been done unless the section had been constructed on a much larger 
scale. With the scale to which I have limited myself, a bed of several 
yards in breadth would have been out of proportion large had it been 
represented by a single colored streak. I have at the same time endea- 
vouredto preserve, as far as my observations would permit me, the gene- 
ral proportions which the one rock bears to the other on the grand 
scale in such alternations. The line of section runs in the first instance 
over a waved country, and afterwards over one which is nearly level. 
None of the hill ranges are traversed by this section. 

A, the overlying trap formation of Malwa, at Nimach. B.B. B., the sand- 
stones, sandstone slates, fyc. described in page 39, of the paper in the Re- 
searches. These are continued as far as Benauti — surface generally covered 
with soil from which the strata here and there protrude : country waved 
and strata become more inclined as we proceed; west-dip SE. or E. On 
descending from the trap, the descent being gentle, the sandstones are 
immediately perceived, and, as we proceed west they pass into sand- 
tone slate and lastly into the shale, &c. Numerous low detached ranges 
observed running on a northerly and southerly direction ; none of these 
traverse the line of section, and only in one instance have we occasion 
to pass over a gentle rising ground connecting two low table crowned 
ranges. C. C, the hills of this sandstone formation, which are generally 
of the table shape represented, though sometimes they are conical. The 
Je'salmir stone abounds with fossil shells, scarcely a slab being free from 
them ; they are not of the least detriment to the stone, so far as it regards 
its aptitude for lithographic purposes ; the substance of the shell ap- 
pearing to have become homogeneous with that of the stone in which 
they are imbedded. 

Resting on the sandstones and forming the tabular summits of the hills 
occur, D. D., the quartzose breccia, described page 49. To the west of the 
Bdri hills occurs E, a yellow-coloured argillaceous limestone, of a compact 
texture, consisting of about 75 per cent, of earthy carbonates. It contains 
a small proportion of magnesia, and is coloured by iron, which last exists 
in pretty considerable proportion. The relative position of this lime- 
stone to the sandstones could not be correctly ascertained. A little to the 
north of Benauti occur the limestones described in page 43. These occu- 
py gentle rising grounds. — I could not discover any organic remains in 
the yellow limestone, but I have not examined it minutely enough to 
speak with decision on this point. 

The other limestones are purer and less ferruginous. They contain 
from 84 to 88 per cent, of earthy carbonates, but both the above varie- 
ties have a small proportion of carbonate of magnesia associated with 
the lime. A thick bed of kankar and soil covers the junction of the 



240 Geological Section of the Strata [May, 

yellow limestone and the sandstones; this bed is of considerable breadth : 
both however dip to the east at a considerable angle ; and as the limestone 
occurs to the west of the sandstones, the former may possibly dip under 
the latter, and the series of formations of the narrow bed described in 
my published paper, may be thus completed. 

F, a hill composed of the out-croppings of the quartz formation which 
shews itself further west. Benauti is situated at the base of this hill. 

G. G. G. Quartz rock as described page 31. It alternates with H. H. 
H. &c. which is the rock described as an imperfect variety of granite 
rock. It has a porphyritic structure, and might almost be classed with the 
porphyries. It is however indistinctly stratified. In travelling from 
Benauti to Nakum, as far as the yellow limestones occurs, the surface 
is generally covered with soil from which the limestone occasionally 
protrudes ; but on passing the limits of this vast formation, a very nar- 
row bed of a slaty argillaceous rock presents itself, and this is immedi- 
ately succeeded by the quartz, which rises occasionally into craggy and 
rugged hills, and the outcroppings of the highly inclined, and in many 
situations almost vertical, strata of which are constantly observed. The 
line of section traverses a hill : also composed of quartz. I, The separate 
section, K. is an imperfect representation of a hill composed of quartz 
which occurs to the east of Nakrum. The slope in the direction in which 
the strata dip is abrupt and destitute of soil. In the opposite direction, 
it presents a bluff rugged face and which rises abruptly from the slope ; 
M. M .,theslope in this direction beingmore gradual. The hills at Nakrum, 
which are also of quartz, exhibit something of a similar appearance : these 
rise about 300 feet above the level of the plain. The bluff crag L occupies 
the highest position of the ridges, and the hills slope on either side their 
summits, presenting bare perpendicular cliffs, rising abruptly to the east 
and west from the slopes, which last are covered with stunted trees. 
From Nakrum to Mangarwdr the surface, for the first half of the dis- 
tance, is usually covered with soil, from which occasionally protrude 
the quartz and the granitic rocks ; H. H. $c. As we proceed west the 
quartz becomes purer and more transparent. It frequently assumes a 
nearly slaty structure, in consequence of minute plates of mica being 
parallel to the stratiform structure. Thus far the surface is nearly level 
It afterwards becomes very gently undulating, and the out-croppings of 
the quartz strata are occasionally seen occupying the gentle swells. 
This quartz now appears to alternate with or rather there occur inclos- 
ed in its narrow beds of argillaceous schist, the quartz being the prepon- 
derating rock till within about three miles of Mangarwdr, when the 
argillaceous schists become more plentiful. At and near Mangarwdr 
■the argillaceous schists pass into and alternate with greenstone schist 



J 834.] between Nimach and Me'rta, in Malwa. 241 

and a hornblende rock of a large grain. The last is composed of long- 
ish portions of hornblende of a shining aspect, which constantly intersect 
each other, and with this is associated a grey crumbly felspar. To this 
quartz is frequently added, in which case it forms a variety of sienitic 
granite. The greenstone schists are of a dark green color and of an 
uniform texture, they are apparently composed of similar ingredients 
to the last, but in a more minute state of aggregation. The argillace- 
ous schists are of a greenish grey color ; they are rather soft, and some 
of them seem to approach to chlorite schist; scales of mica sometimes 
occur disseminated through these. The alternating quartz beds fre- 
quently assume a greenish tint. This is particularly observed where 
they occur in contact with the greenstone. — N. N. N. &c. represent the 
above series of argillaceous schists, greenstone schists, &c. The coun- 
try, after living Nakrum, is characterised by its level and unbroken 
aspect ; the gently undulating appearance alluded to, being scarcely ob- 
served on the large scale, and the hills in the neighbourhood of Mangar- 
wdr more deserve the name of low rounded swells. On leaving Man- 
ganudr the route lies, for the first five miles, over an uncultivated level 
plain, covered with soil, and, in one or two instances, outgoings of strata 
of pure white quartz are observed. From this it is probable that the 
alternations observed, to the east of Mangarwdr, are continued thus far. 
About a mile from Hita we observe a very fine-grained granitic rock, 
composed of a pale reddish felspar, semitransparent quartz, and mica ; 
the last in very small proportion, and in some situations, entirely wanting. 
This rock frequently assumes something of the structure of gneiss. — At 
Hita we also find this granite, and, associated with it, another variety 
of a larger grain, composed of white quartz, greyish white felspar, of a 
soft and friable nature, and a very dark colored mica, the last in great 
abundance. Shortly after leaving Hita, beds of greenstone schist, 
N. N. approaching to argillaceous schist, alternate with the close-grained 
granites for a short distance, and afterwards granitic rocks inclosing 
beds of quartz are alone observed. A similar granite to the lar°-e 
grained variety of Hita, also, occasionally presents itself, but the mica 
is in much smaller proportion. As we proceed west the felspar acquires 
a redder tint, and the large-grained granites here and there are seen : the 
fine-grained varieties preponderate. The mica in the fine-grained gra- 
nites is frequently of a greenish color, it also occurs nearly black. Horn- 
blende too, occasionally occurs : and this, as we proceed west, appears to 
be replaced in many instances by actynolite, which is found as a consti- 
tuent of these granites. O. O. 0. the granitic rocks just described, 
are generally speaking stratified, and many of them have a structure 
approaching to that of gneiss. This is even observed in several of the 
i i 



242 Geological Section from Nimach to Merta. [May, 

varieties composed entirely of quartz and felspar ; these two ingredi- 
ents, being arranged in nearly parallel grains of a prismatic form, 
the felspar frequently entirely surrounding the longish grains of 
quartz, and giving rise to a porphyritic structure. The felspar is 
the principal ingredient in these granitic rocks or perhaps granitic 
gneisses. 

Q. The waved sienitic gneiss, similar to that described in a former 
paper, as occurring at Kardbar. The country where this occurs is generally 
covered with soil, but in one or two instances it presents itself at the 
surface. S. Primitive dolomite; it occurs regularly stratified, the 
surface where exposed, having acquired a dark earthy aspect, The 
fresh fracture is coarse-grained and crystalline : some of the crystals being 
of rather a darker color than others, and the whole being of a smoky 
grey. It is almost entirely dissolved in nitric acid, and is composed of 
carbonate of lime, with which a considerable proportion of carbonate of 
magnesia is associated. This is succeeded by alternations of granitic 
rocks, W. W. W., and hornblende l'ocks, X. X. X. The granitic rocks 
of this series are very various, some are large-grained, and are composed 
principally of flesh-red felspar and white quartz ; some are fine-grained ; 
many of them almost compact, composed of similar ingredients but 
are of a lighter colour. In both mica occasionally occurs, but in very 
small quantity. It is sometimes dark-green and at others greenish yel- 
low ; the quantity of mica varies much in different beds, and is very fre- 
quently entirely wanting. Sometimes too a granite rock occurs, prin- 
cipally composed of whitish or pale red granular felspar, to which quartz, 
mica or chlorite are occasionally added in small proportion. In many 
of the fine-grained granitic rocks, &c. minute yellowish green specks of 
epidote are observed. Some additional remarks on the above rocks will 
be found in my memoir. The hornblende rocks X. X. X. exist in the form 
of a nearly pure hornblende rock, and to this last felspar of a grey color 
is occasionally added. When quartz exists in any quantity in these, they 
pass into sienitic granite. Hornblende schist is also common, and with 
this a small proportion of felspar is occasionally associated, making it 
sometimes appear to pass into sienitic gneiss. 

An idea of the form of the hills near the line of section may be ga- 
thered from the slight uncoloured sketch placed over the different for- 
mations. The line of section however does not traverse any of these. 
The general dip of the strata is to the N. E. and after leaving Nakrtim 
their position is nearly vertical. 

N. B. Merta is distant 12 miles from Oudaipur. It lies to the? 
east, and a little to the north of the latter city. 



1834.] 



Latitude of Nasirdbdd. 



243 



VIII. — Latitude of the Church Bungalow at Nasirdbdd, by altitudes 
(170) of Polaris out of the Meridian, observed with a Troughtons 
lS-inch Altitude and Azimuth circle, by Col. Thos. Oliver. 

[We use the privilege allowed as by the author to omit the details of observations, 
and confine our publication to the following abstract carefully calculated by the 
author himself from them. We trust that the Church Bungalow will soon become 
a more permanent structure ; it is a constant complaint of astronomers in this 
country that points of reference are not to be had. — Ed.] 



Date. 


Horizontal 


Mean of 5 observa- 


Mean in each posi- 






point. 


tions on each face. 


tion of Microscopes. 









/ " 


* II 


December 


25th, 1831. 





26. 18. 03.0 


1 




28th, 





01.7 




January 


2nd, 1832. 





03.8 


> 26°. 18' 03''.2 




3rd, 





03.2 


| 




4th, 





04.5 


J 




5th, 


20 


08.4 






6th, 


20 


07.5 


0.90 




24th, 


20 


09.9 




25th, 


20 


10.2 






26th, 


340 


03.0 






29th, 


340 


17.58.8 


01.3 




31st, 


340 


18. 01.4 


February 


1st, 


340 


02.1 


__ 




21st, 


330 


17. 59.9 






26th, 


330 


18. 01.7 


01.5 




2/th, 


330 


01.6 




28th, 


1 330 


02.6 


„ 



Mean of the whole, 26. 18. 03.8 

The observations were conducted thus : five sights were taken with 
the face of the circle east or west as it happened, the level (both 
ends) being read off and noted after each sight. The instrument was 
then turned round 180° in azimuth, and five mo re sights taken as before. 
The correction for level (that is, the mean of the ten readings) has 
been applied to the numbers in the column headed " Microscopes." 
I have used Dr. Young's refractions, and the position of the star, as 
given in the Greenwich Ephemeris. 

The Microscopes of the Altitude circle having a motion of about 60° 
concentric with the circle, I occasionally availed myself of this contriv- 
ance in order to get readings on different parts of the circle, and to 
get rid of errors of division ; but I regret that I did not make more use 
of this expedient, since so wide a result appears when the Microscopes 
were placed at 20° from what the other positions give. The instru- 
ment is now at the Lucknow Observatory, where I did hope that, in 
the hands of my lamented friend Herbert, it would have had fair play ; 
but he, poor fellow, died very soon after he received it. 



244 



Population of the City and District of Allahabad. [May, 



IX. — Population of the City and District of Allahabad, in 1831-32. 

To the Editor of the Journal of the Asiatic Society. 
Sir, 

The inclosed census of the town of Allahabad may be considered 
more accurate than that published in a former number of the Asiatic 
Society's Journal. Kyd-gunj adjoins the town, and should be considered 
a portion if it. Dara-gunj, situated on the banks of the Ganges, may 
be held as a suburb. The census of the whole district or zillah of Al- 
lahabad, is a mere approximation to the truth ; it has not in consequence 
been deemednecessary to detail the population of each pergunnah. Some 
of the returns, from which the total was obtained, were drawn out several 
years ago by the police officers, other were drawn up by revenue offi- 
cers. The revenue (land, abkaree, and stamps) drawn from the district 
amounts to about 20,90,000 Rs. whence the payments of each person will 
be nearly 2.68 rupees yearly. 

Your's obediently, 

D. S. 





oa 

<u 

3 
O 

X 


Musulmans. 


Hindus, 


o 


1831 and 32. 






Chil 
Males. 


Iren. 
Females. 


'a 
o 

H 




°1 
£ S 

1488 
4503 
1269 
1206 
1155 


Chile 
Boys. 


Iren. 
Girls. 


Total. 


H 


Kotwalee chouk, 
Badshah Mundir, 
Dureabad, 

Ahmuty-gunj, ■ • 


1742 
3987 
826 
1486 
1178 


900 
2397 

722 
1295 

347 


889 
2679 

826 
1471 

293 


323 
1031 
311 
474 
122 


364 
1116 
404 
500 
134 


2466 
7223 
2263 
3740 
896 


1746 
4381 
1111 
1174 
1426 


726 
1281 
520 
543 
491 


723 
2366 
714 
549 
581 


4683 
13041 
3614 
3472 
3623 


7149 
20264 
5877 
7212 
4519 


Total, 

Dara-gunj, • • 
Kyd-gunj, 


9219 
2084 
2663 


5661 
578 
760 


6158 
602 
844 


2251 
270 
390 


2518 
258 
379 


16593 
1703 
2373 


9850 
2551 
2804 


9621 
2547 
2841 


4061 
1029 
1158 


4903 
1218 
1485 


28433 
7395 
8288 


45021 
9103 
10661 


Grand Total, • • • ■ 


139661 6999 


1 7604 


2911 


3155 


20669 


15203 


15009 


6298 


7606 


44116 


64785 



District of Alla- 
habad, exclusive 
of the town ap 
proximation, 



AllaMlad l May, 1834. 



Houses. 


Hindus. 


Total. 


Musulmans. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females 


1,43,737 


2,51,789 


3,02,417 


5,54,206 


90,531 


70,678 


1,61,209 



Total. 



7,15,415 
Grand Total, 7,80,190 

P. S, 



X. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 
Wednesday Evening, the 2Bth May, 1834-. 
The Rev. W. H. Mill, D. D. Vice-President, in the chair. 
The Proceedings of the last Meeting were read. 

Messrs. Wm. Martin, Robert Spiers, and Capt. William Foley, proposed 
at the last Meeting, were elected members of the Society. 

Read a letter from W. E. Frere, Esq., Secretary to the Bombay Branch 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, conveying its thanks for the XV. and XVI- 



1834.] Asiatic Society. 245 

volumes of the Asiatic Researches, and announcing thatMr.WALTERELLiOT 
of the Madras Civil Service, had placed in his hands, for presentation to the 
Society, 20 copies of the ancient Canarese Alphabet, lithographed in Bombay 
through the liberality of the Right Honorable the Earl of Clare. 

Library. 

Read a letter from J. Vaughan, Esq., Librarian of the American Philo- 
sophical Society, forwarding on behalf of Isaac Hays, Esq. M. D. descrip- 
tions of the fossil Mastodons in the Philadelphian Museum. 

The following books were presented : 

Malatimadhavee, Fabulse Bhavabhutis, actus primus, ex Recensione Christiani 
Lasseni, Prof. Bonn. — By the author. 

Gymnosophista, sive Indicse Philosophise Documenta : 1 fascicvdus, by Professor 
Lassen. — Ditto. 

Journal Asiatique, No. 70. — By the As. Soc. of Paris. 

Meteorological Register, for April, 1834. — By the Surveyor General. 
The following books received from the book-sellers : 

Lardner's Cab. Cyclopedia, Middle Ages, 2nd vol. 

, British Admirals, 2nd vol. 

Library of Useful Knowledge, Lives of Eminent Persons. 

Museum. 

A large Asamese ornamented chhatta was presented by Dr. Burlini. 

A stuffed Saw-fish, eight feet in length — purchased. 

Two boxes of geological specimens, collected in the course of a survey of 
the river Satlej, from Ludiana to its confluence with the Indus — presented by 
Captain C. M. Wade. 

Antiquities. 

Read a letter from H. Walters, Esq. forwarding fac similes of the inscrip- 
tion on the Ramree stone, and a rough translation in Persian and English, 
made by himself, with the aid procurable in Arracan. 

The stone was found in Ramree. It had been brought from a temple somewhere 
in the island to Kyuk Phyii, whence it was shipped off, both to serve as a speci- 
men of the sandstone of Arracan and as a curious monument : there were several 
similar in different parts of the province. 

Mr. Walters also forwarded specimens of shells encrusted with stalactite from 
the Musmye Cavern, Silhet ; this cave is remarkable for the sparkling purity of 
its calcareo us encrustations, which give it a singularly clean and imposing appear- 
ance. 

The Secretary submitted the fac simile of an inscription in the Burma 
language, and Pali character, found at Gya, and copied by the pandit in 
attendance on the Burmese ambassador, with a translation of the same, as 
explained by Ratna Paula. 

[Printed in the present number.] 

Read extracts of letters from B. H. Hodgson, Esq, resident at Nepal, 
on the subject of inscriptions in the character No. 1, of the Allahabad 
column, and forwarding a native drawing of the Matthia Lat'h, situated in a 
wilderness, between Bettiah and the Gandak river, in the Sdran district, 
with an accurate transcript of its inscription. Also an accurate fac simile 



246 Asiatic Society. [Mat, 

of an inscription from the Sagar territory, which proves to he in old Sanscrit 
character, (No. 2.) 

These inscriptions, Mr. Hodgson says, were communicated to the Asiatic 
Society, eight or ten years ago, but no trace of them could be found among its 
records : fortunately he has preserved the originals, from which we shall take an 
early opportunity to make engravings for publication, together with the author's 
remarks upon this and three other LaVhs in North Behar of a similar nature. 

The Vice-President exhibited a fac simile of an ancient inscription in the 
same charactei*, No. 2, from the iron pillar at Delhi, carefully taken off 
at his particular request by the late Lieut. Wm. Elliott, of the 27th N. I. 
in the year 1831. 

Read extracts from Dr. J. G. Gerard's letters to the Secretary, communi- 
ating further information of Mr. Mass on' s proceedings in the examination 
of the Afghan topes. 

Mr. Masson's letter contained copies of an inscription found on a box extracted 
from a tope at Jelalabad, by himself, in the same character, as that on the cylin- 
der from Manikyala, and bearing strong resemblance to Sanskrit. 

Dr. Gerard gives the following account of the disasters which befel Mr. 
Martine Honigberger, on his route homeward : he had fortunately left the 
chief part of his collection of relics with General Ventura. 

" I beg to notice here the misfortunes which haveattended Mr. Honigberger's 
journey from Kabul across the Hindu Kush mountains, in progress to Balkh 
and Bokhara, in the hopes that they will become known through this medium to 
his friends and countrymen in Europe. Mr. H. reached Bamian in safety, and 
left it, to all appearances, without apprehension, but was almost immediately beset 
by a party of horsemen, who began a promiscuous plunder of his property, first 
binding the traveller hand and foot, and then threatening him with instant death, 
which seems to have been most fortuitously averted ; the gang declaring at the same 
time that they had the authority of the governor, at theinstance of Dost Mahomed 
Khan, for the act ; but this T can scarcely credit, at least am very unwilling to trace 
it to such a source, though suspicion is implicated in the mystery at present. Af- 
ter the timely intercession of one of the party, Mr. Martine was untied, but he 
lost his arms, which were valuable, and all the cash he had on his person. In the 
struggle, the KafilaBashi', the same man whoconducted Mr.BuRNES and myself 
safely to Balkh, received several slight wounds in attempting to defend his charge. 
The party then resumed their journey, having been ordered direct to Khundiiz 
by the chief M1r Morad Beg, which my informant considered by no means inaus- 
picious, since Mr. Honigberger's treatment at Bamian was likely to plead favour- 
ably with the Usbek tyrant. Nothing further was heard of him till a few days 
ago, while I remained at Lahore, Mons. Allard received a letter from himself, 
dated Khulm, stating that he was on route to Balkh, and an open road before him. 
A large town in the northern base of Hindu Kush, in the vicinity of the Oxus, 
where Mr. Burnes and myself supposed we were prisoners." 

The Secretary submitted to the inspection of the Meeting several ancient 
coins, procured at Kanouj, by Lieut. A. Conolly, amongst which was one 
gold coin of Hindu fabrication, peculiarly interesting from the legibility of 
its inscription and superior excellence of its workmanship. 

[A drawing and notice of this coin is given in the present number.] 



1834.] Scientific Intelligence. 247 

The Secretary also laid on the table an extensive collection of ancient 
coins, received through Capt. Wade and Lieut. Conolly from Mulvi 
Shekh Kera.uat Ali, now residing at Kabul, on the part of the British 
Government, 

Shekh Keramat Ali is well known as the companion of Lieut. A. Conolly 
in his journey from Persia to India, of which an account was printed in the Glean- 
ings, vol. iii. page 346. On quitting Calcutta, in 1832, to join his new appoint- 
ment, he carried with him copies of all the plates of ancient coins up to that time 
printed, and others were afterwards forwarded to him, to assist him in the search 
he zealously undertook to make for Bactrian and Hindu coins, then only sparingly 
known to us. Later in the field, and bringing none of the knowledge of the sub- 
ject possessed by his European competitors, his comparatively undirected efforts have 
been wonderfully successful: the collection now transmitted comprises numerous coins 
of Apollodotus, Menander, Herm/fus, Eucratides,Kanerkos, Kadphises, 
and indeed almost all of those enumerated by Mr. Masson's Memoir, besidessome 
very curious Parthian and many gold and silver Hindu coins. 

In all, the packet contains gold coins, , 8 

Silver ditto, 128 

Copper ditto, . . . « 247 

383 
[An account of such coins as are new, will be published hereafter.] 

Papers read. 
Dr. Gerard's Memoir on the Topes of Afghanistan. 

[This paper will be noticed in a subsequent number.] 
Observations on the Allahabad Inscription, No. 2. with a translation. By 
the Rev. W. H. Mill, D. D. Vice-Pres. &c. 

Dr. Mill has succeeded in restoring completely the main portion of the inscrip- 
tion ; of which he presented a transcript in Modern Devanagari, on a large scale, 
interlined with a verbal translation in Latin. The Vice-President read his version 
of the same in English, which we shall have the pleasure of presenting to our readers 
in the next number of the Journal. 



XI. — Scientific Intelligence. 
Willard's Treatise on the Music of Hindustan. 

With the exception of Sir William Jones' valuable and learned essay in the 
third volume of the Asiatic Researches, we have had little information on the mu- 
sic of the Hindus, beyond a notice of the adaptation of the rags to the different 
seasons and hours in Gilchrist's Hindustani Grammar, and occasional cursory 
(generally disparaging) mention of theexisting practice of the artatnaches, in noisy 
processions, or on the ghats, by travellers ill capable of appreciating the peculia- 
rities of the science of sweet sounds among the nations of the East. The instruments 
themselves are pretty well known; Solwyn's magnificent work contains accurate 
drawings of most of them, which have been copied into other more popular works. 

The present volume therefore, a child of long promise, and consequently of 
high expectation, was received with avidity, as the author was known to be a skilful 



248 Scientific Intelligence. [May, 

performer himself on several instruments, and to have enjoyed local advantages of 
observation from his appointment at the native court of the Nawab of Banda : 
neither has his little volume disappointed us, being a familiar and pleasing account 
of his subject, intended for the general reader, and rendered more inviting by fre- 
quent allusion to the music of the west both ancient and modern. An author in 
the present day labours under evident disadvantages, in attempting to describe 
what the music of the Hindus was in the nourishing period of their literature and 
religion, when poets and priests were also musicians, modulating and singing their 
own compositions. To have pursued the subject as an antiquary, would have 
required extensive knowledge of Sanscrit, and sufficient familiarity with the varied 
metre of its heroic, and erotic poetry, to do without aid from native professors ; 
for the present cultivators of the science are for the chief part of the most ignorant 
and abandoned classes ; so that the very art is held to be disreputable among the 
more respectable ranks, just as among us the noble drama is forsworn by many, 
from the abuses which have crept into our theatres. Still in these degenerate days 
there are exceptions, and the sacred Vin may occasionally be heard pouring forth 
a strain of rhapsody that carries the imagination back to the fabulous age of Rishte 
and Gandharbas. 

Our author treats successively of the gamut, of time, of oriental melody, rags, and 
raginees, (giving a long catalogue of compoundrags, instruments, vocal compositions, 
and of the peculiarities of manners and customs exemplified in the songs of Hindus- 
tan. Then follows a brief account of the most celebrated musicians, a copious 
glossary of musical terms, and copperplate tables of the varieties of time or metre 
with their native characters and values. 

" The musicians of Hindustan never appear to have had any determined pitch by 
which their instruments were regulated, each person tuning his own to a certain 
height, adapted by guess, to the power of the instrument and quality of the strings, 
the capacity of the voice intended to be accompanied, and other adventitious cir- 
cumstances. From this it may be observed that it is immaterial which note is 
designated by which letter." Sir William Jones makes the Kharaj, or key-note, 
on the Vin, to correspond with A, but the author thinks it would be more systema- 
tic to tune it to ut or C, the key-note of the natural scale of Europe. This depends 
upon whether it was the intention to speak of the diatonic intervals, or of the ab- 
solute pitch of the instrument. " The notes of an octave are divided into 22 minor 
subdivisions instead of twelve semitones, as is done with us : these are called 
sruti, and each of them has a distinct name assigned as follow : 

Soor. Abbreviated for solfamg. Srutis comprised. 

C. Kharaj,.. . . Sa.. Butra, Cumodutee, Mundrica, Chhundavutee. 

D. Rikhab,.... Ri Duyavatee, Ructica, Runjunee. 

E. Gandhar, . . Ga Sivee, Crodhee. 

F. Maddham,.. Ma Bujra, Prusarunee, Preetee, Marjunee. 

G. Pancham,.. Pa Kshutee, Ricta, Sidpunee, Ulapunee. 

A. Dhyvat,.. .. Dha Mundutee, Rohinee, Rummya. 

B. Nikhad,.... Ni Oogra, Joobhanka. 

The intervals between the first and second, fourth and fifth, and fifth and sixth 
notes are divided into four parts ; those between the second and third, and sixth 
and seventh, each into three parts ; and those between the third and fourth, and 
seventh and eighth, which with us are reckoned semitones, each into two parts." 



1834.] Scientific Intelligence. 249 

Captain Willard asserts under the division 'time,' notwithstanding the 
authority of Tartini and Dr. Burney, that no musician can execute measures of 
five notes in a bar,—" There is beautiful melody in Hindustan comprising seven 
and other unequal number of notes in a measure, and that they have musicians in 
abundance that are able to execute it." We should much doubt this fact. 

Indian Harmony is mostly confined to a monotonous repetition of the keynote 
during the flights of their vocal or instrumental melody ; for it is melody which has 
ever constituted the soul of the national music in India as among the Greeks and 
Egyptians. Our author has the following general observations on this subject. 

1. Hindoostanee melodies are short, lengthened by repetition and variations. 

2. They all partake of the nature of what is denominated by us Rondo, the 
piece being invariably concluded with the first strain, and sometimes with the first 
bar, or at least with the first note of that bar. 

3. A bar, or measure, or a certain number of measures, is frequently repeated 
with slight variation, almost ad lib. 

4. There is as much liberty allowed with respect to pauses, which may be length- 
ened at pleasure, provided the time be not disturbed. 

The author corrects SirWsi. Jones' rendering of rag by the expression 'mode, 
or key, for which the Hindus have the distinct word fhat : — rag signifies rather 
' tune ' or ' air.' 

The personification of rags and raginees, and the series of pictures called ragma- 
las, are too well known to require any remarks ; it would have increased the 
interest of the work to European readers had the descriptions of these been accom- 
panied by engravings of a selected series of drawings, but we are aware that this 
could not have been easily done in India. The sixteen melodies set to music (al- 
ways excepting the impossible 7-quaver airs) form however, an interesting part of 
the author's labour ; the effect of metre is strikingly marked in some of these airs. 
We cannot resist pointing out the close resemblance of the 9th (a Persian gha- 
zal,) to the hexameter verse ; by transposing the first and second section iu each 
line and adding one long foot the metre becomes perfect : 
Ashvagari dil burda za man (to) jalva numai, 
Kajkulahi zarrin kamari (ham) tanga qubai, 
Man bavasalash ky rasam in (ast) has ki bar&hash, 
Khaka sh&vam rfizi (td) bosam (man) kafi p£f. 
which may be anglicized in the metre of the original ; — 
(Dil burda za man — ashvagari — jalva num^f, &c.) 

Oh thief of my heart, eye me not so — shining so brightly 
With head dress awry — girdle of gold — boddice bound tightly — 
When, when shall we meet ! Ah not in life — not till my ashes 
Lie strew'd in thy path — kissing thy feet — treading so lightly. 
2. — Representation in Roman Characters of the principal Asiatic Alphabets. 
Mr. Trevelyan has done an eminent service to literature, and to the Asiatic 
Society in particular, by standing forth as the advocate of Sir William Jones' 
mode of expressing native characters in the Roman Alphabet. The cause had 
nearly become desperate, both from the influence and popularity of the Gilchris- 
tian system*, and from the adoption of a modification of the latter by the Gov- 

* These are the only two radically opposed systems, taking the characters of the 
vowels as the most obvious test : the numerous modifications of the consonants are of 
minor importance. 

K K 



250 European Science. [Mat, 

ernment in its surveys and records ; — when,we may say, the scale has been turned by 
one whose official situation, and whose zeal in the cause, promise all the success that 
human efforts can command. The scheme has been printed and circulated exten- 
sively ; — it has been adopted in the Persian office : — and in school-books now print- 
ing by the promulgator : while on the other hand all the learned oriental societies 
and their members have ever pursued it, and willrejoice in lending it their renewed 
support. The distinctions and marks introduced to discriminate the different 
classes of letters (guttural, nasal, &c.) are judicious, and can hardly be esteemed a 
departure from Sir William's scheme, while their occasional omission will be no 
stumbling block to the scholar, whose memory will recur to the original orthogra- 
phy of the word in the oriental character. We wish that all contributions to the 
Journal could be made to conform to the system; but with Europeans this necessari- 
ly presupposes an acquaintance with the native characters, otherwise the fallacious 
ear must ever continue to guide the traveller's pen as he puts down names and places 
in his note-book. The promulgation of our author's scheme will however now 
serve the double purpose of teaching the European alphabet to the natives, while 
it makes theirs known to us in return. That it will have the further effect of dis. 
placing the Nagari and Persian alphabets as expected by the originator, is a 
point of which the discussion may be safely postponed for a few hundred years I 
It is not contended that existing knowledge can or ought to be suppressed ; — that 
during the transition period, books are not to be furnished in every type for which 
there is a demand ; — but it is assumed that the superiority of the reformed system 
will be gradually perceived, and that " the native alphabets, retiring before the Ro-f 
man, and being naturally displaced by its incumbent and increasing weight, will 
eventually without violence or alarm, disappear from off the land." 

We feel no disposition to contend against the speculative possibility : the question 
requires too many concurrent data, to be made the subject of rational argument : — ■ 
and as to the abstractadvantages of an universal alphabet,they will be as readily grant- 
ed by all men as those of an universal language. — All we would maintain is, that 
efforts should not be relaxed in spreading the blessings of education through the 
medium of the native languages and the native alphabets, in anticipation of the 
sudden and miraculous substitution of a type utterly foreign to the vast majority 
of the population. 



XII. — European Science. 

Remarks on the Report of the First and Second Meetings (1831 and 1832) of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, By D. Butter, M. D. } Sur- 
geon, Bengal Establishment* 

Four years ago, Babbage and Brewster sounded the alarm of "British science in 
danger !" and well have the philosophers of England responded to the summons. 
The recent publication of this admirable report will constitute an important era in 
our history : it is indeed imposssible to calculate the full results of this organiza- 
tion of the scientific strength of the country. The plan adopted, of publishing an 
account, by the most competent associate, of the recent history and actual state of 
each department of science, is a signal boon conferred upon its admirers in all parts 
of the world, more especially upon residents in the more distant parts of the 
empire, where the original sources of such information are inaccessible. The 
peculiar excellence of these treatises consists in their shewing, upon good autho- 
rity, and up to a recent date, the exact points where knowledge terminates and 



1834.] European Science. 251 

ignorance begins ; thereby indicating the most promising lines of investigation 
for future explorers, and obviating all the useless and ungrateful labour of re- 
discovery. 

Perhaps the most finished of these essays is Mr. Airy's astronomy. He 
notes, as characteristic of its progress in England, during the present century, an 
exclusive attention to the perfection of instruments, and a zeal for accumulating 
observations, which remain useless until they are reduced and applied by the 
expert and ingenious analysts of the continent. But how many thousands of these 
must be lost in their original form, for ever unknown to the skilful metallurgists, 
who could extract the valuable metal from this heap of ore ! The public gratitude 
will not be withheld from those who thus sacrifice fortune, time, and health, to the 
comparatively humble toil of observation, and it will be long before the Baconian 
mode of seeking for truth can be undervalued ; but surely there is a savour of 
ultraism in this blind devotion to the occupation of storing up barren facts, to the 
total neglect of moderate generalization. It should not be forgotten that, in 
nearly all the physical sciences, several of the most brilliant discoveries have been 
the result of happy guesses, which gave a new and infinitely more productive 
direction to the views of investigators. Astronomy, in short, is in want of what 
Lyell has so ably done for geology. Conclusions, bearing to each other the most 
striking relations of analogy, are allowed to stand as ultimate and isolated facts ; while 
by connecting them, not only would their own authenticity be more firmly esta- 
blished, but they would directly lead to others which might without this aid be un- 
attainable. 

Thus the recent annals of astronomy are full of scattered evidences of a con- 
stant process of uncompensated attraction, whereby nebulae are converted into 
stars, and separate stars converted probably into binary or multiple systems. 
Instead of regarding the proper motion of the stars as merely the result of the 
universal law by which they all tend to approach one another in times inversely 
proportional to their respective masses, and to the squares of their respective dis- 
tances, even the enlarged mind of Sir John Herschel has been employed in a 
fruitless attempt to shew that the only real change of this kind now in progress is 
the mutual approach of our sun and Hercules, and that the proper motions of other 
stars are merely a perspective appearance occasioned by their being situated at 
very different distances from our system. There can be no doubt that many of 
them depend upon this cause ; but this attempted restriction of a universal law to 
a single case is a retrograde step in generalization, and an admitted failure. It 
seems, on the contrary, highly probable that all the stars of the greater magnitudes are 
approaching our sun in nearly right lines, and are destined, millions of ages hence, 
to form multiple systems with our sun, and some of the stars in the constellation of 
Hercules ; whence would arise the necessity of a new creation of organized beings, 
fitted to exist in the temperatures which would be produced by this new order of 
things. The complication of attractions to which each star is exposed during this 
accelerated approach must render the case of actual collision between any pair of 
them a very uncommon occurrence; instead of impinging upon, they will pass 
each other, and will thenceforth revolve in ellipses having their common centre of 
gravity in one focus. That such a process of condensation is going on, we have 
not only the evidence of the otherwise inexplicable apparent separation of the strars 
of Hercules ; — the rest of our nebulais undergoing the same change, the milky way visi- 
bly " breaking up," as Sir W. Herschel expressed it, in many places into similar 



252 European Science. [May, 

detached groups. This is the unavoidable result of the subjection of a finite uni- 
verse of moveable bodies to the law of gravitation, uncompensated by any projec- 
tile force acting tangentially to the radius of the system. 

The precipitation of meteoric stones upon the earth is, in all probability, another 
consequence of inadequately restrained gravitation. The cloudy form in which 
they first appear in the heavens, the light and detonation which precede their fall, 
and the ignited and occasionally simi-fluid state which they immediately afterwards 
present, all go to prove that, until their immersion in the earth's atmosphere, and 
their subjection to its pressure, these bodies existed in a gaseous form, and were 
cometary satellites of the earth, invisible when at a great distance, by reason of the 
smallness of their size. It seems therefore reasonable to conclude, that in the 
event of any portion of a great comet being drawn within the sphere of the earth's 
attractions, the result would be a precipitation of meteoric dust, and stones of 
various magnitudes, from the smallest aerolite up to the largest meteoric blocks, 
such as have been found in Greenland and on the plains of Russia and America. 

A cause, which will accelerate the fall of these bodies, especially of those which 
confine their gyrations to one sun or planet as a focus, is the long doubted, much 
ridiculed, but now universally acknowledged ether of Sir Isaac Newton, whose 
bold and fortunate conjectures regarding the existence of this medium, and the 
combustibility of the diamond, will ever be remembered, among the proudest tri- 
umphs of the human intellect. By opposing to the projectile force of these vapou- 
ry masses a continual resistance, greater* perhaps the nearer to the sun and 
planets, their centrifugal force will at last be so far weakened that collision with 
a sun or planet must ensue. As meteoric dust and stones have in all ages fallen 
upon the earth, so will the comets of Encke andBiELA, now entangled within our 
sun's exclusive^ attraction, be finally thrown upon that luminary : the chances of 
their striking a planet or even approaching so near to one as to suffer a deflection 
of course, which would again throw them out of the solar system, are too minute 
for calculation. That the dense planets themselves and their satellites similarly 
suffer a constant retardation, constantly approach their foci, and would in time 
come in contact with them, cannot be doubted without calling in question the 
universality and equality of the law of gravitation ; but their comparatively great 
inertia makes the change so slow as to escape observation, and the major axis of 
each planet's orbit is practically considered as of invariable length J. 

* Encke's comet has been observed to contract its diameter as it approaches the 
sun, whence it may be inferred that the etherial medium lias there a greater density, 
occasioned by its gravitation to the sun, and consequently a greater pressure upon the 
gaseous mass of the comet, and a more powerful resistance to its motion. 

-|- It may be conjectured that many of the comets of immense period never have 
their perihelion twice round the same sun, but travel in a zigzag course over the whole 
extent of our nebula in the milky way ; their projectile force being always sufficiently 
great to carry them within the attraction of stars different from those where they had 
their last perihelia. 

+ The resistance of the ether must give an eccentric form to the earth's atmosphere, and 
increase the pressure upon that side of the earth which is most forward in its orbit. 
The same resistance must tend to, retard the earth's revolution round its axis, but a 
counter-balancing agent is here at work — the shrinking of the earth by cooling, which 
would have an opposite effect. 



1834.] European Science. 253 

It appears extremely probable tbat those meteors which are observed to move 
horizontally over extensive portions of the earth's surface would, if watched to the 
end of their course, be found to terminate this by an explosion and fall of aerolites. 
It is also probable that the only remaining phenomenon of analogous character, 
that of falling stars, which may be constantly seen to occur in the field of a large 
telescope, is a case of precisely the same kind — minute cometary clouds, condensed 
and burnt into dust by the pressure and oxygen of the atmosphere, with the ex- 
tinction of light which would follow such condensation and combustion*. 

An apparent exception to the general process of attraction presents itself in the 
case of a few fixed stars, which are supposed to have been changed into nebulse. 
It is more probable that no such change has occurred, and that the mistake has 
happened through the insufficient power of the telescopes of early observers. 

Mr. Airy's paper gives no elucidation of that strange phenomenon, so brilliant 
in this climate, the zodiacal light, which by its form and position would appear 
to be a solar atmosphere ; while we know for certain that, if all its parts have the 
same angular velocity of rotation as the body of the sun, no such atmosphere can 
extend to such a distance from the sun without being entirely carried away by 
its centrifugal force. 

Another subject which more comprehensive views could not fail to elucidate is 
the temperature of the solar system and of the medium which surrounds it. 

Fourier concludes that the temperature of the whole of the planetary space, or 
rather of the ether which fills it, is about 58° Fahr. But if this ether obey the 
universal laws of gravitation, as it is reasonable to infer from general principles 
must be the case, and as the contracted bulk of Entcke's comet, near its perihe- 
lion, may be said to prove ; moreover, if, as is probable, this ether be highly mo- 
bile and obedient to the laws of latent heat, its density must be greater in the 
vicinity of the sun and planets, and each atom of ether in approaching the sun or 
planets must have its temperature raised by the partial loss of its capacity for 
heat, and will again lose this heat in moving away from the sun or planets : 
whence it will follow that the etherial temperature must be higher in the neigh- 
bourhood of the larger of these bodies, and that Fourier's deduction concerns 
only that portion of the ether which immediately surrounds the earth's atmosphere. 

If we suppose the whole solar system to have been at its creation endued with 
the same temperature, and if we consider its members as so many liquid spheroids, 
subjected to the usual laws of cooling, the largest and rarest masses, and those 
protected by the largest atmosphere envelopes, retaining their heat the longest ; 
to have an explanation of the present high temperature of the sun, which with 
only i of the earth's density has 300,000 times more weight, of the moderated 
temperature of the earth's surface, of the ice-bound condition of the surface of the 
moon, which with a greater density than the earth has, only *$ of its weight, and 
hardly any appreciable atmosphere, and of the apparently fluid condition of the 

* It is a popular belief in some parts of Great Britain that falling stars have been 
found in a gelatinous form upon the earth's surface ; and from professor Silliman^s 
Journal, it would appear that the same notion is current in America ; the " sparkling 
jelly," there described, would form a curious subject for chemical examination ! From 
the composition of aerolites it would seem that the elementary components of the uni- 
verse are the same every where, but this singular substance would appear to have no 
representative in our globe. 



254 European Science. [May, 

surface of Jupiter*, which with a density, and therefore a heat-conducting power, 
even less than those of the sun, has 300 times the earth's weight. 

Popular belief, both in ancient and in modern times, has attributed a frigorific 
power to the rays of the moon. Modern philosophers, on the contrary, have all 
expected a calorific effect from the concentration of her beams ; and an American 
journalist has recently published the alleged result of an experiment, in which an 
evident rising of the thermometer was occasioned by a powerful arrangement of 
this kind. Dr. Lardner, in his monogram on heat, published in 1833, calculates 
on the supposition that the respective heating powers of the sun and moon's rays 
are in the ratio of their brightness ; that in the experiment of De La Hire, who 
condensed the lunar rays 300 times by a 3-feet burning glass, the heating ef- 
fect could not have been so much as 5 l 5 of a degree. Sir John Herschel, in his 
work (which I have not seen) on Astronomy, also published last year, gives the 
following imaginary description of the lunar climate : 

" The moon has no clouds, nor any other indications of an atmosphere ; hence its 
climate must be very extraordinary : the alternation being that of unmitigated and 
burning sunshine, fiercer than an equatorial noon, continued for a whole fortnight, 
and the keenest severity of frost, far exceeding that of our polar winters, for an 
equal time. Such a disposition of things must produce a constant transfer of 
whatever moisture may exist on its surface, from the point beneath the sun to that 
opposite, by distillation in vacuo, after the manner of the little instrument called 
a cryophorus. The consequence must be absolute aridity below the vertical sun, 
constant accretion of hoar frost in the opposite region, and, perhaps, a narrow 
zone of running water at the borders of the enlightened hemisphere. It is possible 
then, that evaporation on the one hand, and condensation on the other, may to a 
certain extent preserve an equilibrium of temperature, and mitigate the extreme 
severity of both climates." 

In this instance, popular prejudice, though also overshooting the mark, has 
probably erred less than philosophical hypothesis. There is no sufficient reason 
for believing that the moon's temperature ever was higher than that of the earth at 
the same time ; and on the supposition that at some very distant period they were 
equal, it must follow from the greater comparatively surface of the moon, from her 
greater density and heat-conducting probable power, and still more, from her almost 
total want of an atmosphere, that her temperature on the surface is very greatly in- 
ferior to that of any portion of the earth ; whence, under any circumstances, the 
earth must constantly give out heat to the moon, which will, therefore, with effect, 
appreciable or not, according to the power and sensibility of the instruments em- 
ployed, act upon the thermometer like the mass of ice used by the Florentine 
Academicians, which gave rise to so many speculations upon the possibility of a 
radiation of cold. It is probable that the temperature of the moon's surface does 
not exceed that of the etherial space which immediately surrounds it ; and, from 
the considerations above detailed, especially the moon's smaller mass, that this falls 
short of the temperature determined by Fourier as belonging to the etherial space 
immediately beyond the earth's atmosphere. 

* The physical condition of Jupiter's surface, his ever -varying belts, all disposed in 
parallelism with his equator, and the occasional more permanent spots like the sum- 
mits of icebergs floating in a liquid medium, would perhaps be best explained by the 
hypothesis of this planet still being in a state of partial fusion. His moons may be 
at a lower temperature, and now inhabited. 



1834.] European Science. 355 

The telescopic appearance of the moon, the snowy covering of her Phlegrsen 
continents, and the silent ruggedness of her frozen seas, might suffice to disprove 
the existence of a temperature upon her surface equal or similar to that of the 
earth. In what respect, it may be asked, differs the aspect of the bright portion 
of the moon's disc from that which would be assumed by a poition of the Hima- 
laya mountains viewed at the distance of the moon, when winter has clothed both 
eminence and valley in a uniform robe of snow, and bound in icy chains every 
stream and expanse of water ? In that elevated region of the earth there is a par- 
tial, in the moon there is nearly a total, want of that atmospheric envelope, which, 
like a garment, enables those bodies which receive it to retain the solar warmth. 
The moon's rays will no more heat a warmer thermometer than will the concentrated 
light given out by a snowy range of terrestrial mountains. This refrigeration 
appears to have extended through a great thickness of the moon's external crust, 
for her volcanoes are nearly extinct : the flames which they give out were barely 
visible even through Sir W. Herschel's powerful telescopes. 

Still less compatible with their snowy whiteness, and with the bold precipices 
and overhanging character of the lunar Alps, is Sir John Herschel's idea of a 
monthly revolution of the climate on the moon's surface. Not onlywouldthe linea 
terminator or boundary of light and darkness be followed during the moon's increase by 
a bright line of melting snow, while the enlightened face generally would present a 
scene of overwhelming deluges, breaking down the edges of its numerous elevated 
cavities, and reducing the moon's surface to a near resemblance to that of the earth ; 
but the irresistible expansive force of the ice, monthly freezing in the fissures and 
cavities of its mountains, would in the course of a few years reduce these to a much 
smaller altitude than those which are now left upon the earth. 

It is probable indeed, that the causes of the striking differences between the 
lunar and terrestial surfaces may be referred solely to the smaller bulk and rarer 
atmosphere, of the moon. An attentive examination of the most ancient cra- 
ters of volcanoes now active, such as Vesuvius, will shew, that the first stage of 
a violent eruption must have been the blowing into the air an inverted conical 
mass of the mountain, two, three, or four miles in diameter, leaving a crater of 
similar dimensions, such as may yet be traced of Vesuvius, where Monte Somma 
forms the eastern edge of the ancient crater, upwards of four miles distant from 
the western, with the modern cone and crater rising between them, like the central 
elevations, which are to be seen in the circular hollows of the moon. From the 
smaller force of gravity at the moon's surface, the masses displaced by those ex- 
plosions have greatly exceeded the size of any craters that can now be traced upon 
theearth, many of the lunar cavities being from twenty to fifty miles in diameter and 
a mile or two iu depth. A rapid refrigeration appears to have followed the active 
era of the lunar volcanoes, so that the whole of them remain visible and unaltered 
by falls of rain or by alternate frosts and thaws, (while the operation of these causes 
upon the earth's surface has left barely traceable vestiges of whole volcanic re- 
gions ;) and, during the short period of her being a habitable world, her atmos- 
phere must have consisted ch iefly of watery vapour. 

If would appear, from the known laws of the communication of heat by radiation, 
that the created universe is constantly suffering a loss of that principle, which 
can be supplied only by successive exertions of the creating power. Hence the 
decay and loss of old stars, and the appearance of new ones recorded in the annate 
of astronomy. 



2.56 



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JOURNAL 



OF 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



JYo. 30.— June, 1834. 



I. — Restoration of the Inscription, No. 2, on the Allahabad Column. By 
the Rev. W. H. Mill, D. D. Principal of Bishop's College, Vice- 
President of the Asiatic Society, %c. 

[Read at the Meetiag of the 28th ultimo.] 
The March number of the Journal of the Asiatic Society contained 
the result of the Pandit Madhu Rao's collation of the Allahabad In- 
scription, No. 2, with others in a similar character— together with 
Captain Troyer's English version and valuable remarks. The learned 
Pandit's transcript exhibits such letters only of the pillar in Devanaga- 
ri as were capable of tolerably certain identification with those found 
on monuments already deciphered, leaving frequent and often consider- 
able intervals for the remaining letters : and the version, as was indeed 
unavoidable from such a text, presented still wider intervals. The 
translation of many of the clauses thus insulated was necessarily of a 
conjectural kind : and except in the valuable discovery of lines 25 and 
26, where the Prince's genealogy occurred, contained nothing like a 
connected sentence. 

A cursory inspection of the transcript and the version convinced me 
that, where so much was done, more might be certainly attained. To 
those acquainted with the art of deciphering unknown arbitrary cha- 
racters in any known language, it is needless to remark that the clear 
possession of a key to two or three common letters, necessarily draws 
after it the discovery of all the rest : and that where the further progress of 
discovery is really barred, it is an infallible proof of some error in the 
previous assumption. No such error was suspected here, (except in some 
comparatively inconsiderable instances, which may be seen by any one 
that will take the trouble of comparing the two transcripts together ;) 

L L 



258 Restoration of the Inscription, No. 2, [June, 

and therefore nothing could impede the progress to deciphering the in- 
scription as far as it remained — provided only the language in which 
it was written were sufficiently known to us. 

Now that this language was the well-known classical Sanscrit — the 

language of Menu's Institutes, the Puranas, the Kavyas, &c. admits of 

no reasonable doubt. The supposition of its being any older Sanscrit, 

resembling that of the Vedas, to the understanding of which a bhdshya or 

gloss is all but indispensable, is rendered extremely improbable bytheap- 

parent date of the monuments on which inscriptions of the same character 

appear. The style of the Gya Inscription, so satisfactorily deciphered 

by Sir Charles Wilkins in the 1st volume of the Asiatic Researches, 

and the metre in which it is composed, the Sardula-vikridita, (which, 

like all other lyrical measures of that kind occurring in the Hindu 

drama and elsewhere, belongs to a period in the history of the language 

long posterior to that of the great sacred epics, the Ramayana and 

Mahabharata, by which the present classical Sanscrit was fixed,) would 

alone be sufficient to remove such a supposition. 

With this conviction, I determined to subject the Allahabad Inscrip- 
tion to a close critical examination ; discarding in the first instance all 
reference to other interpretations of the inscription itself, and pro- 
ceeding only upon the indubitably deciphered letters of the above men- 
tioned Gya Inscription, or rather of that portion of it, of which Lieu- 
tenant Burt has now given us a far better fac simile than what is con- 
tained in the Society's first volume. Applying this to his excellent copy 
of the Allahabad Pillar, though at first the limits of discovery appeared no 
wider, and indeed much narrower, than in what has already been present- 
ed to the Society, yet by carrying on the results of what was thus ascertain- 
ed, wherever any glimpses of decided meaning appeared, to the investiga- 
tion of characters before unknown, and testing the conjectures thus made 
by other places — the usual result of such inquiries displayed itself. What 
was at first mere assumption turned to probability, and then to certainty : 
and such places as the juxta-position of the names of known countries 
in line 19, but above all, the short clause in line 27 on which the rest 
of the inscription hangs — (ravi-bhuv6 bdhur ayam ucchritas stambhas, 
" of this Sun-born king this lofty pillar is the arm") — occurring as 
they did to me not as the basis of conjecture, but as the unexpected 
results of inferences from other probable assumptions, — removed all 
possibility of doubt. And notwithstanding the turgid character of the 
composition, and the enormous length of the epithets affixed to this 
" child of the Sun," consisting often of more than 25 words, and filling 
the whole line — the meaning is sufficiently connected and definite in 
this, which is the greatest part of the inscription, to remove all doubt 



1834.] on the Allahabad Column. 259 

of the accuracy with which Devanagaii letters are assigned to the 
several characters*. In one only of the regal proper names, that of the 
king's grandfather Ghatotkacha, does my reading differ from Captain 
Troyer's : and it is observable that this is also the name of a son of 
the Pandava hero Bhima Sena, brother of Yudhisthira and Arjuna in 
the Mahabharata, and might perhaps have given rise to the popular 
appellation of this pillar in Hindustan, " the Staff of Bhima Sen." 

The test arising fro.n definite and continuous meaning applies of 
course only to those parts where the inscription is itself complete, and 
clear of all considerable interruption, viz. all from the 14th to the 29th 
lines inclusive, (for the 30th is separate from the rest, and appears 
broken off like the earlier lines,) perhaps also the 2nd and 3rd, which, 
though short, seem to me to be very nearly complete. But even in the 
other lines, the words and the compounds are intelligible : and if we 
except the 1st, and the end of the 6th, lines (the first containing but nine 
insulated letters, and the last breaking off in the midst of a compound, 
leaving the preceding words in that compound uncertain as to their 
bearing) — the separate clauses may be pretty well traced, though their 
import in the sentence is lost. In all these, lacunar of various lengths 
occur in the pillar, which I have scrupulously filled up with precisely 
the same number of letters as are designated by Lieutenant Burt for 
the several intervals. It is not by any means intended to ascribe to 
these addedf letters of my own, (except when the interval is very small, 
as in line 24,) the same degree of accuracy which I should be disposed 
to claim for all, with one or two exceptions only, of the transcribed 
letters : for the most part they merely indicate the probable (and in 
some cases of very marked meaning, as in line 28, the certain) equiva- 
lents of the letters that formerly occupied the same spaces. Where 
lacuna? occur at the end of a line, I had no such consideration to guide 
me : here, as in lines 18 and 26, it was merely my object to close the 
imperfect compound by as few letters as would serve the purpose of 
expressing the evident meaning. In the earlier lines, the idea of 
completing the sentence by such means was out of the question. 

* In one instance I was assisted to the meaning of an ill-defined letter resembling 
a TJ in the accurate fac-simile, — by the partial specimen of the inscriptions on the 
pillar given in the 7th Volume of the As. Res. (Plate xiv.) — which though very in- 
ferior in accuracy to Lieutenant Burt's, yet having been taken at a time when the 
pillar had not been so much defaced as at present, may be conceived to convey 
some characters more perfectly. The character was there rJT distinctly, and as this 
happily made sense of what was before unintelligible, its accuracy could not be 
questioned. 

t These letters are distinguished in the transcript by a much smaller character. 

L L 2 



260 Restoration of the Inscription, No. 2, [June, 

In these conjectural supplements, as well as for ascertaining the true 
transcript of letters in doubtful cases, the discovery of a lyric measure 
like that of the Gya Inscription, in which the succession of long and 
short syllables is determined by invariable rule, would have been a 
most valuable assistance. But not merely is such measure as this un- 
discoverable in the greater part of the inscription — but every rhythm 
whatever (including the freer measures of the Arya genus, or the loose 
Anustup of Valmiki) is equally absent from it — as an examination of 
all the complete lines from the 14th downward will evidently show*. 
Some of the incomplete lines have indeed a deceitful resemblance to 
metre — the 4th line to the Sdrdula-vikridita, (the measure of the Gya In- 
scription,) and the 12th to a yet longer lyric measure of twenty-one sylla- 
bles, called Srag-dhard : but in each of these cases the perfect application 
of the prosodiacal rule is forbiddenfby some one or more syllables in the 
line, whose reading cannot be mistaken. The only genuine appearance 
of metre that the closest examination could detect is in the 8th and 9th 
lines, which are proved by the undeviating regularity of all the syllables, 
as far as they can be traced on the pillar, to form together a stanza of 
the measure called Manddkrdntd, (the same in which Calidasa's beauti- 
ful poem, the Cloud Messenger, is composed,) one of very frequent oc- 
currence in the lyric poetry of the Hindus. In this measure, each of 
the four pddas or versicles which compose the stanza consists of two 
Spondees, a Proceleusmatic, and three Bacchii, having the casura after 
the tenth syllable ; thus : 



<_. W \J \j KJ 



Accordingly, in the additions necessary for these two lines, I have taken 
care not only to preserve the measure, but to expand them so as to com- 
plete the hemistich in each case. But this slight and solitary advance 
beyond the usual necessary addition of letters is made more to indicate 
the prosody of the preceding syllables, and to mark precisely the certain 
length of the line in these places, than with any pretence of supplying 
the very words that are effaced. The real termination of these lines, as 
of the fourth and others, if found, would clear up the obscurity that now 
necessarily attaches to all the early part of the inscription, and on 
which it would be now vain to offer any conjecture. 



* The apparent rhyme observed by Lieut. Burt, is merely the genitive termina- 
tion asya at the end of each huge compound epithet, agreeing with u the Sun- 
born King" above-mentioned. 

f The name k&vyam. applied by the author himself in line 28 to his inscription, 
•will apply to unmetrical poetry, as well as to that which has the advantage of pro- 
sody. 



1834.] on the Allahabad Column. 261 

To the Devanagari transcript is annexed a close interlineary version, 
in the only language (one excepted) whose freedom of collocation and 
general analogy to Sanscrit made it available for this purpose — distin- 
guishing always by brackets the version of the intercalated or added 
syllables, the necessity of which will thus be often apparent to the 
Western reader. I have now to subjoin a somewhat looser version in 
English — to which I would prefix merely the following brief analysis of 
the insci-iption. 

line. 1 .Unintelligible, and most probably unconnected with what follows. 
2, 3. Invocation in behalf of the sculptor andblackener of the letters 
of the inscription. 
4 — 12. Various descriptions, at first dependent on the relatives yas, 
yasya (who and whose), but afterwards governed by the ante- 
cedent personal pronoun sa, (he,) all of which evidently relate to 
the same person, and that the king — but which, from the incom- 
pleteness of the lines, and the absence of verbs governing the 
principal substantives, cannot be traced in their conjunct mean- 
ing as one sentence, which itis evident they must have composed. 
13 — 2 7. Panegyrical descriptions of the same king in the genitive case, 
(connected at first with the nominatives of line 13, but after- 
wards evidently with the Pillar-Arm at the conclusion,) viz. 
Samudra Gupta, son of Chandra-Gupta, of the Solar race, all 
sufficiently perfect and intelligible. 
28. Comparison of the king's glory to the sacred water of the ne- 
thermost Ganges in the Mahabharata. 
28, 29. Name and description of the self-satisfied author of this pane- 
gyric, (whose intellect, as he tells us himself, was utterly sub- 
verted by his intimacy with the great king, when he ventured 
on this composition,) concluding with a salutation to the Deity. 
Then, after a very wide space, comes 

30. A compliment, somewhat obscure and imperfect, to the author's 
immediate superior and patron. 

Translation. 

1. The jackal [left the b~]ear in the forest. (?) 

2. This goodly s[ign] of one endued by nature with a mind of fire having 

been, for the conveyance of his commands, covered over with ink; may 
the ma[ker also] fixed [as the letters themselves by the durability and 
immortality of the monument he has raised, viz.] 

3. The [king's] dependant Vitka, having formed these [letters] for the 

love of the multiplied virtues of the son of the bow-armed givA [viz. 
Ganesa patron of letters] enjoy in heaven, even in the city of Vedhas 
[Brahma] himself, the royal glory of eminent poetical dignity ! 



262 Restoration of the Inscription, No. 2, [June, 

4. He who while worthy of eulogy, yet by means of informers, whose cha- 
racter is much to be concealed, men whose hair is diminished by being 1 of- 
ten pulled, was entangled and impeded by the pride of men of obscure 
family, a hoary-headed counsellor being _-__-_ _ _ 

5. He who was distinguished in letters, even by the able ontologistCHAXAS, 
called familiarly the talking Guru, with the honourable appellation of 
one in whom all [admirable qualities] are united. ----___ 

6. By this [excellent Guru] resembling those [true sages] who are utterly 
alien from all delight in selfish worldly occupations, - - - _ _ 

7. He having been inflamed with warlike prowess, before whom prostration 
being made even by the enemies' forces, the conjoined battle strife of 
armies disappeared, -- ------- _-_ _ _.. 

8. Whose mothers-in-law*, formerly proud and addicted to high minded 

oppressions perpetually, having been by his own arm subdued with the 
sword of battle, [viz. Sanha'rica' and the rest, - - (line 18.)] 

9. By their passions, at first fiercely erect and tall as the stalks of green 
barley, at length bursting forth and ripening into affection through the 
abundant juices within, thus became penitent [in heart permanently 
from that time ; and] 

10. When, sprung from the bank of the [sacred ?] river, the strength of 

the arm of Ra xasa and the rest, directing his arms, had even removed 
mountains by the death of the formidable [rapid victor] Xanajit,— 
then he also 

11. With assiduous offerings to the planetary deities — did in his own 
pleasure gardens, from which are gathered noble garlands of flowers 
woven as it were from the Sesbana grandiflora — [seek to propitiate 
the immortals]. 

12. But though the glories of greatness, of clemency, and of warlike prowess 
were in him blended into one, as [the several colours] in the 
pure white rays of the moon ; yet was there at this time no [remis] 
sion of his past grievous offence. 

13. Still not his was the path of those devoted to the present life, nor any 

dereliction of the wisdom and power which belongs to contemplative 
sages; nor was there any poetical censurer of him, whose gifts were 
without end. 

* The great Rajas of India have frequently heen polygamists — and in these cases, 
the father and mother of each wife, as well as those of the sole rightful queen, bear the 
honourable names of svasura and svasti (socer and socrus), i. e. father and mother-in- 
law. The mothers-in-law here appear to have been independent princesses, whose 
daughters were thus won in battle by Samudra Gupta, and seem to me undoubtedly 
those, whose homage to the conqueror is described as increased by their alliance and 
hope of royal offspring, in lines 18, 19. With respect to the grievous sin for which 
his repentance is recorded in line 12, the incompleteness of the line precludes all but 
the merest conjecture. — On the 6th and 7th lines it may be remarked that the heroic 
ages of India efford examples of Brahmanical military tutors to young Rajas, — 
who like Drona are said to have united great skill in war to eminent contem- 
plative devotion. 



1834.] on the Allahabad Column. 623 

14. Of him therefore, skilled in the due performance of the hundred 
libations of consecrated ghee to Brahma, who by tbe strength and power 
of his arm reduces bis foes to bondage, and brandishes for the destruc- 
tion of their hosts barbed darts and swords and lances* ; — 

15. Of him whose salvation is in tbe guardian of waters [Varuna] the 
terrible Siva and Visiimu, surpassing the graces of the most adorned 
recited speech by the rising splendours of a name illustrious for the 
hundred wounds inflicted on the [rival] tribe by strokes of the flesh-de- 
vouring arrows of iron, as well as of weapons grasped by the hand and 
others ; — 

16. Of him, who after the royal insignia had been destroyed by the hand 
of the [hostile] monarch, as it were the tiger of the forest, the great 
lord of wild buffaloes, — yet having from the resources of his excellent 
guardian Giri-kahla'raka the gift of infantry and other soldiers — be- 
came by the mixture of this benevolent aid with the royal majesty that 
sprung from it, no longer unfortunate ; — 

17. Of him whose mind was next intent upon the capture of all the kings 

of the South and of the East, as well as of Dhananjaya, protector of 
the North country, springing from the race of the divine Ugrasena, 
splendid as the sun, and patron of Hastivarman — a bard equal to the 
blue sovereign [Siva?] himself; — who therefore is justly worshipped 
by his ministering lieges, as sole king of all the gods ; — 

18. Of him whose state might be propounded as an object of imitation, in 
respect of troops, chariots, and other [war-like apparatus] even to the 
divine Rudra, the wise Nagadatta, to Chandra [god of the moon] to 
Vahni [or Agni, lord of fire], to Ganesa, to Nriga, [brother of Ixvacu 
of the solar race], to Nagasena, and to the unmoveable forces of the 
Nandis [Siva's attendant gods] — and who moreover by Sanh a 'rica ' and 
all the rest [of the vanquished mothers-in-law] who have the accumula- 
tive incentive of the wish and prayer for a royal offspring, is approach- 
ed with all just payment of tribute, with propitiatory gifts, and with 
reverent prostration ; — 

19. Of him who when his fame penetrated to the friendly province of Pines 

— to Cdmanipa [the present kingdom of Assam] — and to Nepal, did 
for the sake of procuring a shower of darts to pierce the princes even of 
the extreme west and other quarters, dispose his soldiers in ambush 
behind the stations of the cowherds of Madra — and is therefore cele- 
brated by the poet whom this battle raised up [to commend the strata- 
gem], as equal in the rapid destruction of his foes to the Lord Siva, or 
to Cama or Aruni, [the gods of love and fire — thus celebrated] also by 
Sanha'rica' and all the rest [of the allied princesses] ; — 

20. Of him whose government is invariably strict — who moreover has the 
glory, a glory pervading the highest heaven, of largesses to destitute 
persons, invited by him in pursuance of the restitution of a royal race 
sprung from a kingdom which the [enemies] soldiers had subverted— 

* Or " iron clubs." For the Sanscrit <TWT bears both meanings. 



264 Restoration of the Inscription, No. 2, [June, 

who moreover imposed on the rank foliage of forests, on the lakes, and 
on the land, the chains [of clear roads and of bridges respectively] — 
who on the earth has no equal as a car-borne warrior ; — 

21. Of him who bears a gentle and kind disposition, to be hailed by the 

inhabitants of all the islands of the ocean with pure constant worship 
of oblation and sacrifice — the materials of which spring from the rich 
revenues obtained by his wise assessment from the produce of cultiva- 
tors firmly and devotedly subjected to him as was the bird Garuda to 
Vishnu, [a devotion testified] by the harmonious confluence of their 
loyal words and songs addressed to himself — who also without being 
addicted to works [alone, but spiritual science also, yet] bestows hun- 
dreds and thousands upon the affairs of heaven and of earth ; — • 

22. Of him whose glory in war obliterates that of all other kings beside 
himself, by reason of the multitude of virtues, diverse in kind, embel- 
lished in hundreds of poems — from fear of whose [vigorous rule] dis- 
sensions never arise — who is alike pure from the stains of grief and of 
foolish laughter — who is in devotion unrivalled — and who having by 
his own arm subdued so many kings, has succeeded further in taming 
the so great fury and wrath [that such reverse naturally produces] by 
the continual intercourse and profit of the western commerce begun 
with the riches derived from that conquest ; — ■ 

23. Of him who is pleased with long poems of victory closely following the 

battle-array formed by the king himself, whose disposition is that of the 
[Supreme Lord, the] Lord of the Poor ; who is at the same time the 
slayer of elephants that smite in war — and is consecrated as the most 
excellent of learned kings by [Cuveba] giver of wealth, by Varuna, 
by Indra, and him who dwells in the mansions of death [Yama] ; who 
is renowned for noble exploits to be heard to distant times, and sounded 
even to heaven ; — 

24. Of him by whom are well understood, the Gandharvas or celestial song- 
sters, learned and of excellent wisdom ; also the regent of the planet 
Mars ; also [BALARA'MA*]foe of the earth ; also the preceptor of Indra 
himself, the lord of the thrice-blessed immortals [viz. Vrihaspati, regent 
of Jupiter] ; also Tumbaru [the wise Gandharva], and Na'rada, and 
all the rest [of the ultra-deified sages] — who moreover is consecrated as 
the most excellent of kings by acts worthy of the poems of the great 
Rishi Vyannaca [or the foodlessf], who is renowned for noble exploits 
to be heard to distant times, and sounded even to heaven ; — ■ 



* So I conjecture from the legend found in the Sri Bhagavat and elsewhere con- 
cerning Balara'ma, the 8th incarnation of Vishnu, having depressed all the eastern 
part of the earth. But perhaps the epithet may refer to the deities of the destroying 
elements Water or Fire. 

f Perhaps a title of the great Valmiki, author of the Ramayana, who is said to have 
fasted ten thousand years ! unless the terms of the inscription should be thought to 
require the name of some poet who has sung the exploits of Samudra-Gupta himself. 



/ 



1834.] on the Allahabad Column. 265 

25. Of him whose mind is in time of affliction and distress, ever singly in- 
tent on the disposition and arrangement of charitable works ; who is 
a god in the mansion of the world ; the great grandson of the great 
king Gupta, grandson of the great king Ghatotkacha, son of the great 
king, the supreme monarch Chandra Gupta ; — 

26. Of him who is also maternal grandson of Lichhavi, conceived in the 
great goddess-like Cuma'ra-Devj, the great king, the supreme monarch 
Samudra Gupta, illustrious for having filled the whole earth with the 
revenues arising from his universal conquest, [equal] to Indra chief of 
the gods ; — 

27. Of this child of the Sun, though clothed in hairy flesh, this lofty pillar 
is the arm, sustaining all his friends with powerful assistance both at 
home and in foreign travel ; of him, [I say,] whose fame raised by gra- 
dual accumulation of materials to the most exalted eminence in the 
strength of the arm of his liberality, and the abundance of his sentences 
respecting the law of tranquil meditation, is extended in various direc- 
tions. 

28. And that [fame] purifies the three worlds ; even as the [sacred stream 
given by Arjuna the hero] of the house of Pandu, [purified the 
dying] Bhishma, thus encircled within the noble bandage of the clot- 
ted hair of Siva [whence Ganges first sprung]. Such is the un- 
equalled eulogy, the composition of him who serves the countenance 
of the great monarch, w^o by reason of the favour of continually 
going about in his presence is even infatuated in mind, — 

29. The mature* dwarf — son of the great superintendant of penal justice 
Srava-bhu'ti, M'ho is both in peace and war, the counsellor of the youn°- 
king, the great superintendant [of penal justice] Hari Na'na. Salu- 
tation to [God], the kind friend of all creatures. 



30. But with whom, however devoted to the study of the Rig Veda, the 
best gift of the Supreme Sovereign, [can we compare] Tilabhatta, the 
great superintendant of penal justice, surrounded by his army [of 
inferior ministers of the law] ? 

Remarks on the above Inscription. 
. The style of laboured ornament affected in the public inscriptions 
of India is strongly contrasted with the severe simplicity of the same 
kind of composition in the monuments of other ancient nations: and the 
deciphering of the Allahabad pillar does not appear destined to re- 
move in any degree this reproach from the national taste. With the 
criticism, however, of this inscription, as a literary work, we are little 

* I am by no means satisfied with this rendering of'SIT^Tf^^i' but I can find 
no better. The translation " culinary dwarf" had occurred to me: thus associat- 
ing to the character of dwarf (in Sanscrit ^IT^O that attachment to good cheer, 
which is a standing characteristic of the half buffoon, half counsellor, called Vidu- 
shana in the Indian drama, and considered as a Brahmanical appendage to royalty. 
But the words scarcely bear out either interpretation :— nor is this association of 
the characters of dwarf and of royal attendant confirmed by any Indian example that 
I am aware of, however common in the fairy tales of Persia and the West. 
M M 



266 Remarks on the Inscription, No. 2, [June, 

concerned : but only with the light that it may help to throw on the his- 
tory of the people for whom it was written. 

Were there any regular chronological history of this part of Northern 
India, we could hardly fail in the circumstances of this inscription, even 
if it were without names, to determine the person and the age to which 
it belongs. We have here a prince who restores the fallen fortunes of 
a royal race that had been dispossessed and degraded by the kings of 
a hostile family — who removes this misfortune from himself and his kin- 
dred by means of an able guardian or minister, who contrives to raise 
armies in his cause ; succeeding at last in spite of vigorous warlike op- 
position, including that of some haughty independent princesses, whose 
daughters, when vanquished, become the wives of the conqueror — who 
pushes his conquests on the east to Assam, as well as to Nepal and the 
more western countries — and performs many other magnificent and li- 
beral exploits, constructing roads and bridges, encouraging commerce, 
&c. &c. — in all which, allowing fully for oriental flattery and extrava- 
gance, we could scarcely expect to find more than one sovereign, to 
whom the whole would apply. But the inscription gives us the names also 
of the prince and his immediate progenitors : and in accordance with 
the above-mentioned account, while we find his dethroned ancestors, his 
grandfather and great-grandfather, designated only by the honorific 
epithet Mahd-rdja, which would characterize their royal descent and 
rights — the king himself (Samudragupta) and his father are dis- 
tinguished by the title of Mdha-rdja Adhirdja, which indicates actual sove- 
reignty. And the last-mentioned circumstance might lead some to con- 
jecture, that the restoration of royalty in the house began with the fa- 
ther, named Chandragupta, whose exploits might besupposed to be re- 
lated in the first part of the inscription to add lustre to those of the son. 

Undoubtedly we should be strongly inclined, if it were possible, to 
identify the king thus named — (though the name is far from being an 
uncommon one) with a celebrated prince so called, the only one in whom 
the Puranic and the Greek* histories meet, the Chandragupta or San- 
dracoptus, to whom Seleucus Nicator sent the able ambassador, from 
whom Strabo, Arrian and others derived the principal part of their 
information respecting India. This would fix the inscription to an age 
which its character (disused as it has been in India for much more than a 

* This identity, which after the researches of Schlegel (Indische BibliotheJc) , 
and Wilson (preface to the Mudra Ravasa in the 3rd volume of the Hindu Theatre) , 
may he considered as established, has been questioned on very insufficient grounds by 
Professor Heeren in the last volume of his admirable Researches into the Politics, 
Intercourse, and Trade of the Principal Nations of Antiquity. The Indian accounts 
vary as much from each other concerning Chandragupta as they do from the 
classical accounts of Sandracoptus. 



1834.] of the Allahabad Column. 267 

thousand years), might seem to make sufficiently probable, — viz. the third 
century before the Christian era. And a critic, who chose to maintain 
this identity, might find abundance of plausible arguments in the inscrip- 
tion : he might imagine he read there the restoration of the asserted ge- 
nuine line of Nanda in the person of CnANDRAGupTA.andthe destruction 
of the nine usurpers of his throne : and in what the inscription, line 
16, tells of the guardian Giri-Kahlaraka-Svami, he might trace the 
exploits of Chandra gupta's wily Brahman counsellor Chanakya, so 
graphically described in the historical play called the Mudra-Rdxasa, in 
levying troops for his master, and counterplotting all the schemes of his 
adversaries' able minister Rax as a, until he recovered the throne : nay 
the assistance of that Raxasa himself, who from an enemy was turned 
to a faithful friend, might be supposed to be given with his name in line 
10 of the inscription. And the discrepancy of all the other names beside 
these two, viz. of Chandragupta's son, father, grandfather, and guar- 
dian minister, to none of whom do the known Puranic histories of that 
prince assign the several names of the inscription — might be overcome 
by the expedient usual among historical and chronological theorists in 
similar cases, — of supposing several different names of the same persons. 
But there is a more serious objection to this hypothesis than any aris- 
ing from the discrepancy of even so many names — and one which I can- 
not but think fatal to it. In the two great divisions of the Xattriya Rajas 
of India, the Chandragupta of the inscription is distinctly assigned 
to the Solar race — his son being styled child of the Sun. On the other 
hand, the celebrated founder of the Maurya dynasty, if reckoned at all 
among Xattriyas, (being, like the family of the Nandas, of the inferior 
caste of Sudras, as the Greek accounts unite with the Puranas in re- 
presenting him,) would rather find his place among the high-born 
princes of Magadha whose throne he occupied, who were children of 
the Moon : and so he is in fact enumerated, together with all the rest 
who reigned at Pataliputra or Palibothra, in the royal genealogies of 
the Hindus. It is not therefore among the descendants or successors 
of Curu, whether reigning (like those Magadha princes) at Patna, 
or at Dehli, that we must look for the subject of the Allahabad in- 
scription ; but if I mistake not, in a much nearer kingdom, that of 
Canyacubja or Canouje. This is well known to have been the seat 
of an extensive empire on the Ganges, founded by a branch of the 
Solar family, after the decline of Ayodhya or Oude, the ancient capital 
of Rama and his ancestors. And this opinion is confirmed by the coins 
lately discovered at Canouje, in which we find characters exactly cor- 
responding to those of our inscription — and the same prefix to the king's 
name on the reverse of the coin, viz. Mahd-raja Adhirdja Sri. One of 
these, a gold coin, communicated to me by Mr. J. Pkinsbp, and exhi- 
ii u 2 



268 Remarks on the Inscription, No. 2, [June, 

bited in the last number PI. IX. fig. 24, had struck me, before I saw the 
engraving, as seeming to bear on the obverse the name of Ghatotka- 
cha, (not, however the father of Chandragupta so named on the pillar, 
from whom the title of Adhirdja is withholden, as I before remarked — 
but areigning prince of the same name and family.) But another gold 
coin of the same class, in Plate I. fig. 19 of the XVIIth. volume of the 
As. Res. seems to me an undoubted coin of our Chandragupta*. 

Unfortunatelv, the catalogues of the children of the Sun, in the 
Hari-Vansa, the Bh&gavat, and the Vansa-lata, as published by Dr. 
Hamilton, are far from being so full and ample as those of the Lunar 
race, (to which the heroes both of the Mahabharata and the Sri Bhaga- 
vat belong :) and neither these, nor I believe the Vishnu and Kurma 
Puranas, extend their lists to the princes of this particular dynasty. 
From the first formation of this solar royalty at Canouje to its extinction 
in the person of Jaya Chandra, A. D. 1193, I know no authenticated 
name but that of Yasovarman, said in the Raja Tarangini 'to have been 
the patron of the dramatist Bhavabhu'ti, and to have been expelled 
from his kingdom by the Cashmirian conqueror Lilita'ditya, about 
A. D. 720 : — till we come to the last five, viz. the Rahtore princes, 
whose names from Chandrade'va to Jayachandra, are known from 
inscriptions and coins, allin modern Devanagari, and posterior by several 
centuries to our inscription. (A. R. vols. 9,15,17). Until further lists 
be obtained, therefore, the apparent absencef of all date on this part 
of the column, must preclude any thing like exact determination of the 
time that elapsed between its hero Samudragupta and Yasovarman. 

As far as it is possible to form a judgment on internal evidence con- 
cerning the age of so short a composition as this, from the enumeration of 
deities, or the traces of manners that may be discoverable in it, I should 
be inclined to think that it was written after the hero-worship, which 
the sacred epics first introduced, had begun decidedly to take place 
of the simple elementary adoration visible in the ancient hymns of 
the Vedas — yet before it had altogether its present shape, and appar- 
ently before the worship of the linga, and that of the sactis, the most im- 
pure parts of an impure system, had begun to attain the footing which they 

* No. 13 bears the cognate name of Sasigupta, and Nos. 5, 7, 12, 17, &c. con- 
tain names, more or less distinct, of others of the same dynasty. — Mr. Prinsep 
•whose attention I called to those coins, thinks also that No. 12, which is in his 
possession, bears the name of our Samudragupta : and indeed the resemblance 
is sufficiently striking to authorize the belief. 

t Unless indeed the mysterious isolated words at the end, ^T^H"£ " on the Arm's 
bank or shore," should be thought to inclose a date. According to some numeral 
rules used amongst Hindu mathematicians, these words might denote 22 : and this 
applied to the era of Vicrama'ditya, the usual era in those parts, would bring us 
to B. C. 34. But I need not observe how slippery such a conclusion must be. 



1834.] of the Allahabad Column. 269 

had in India at the period of the first Mahometan invasions. While 
the distinction of works and of spiritual science, as taught in the Upa- 
nishads, and pervading all the literature of the Hindus, is alluded to 
more than once in the inscription ; — the Brahmans have that honor as 
spiritual superiors which we find assigned to them in the Ramayana and 
Mahabharata — not that excessive superiority and extravagant homage 
which in subsequent ages they claimed from princes : the Brahman 
here contributes to the honour of the king, not, as in some later inscrip- 
tions, the king to the honour of the Brahmans. But I cannot forbear 
from quoting at length the passage of the Mahabharata to which allu- 
sion is made in line 28 — proving, that at the date of this inscription, the 
sacred epic of Vya'sa was regarded and quoted in nearly the same 
manner as in later ages. The passage is from the 118th canto of the 
BHisiiMA-pcirva, describing that hero's death, surrounded by the chiefs 
of both the rival branches of the house of Curu : and is as follows : 

tTpfi-gfirnT ^'^ *rgw* stwttstt h \\ it 
cnr^i =gfw *T5j?r ^rmsrar: watt i 

*rrq *r,fi *i«rr »wr tor: %"^r w\*m-. n \3 n 
^^mTOfereTf? fagiM nfsra?&?T: II \V II 

<sr f% ^r ??%^r^ ^nprnir -qwtfafa n \<t II 
^aTT^F rnfar^r T^nr^^i ?tdhrr?r I 



270 Remarks on the Inscription, No. 2, %c. [June, 

TTsfenifl! tf^T^ ^l^raTO -q^rf: || R.% l| 
^f^frT ¥ fa ft TTT^: TTT^ tf^W ^fe^J I 

w4m %i vrvm irsrw* f^4*r: n M u 

But Bhi'shma, O chief of the Bharatas, with firmness suppressing the sense of 
pain, while hurning witli the arrows that pierced him, and breathing hardly like 
a serpent — nor only with body inflamed, but with mind also maddened with the 
wounds of those sharp weapons, exclaimed only " Water 1" when he saw the 
princes approaching. Then, O king, did those Xattriyas collect immediately 
from every quarter food of various kinds, and goblets of cold water : upon seeing 
which the son of Santanu sadly exclaimed, " Not now can such ordinary human 
pleasures be tasted by me : for now cut off from mankind, I am stretched upon 
my arrowy* bed, and lie expecting the hour when the sun and moon shall be 
closed to me." But having spoken thus, O Bharata ! chiding by his words the 
assembled chiefs, the son of Santanu added, "I would see Arjuna." Upon which, 
he of the mighty arm approaching with salutation his grand-uncle, and standing 
with hands joined and body bent forward, said, " What shall I do ?" And the 
pious Bhishma, with pleasure beholding the great Pandava chief standing before 
him, answered, " My body burns, covered as I am with thy arrows, my vitals 
are racked, my mouth is dry : bring some water, Arjuna, to my tortured frame, 
for thou of the great bow art able to give me such streams as I require." The 
brave Arjuna thus addressed, having mounted his car, and fitted his bow-string, 
bent his strong bow called Gandiva, for the intended shot : and on hearing the twang 
of that bow-string, a sound as if bursting from the thunder-bolt of Indra — all crea- 
tures trembled, even all those chiefs themselves. Then he, the best of charioteers, 
having wheeled his car in a reverential circle round Bhishma on his right, the 
prostrate sou of BHARA.TA,bestof allhurlers of weapons — and having taken a flaming 
arrow, and breathed a magical sentence (mantra) over it, and fitted it to his bow — 
the whole world looking on — did with that dart of thunder pierce the whole earth 
close on the right side of Bhishma — and thence sprung up a pure beauteous stream 
of cold water, like the nectar of the immortals, of divine scent and flavour: and with 
this cold stream did he powerfully refresh Bhishma, prince of the Curus, of god- 
like works and prowess. With this work of the prince ARJUNA,as of a mighty trans- 
forming magician, the lords of the earth were seized with extreme astonishment, 
beholding it as a deed equally compassionate and transcending all human power. 

* The sara-sayyd, or arrowy bed, was assumed as a voluntary penance in imitation 
of Bhishma by a singular devotee, who was living at Benares in the year 1792, a 
curious account of whose travels and adventures, together with a portrait of him 
stretched on his pointed bed, was given by Mr. Jonathan Duncan in the 5th vo- 
lume of the Society's Transactions. [In that account, p. 5, Bhikma Pitamaha, is 
merely the Hindui mode (*§ for Tf) of writing " Bhishma the grandsire," or rather 
grand-uncle of the contending chiefs of the houses of Dhritarashtra and Pandu. 



volume.) 



.5 



JPCTOD 

mm 



59.) 



Devanjgari Tra/ucriptofthe Mlahabad Inscription, Afo. 2. (Plate VI. of the present volume.) 
VST* ijjirst^n 

gg ij'f l t't atT- TifWsTsrw Tftin-. *jis<i n^ , awt.(i')3iZTi , nre(>;fr»)T!:( i, nn) 
!T«a^snT;rafafsreraS^^??^ft^iF^a<ra3tflt3i^H^iKi^qq!F3^wsTT^€g'inif™iira^Hftorw 

^«.Wfc^ it,^m^5qra^fctqTt faM<q^ gfafH ^<iHq-w^ 

^qft.itfjmsrn'BJiw'iHi <tfSi^«Ki^^Ti^srs1^q^waft^(T^)^(f i ^™>u.i-?j*ii!,«' xzt* ^^txmxftmw ntwwuUKVw 

TiiCI<<m(i<!i*rn5«y<i!'i u uriHqifHirc'!!ai(s)«%i'ii«niir<(*l^ii *u$«i;H«k+iW8i ^nfmrrat^iai MaTOHUj ^j3 WMntr'<'iW'ti^<.iir()rw'ii<<« ^ii"ir' H i mn ii tiJii M ^«ia 
("JinflisuwsrTT 1 '!'!^ <Jiim*<l6TjyoTtM«j(Jii ft-n^iaTitz^iJi^tii H^^^^^raiqi'aftif^TOf^^TsiSrea *jfa«:3ras.5ira?«KvcBfc3i , »ii 
faft,<ir4.w«fft^.it^*3ir<BMtf^fc^*qfajj«iH.g^rr^^ 

fsr^f^rfs^.j Tt^i^ti ^jHiT.S'yiHrtnisi wsr«n3nfiro s ra'te»j *jihui B^ftRT1^^^iiSi^wHWgwqt5Rr5R!lfS>nrt%i^nri?t(3«w) 
-.**.mfasjiu. Jrfi^B^is^i?ra«fJtY^Bi wfa*fsraf«wirn;mTiq?i HW^«» s '™)^5fr<>i'!r« w^wtftcrerenrrer wJ 

• The words In siuallec type, and between braekcti, are interpolated to fill tbe vacant spaces, where the inscription is effaced. (See page 3ja,) 



1834.] Journal of a Tour, be. 271 

II. — Journal of a Tour through Georgia, Persia, and Mesopotamia. By 
Capt. Mignan, Bombay European Regiment, Fellow of the Linncean 
Society of London, and M. R. A. S. 

At the commencement of the year 1830, after travelling over a large 
portion of the Russian dominions, I reached the capital of Georgia ; 
with an intention of prosecuting my journey through those provinces of 
Persia, which have not been visited by Europeans for many years. 
With this view I took advantage of the departure of the Persian Prince 
Khosrou Mirza, with whom I had been for some time associated, and 
who was now with a numerous suite on his return to his native coun- 
try, from the court of St. Petersburgh, where he had been deputed by 
his own Government, to explain the causes which led to the massacre 
of M. Gribojedoff, the Russian ambassador, and his whole retinue. 
This melancholy occurrence took place at Tehran, the capital of the 
Persian kingdom, in February, 1829. 

Khosrou Mirza is the fifth son of His Royal Highness Abbas Mirza, 
the heir-apparent to the Persian throne, by a Khoi woman of inferior 
rank and family. He is about three and twenty years of age, of mid- 
dle stature, and like the majority of Persians, possesses great politesse, 
and much naivete in conversation. 

On the 31st of January, we left the sublime chain of" Frosty Cauca- 
sus" in the rear, covered with perpetual snows, and following the 
course of the river Koor (the Cyrus of the ancients), in a south-easterly 
direction, entered at once upon the plains of the ancient Iberia, which 
lays stretching before us, till lost in the blue haze of distance, and pre- 
senting to the eye a most uninteresting and even depressing effect. 
At this season it was peculiarly so, every passing cloud sprinkled flakes 
of snow on our track, and threatened a heavy fall. Our road passed 
through a succession of low hills of a gravelly soil, lightly mixed with 
earth, though sufficiently fertile when water for the purposes of irriga- 
tion can be procured. On the bank of the river, at a short distance 
from the village of Saganlook, our proposed quarters, we observed some 
time-worn memorials of the extinct dynasty of the last Georgian kings. 
Of these, the remains of an old fortress, on the nearest heights, and 
near it two as ancient towers, with the remains of a bridge, were not the 
least conspicuous objects. This village, which is about ten miles from 
Tiflis, was the place marked out for the termination of our firs f day's 
march, and the houses were so small and wretched, as to be scarcely 
discernible from the inequalities of the ground. Their description 
corresponds precisely with those mentioned by Xenophon in the Anaba- 
sis, or expedition of Cyrus into Persia. In book IV. chap. v. he says, 



272 Journal of a Tour through Georgia, [June, 

" Their dwellings were under ground, the mouth resembling that of a well, 
but spacious below; there was an entrance dug for the cattle, but the in- 
habitants descended by ladders. In these houses were goats, sheep, 
cows, and fowls, with their young." Throughout Georgia the inhabi- 
tants make an excavation in the ground, and then build up the sides 
with large stones. Upon this they lay rafters, and cover the whole 
with earth, so that in walking through a village, it is very difficult to 
tell whether you are upon a house-top or on the bare ground. An aper- 
ture is left at the top to light the room inhabited by the family, who 
are only divided from the cattle by a thin planked partition. 

To the traveller indeed, nothing very enlivening presents itself ; the 
roofless remains of hamlets that have been destroyed by the tyranny of 
rulers frequently occur, and old burying places which mark the spots 
where man once has been. Every thing, in short, indicates that the 
Government is a bitter enemy to the prosperity of the people. 

At Saganlook, the range of mountains made an acute angle, direct 
south ; and thence continued stretching along the acclivities which 
formed an alpine wall to our road. On quitting the village we bade 
adieu to the often travelled Erivan road, and some crumbling towers ; 
and descended a narrow ravine into a valley bounded by an inconsider- 
able but romantically situated lake. The hills on our right presented 
the habitations of the peasantry ; who appeared poor and wretched. 
On leaving the valley, an abrupt ascent brought us to an open tract, 
of country. The plain to the southward of our route was bounded by 
a flat horizon, from which every successive mountain rose, as we ad- 
vanced, like objects when first seen at sea ; while to the eastward of 
our direction, the turbid river Cyrus playfully meandered through a fine 
though uncultivated soil, until it was lost in the capricious stratification 
of the inhospitable looking mountains. 

This part of Georgia is now called Kartalinia, and was the ancient 
Iberia. Ptolemy describes it as bordered on the north by the Sarma- 
tian mountains ; to the south by a part of Armenia ; to the east by 
Albania, and to the west by Colchis. Many of its towns and villages 
are mentioned by him, and also by Strabo, who travelled through this 
country, and who speaks of its being a luxurious and flourishing state. 
A distressing contrast it now presents ! An independent kingdom, 
reduced to the abject situation of a province ; and not immediately to 
the sovereign power itself, which might dispense consequence with 
near union ; but through the double vassalage of a medium, being an 
appendage to another subject province — that of Georgia. Invasions from 
rival neighbours swept off the brave population of this little kingdom ; 
and the final blow was struck by those who possessed ambition, without 
the manliness to maintain it th oi ^selves. Like other powers who have 



1834.] Persia, and Mesopotamia. 273 

committed national suicide, they taught the Les-guys the passes of their 
country. The Iberian chiefs, in times of civil discords, subsidized 
these warlike barbarians to fight their battles, who in their turn tramp- 
led on these lords, and soon reduced a people who had such inefficient 
leaders. Hence, the country sunk under oppression, and the peasantry 
gave themselves up to despair, from which its present possessors are 
neither calculated, nor willing to rouse them. 

Towards dusk, we reached a post called Dimoorchikal, where we 
took an escort of Cossacks, having to go some distance to attain our 
proposed sojourn for the night. We had not advanced more than a 
mile or two, ere it became quite dark ; yet, I could distinguish that the 
deepening gloom was occasioned by the closing in of a valley, the hills 
of which drew so close to each other, as to exclude all trace of the 
road ; and W3 had nothing to guide us from stepping into the Koor, that 
was lashing the rooks at our side, but the warning noise of its course, 
and now and then a glimmering of light from the moon through some 
friendly chasm in the rocky canopy above us. 

At ten o'clock we arrived at Beerchaly, a wretched village, situated 
on the banks of the river Gram, which flows from the Koor, thus form- 
ing two sides of a triangle. The former is an insignificant stream, but 
the latter requires a particular notice in this place. This noble river 
(the Cyrus of the classic ages) has its source in the mountains which 
form the western boundary of the province of Akiska near Kars, and 
which are a ramification of Mount Caucasus. From the recesses of 
this branch issue several small rivulets, which uniting a little to the 
eastward of Akhalzikh, flows through a part of the Turkish territories, 
and gradually augments its stream by the reception of several minor 
rivers in its course. Although its windings are very capricious, its 
general direction is to the eastward, rolling onward through fertile and 
extensive plains in its course to the capital of Georgia. From this 
point it takes a south-easterly direction, and is considerably augmented 
by the Alazan from the north-east, and the Araxes from the south, 
when it becomes navigable for large boats. On nearing the Caspian, 
it divides itself into two branch^;, and flowing onward through the 
province of Mogaum, unites its waters with the sea. 

From the accounts of ancient authors, it would appear that the Cyrus 
was formerly navigable to a much higher point than it is at present, 
Pliny, in particular, describes the route by which goods were conveyed 
from India to the Euxine. " Having arrived at Bactria," he observes, 
•• the merchandize then descends the Icarus, as far as the Oxus ; and 
is thence carried down to the Caspian. They then cross that sea to 
the mouth of the Cyrus, where they ascend that river, and, on going 

N N 



274 Journal of a Tour through Georgia, [Junes, 

on shore, are transported by land for five days, to the hanks of the 
Phasis, where they once more embark, and are conveyed down to the 
Euxine." The Koor must have sunk wonderfully in its bed, since a 
traffic could be carried upon its stream to such a height, as to make the 
land carriage across to the river Phasis or River, only a journey of five 
days. Gibbon says, that the Koor is navigable as far upas Sarapona, a 
distance of a hundred miles from the sea, forty only of which would ad- 
mit large vessels. From the information I have been able to collect upon 
the spot, I shouM say that this river will admit vessels drawing about 
five feet water as far up as its junction with the Alazan, but not until 
its being augmented by the Araxes, would vessels of considerable bur- 
den find a sufficiency of water. At present the Phasis is not navigable 
beyond Kotais, the capital of Immsretia. Hence from the present shal- 
lowness of these two rivers, instead of goods being landed at a point on 
the Koor, whence they might arrive, after a journey of only five days, 
at a corresponding point on the Phasis, they would be obliged to un - 
ship them so low down the river as to require at least sixteen days' land 
transportation over a mountainous country, ere they could be re- 
embarked upon the Phasis. "We know also, that Seleucus Nicator 
projected a connection between the Euxine and Caspian seas by means 
of a canal, which being only to be effected by the union of the two 
rivers in question, it is obvious that the idea could not have been con- 
ceived at all, unless the Koor and Phasis then possessed a more exten- 
sive navigation than they do at present. 

On quitting Beerchaly, the valley opens with a considerable expanse, 
for several miles, crossing a rich soil, watered by branches of the Koor, 
whence we obtained snipes, ducks, and bitterns, in great plenty. Large 
flocks of pigeons flew continually over our heads, winging their way to 
some forlorn remains of forts upon the neighbouring heights, which 
are no longer worthy of being noted in the topography of Georgia. 
After three hours' march we came upon the banks of the Koor, along 
which we pursued our way for the rest of the day's journey. A gorge 
in the mountains on the opposite shore was pointed out to me as a 
noted avenue whence the Lesguys issue to ravage the country. A 
Cossack guard is stationed there, and is said to be sufficient for the 
defence of the pass, as the old invaders do not at present hazard de- 
scents of any power. They are not often seen but in marauding parties, 
small enough to escape pursuit, as easily as they elude vigilance in 
making these excursions. It is only in war-time, when the Russian 
soldiers are drawn to more distant service, that they descend in num- 
bers, and spread rapine and misery in every direction. 

We reached Tasantoo just as night drew around us. On our right 
lay a range of mountains running south-east, amongst whose defiles we 



1834.] • Persia, and Mesopotamia. 275 

were to pursue our journey on the morning On a height near a de- 
file, an old stone fortress, black with time, and the shadows of the 
night, stood in mournful solitude ; a well chosen position to have 
commanded the pass in earlier ages. At its base is a small Cossack 
station, and a detachment of infantry. Several massive fragments of 
fallen masonry added to the dark solemnity of the scene. 

At nine next morning, we ascended the mountains, which were 
sufficiently rugged, though not of the most formidable altitude. The 
road to the top was scarcely wide enough to admit a caleche to pass, 
and very rough all the way. We then descended the opposite side, by 
a track of much the same difficulty ; but it gradually opened to our 
view a valley, which lay at the foot of some rich-looking hills, tra- 
versed by a stream winding its fertilizing way to the north-east. In the 
middle of this valley some striking remains of a strong fortress still 
exist. After crossing the dry bed of a river, we reached Tayaz, where 
we found warm and ample quarters. A supper consisting of eggs, 
milk, butter, and honey, was set before us. This latter luxury I might 
have anticipated from the propitious aspect of the country for maintain- 
ing colonies of bees ; and I understood it to be an article of great profit to 
the inhabitants. Indeed, every thing spoke the fertility of the soil, and 
the hospitality of the people. They possess numerous herds of cattle, 
with plenty of wheat, barley, and millet. 

At seven o'clock in the morning, we again sat forward on our journey, 
and halted at Zegaum, about three leagues distant. The road was un- 
usually stony ; and the river Algat was seen at a short distance. We 
often met caravans of mules laden with merchandize. The bales were 
placed in a right line, and the mules, when unladen, were left to them- 
selves, and straying in every direction in quest of pasture. The mer- 
chandize was heaped up in small tents, guarded by one or two men. 
The right in the soil begins now to be marked out in a particular 
manner. Vast extents of land, enclosed with artificial fences, in which 
herds of oxen and cows fed, sufficiently indicate a right of property. 
The country, nevertheless, is for the most part uncultivated, and few 
traces of agriculture appear. We passed some Georgians nearly 
naked, and loaded like beasts of burden. Such labourers are very 
rare, because the Georgians are in general lazy. A traveller, while 
passing through these solitudes, and beholding the state of abandon- 
ment in which the virgin and fertile soil is left, cannot but feel indig- 
nation against its governors. The tracts where the silver mines were 
formerly worked lay due west from hence, the rocks which form them 
are of a yellowish hue. Indeed, the whole of this part of Georgia is 
rich in ores of different kinds, and particularly in copper. Leaving 

N N 2 



276 Journal of a Tour through Georgia, [June, 

these vestiges of exhausted wealth on our right, we crossed the Algat 
through a deep and rapid ford. On gaining the shore we rode on for 
Borsoom, distant ahout four leagues. The road we traversed was 
horribly bad, and we often sank deep into the mud. On passing the 
verge of a precipice, it was necessary to shut our eyes that we might 
not be terrified by beholding danger in its most frightful aspect. Here 
we were forced to trust entirely to the experience of our mules, which 
are wonderfully sagacious in selecting paths ; but notwithstanding their 
sagacity, they sometimes sank to the belly in holes of mud. 

Our road continued south-east over trackless snow*, through narrow 
glens, and occasionally over low hills, without a tree or shrub. At 
about a league distance from Ganja that town is discovered ; which, 
with its numerous and extensive gardens, presents a most agreeable 
coup d'ceil. It is situated in a wide-spreading plain, wherein many vil- 
lages are scattered. Agriculture has not made great progress here, 
and this plain, which in Europe would present a luxuriant cultivation, 
exhibits but few traces of culture ; but the natural fertility of the 
soil gives rise to an abundant vegetation, consisting of useless plants. 
Ganja, or Elizabeth Pol, as it is called by the Russians, is the first 
place of any note on approaching Persia from the north-west : it is built 
upon a broad mountain torrent, (over which is a ruinous brick bridge 
of six arches,) beneath the Aligez mountains, which divide the beautiful 
province of Karabagh* from that of Irivan. I have observed that the 
approach to the town wears an imposing appearance, surrounded with 
inclosures, and resembling an oasis in the desert. As we entered, 
however, this delusive aspect vanished, and we found ourselves passing 
through a large maze of utter ruins, abandoned suburbs, and crumbling 
walls — these conceal the houses from the eve of a traveller, until he 
passes through a paltry bazar that extends for some hundred yards, 
partially occupied by shops of the most needful trades, and very scan- 
tily supplied. Every thing breathes of poverty and oppression : in fact, 
with the exception of the house of the Russian commandant, the habi- 
tations are deplorable in the extreme, and all is totally at variance with 
English habits, customs, and comforts. A habitation was assigned us 
by the Russian General, who was acting as Mehmandar to the Persian 
Prince, and the best mat was spread on the floor, in the midst of which 
a fire burnt bright and cheerfully, while its Mussulman inmates pre- 
pared a good supper of fowls and eggs, followed by coffee, and the 
chibouque. We found the luxuries of Tiflis had not at all impaired 
our relish of this simple and friendly reception. Our servant, who 

* The appellative Karabagh signifies in the Turkish language " the blaclf 
garden ;" implying the richness ar.d fertility of the whole district. 



1834.] Persia, and Mesopotamia. 171 

was a Yorkshireman, though not a Utile of a rogue, Was a great gowr* 
mand. His constant prayer was to get plenty to eat and drink, and ba 
sent safe home to his wife. " Well Thomas, where have you been to. 
day ?" said I, as he entered the apartment. " Only to the bazar, Sir. 
to get something to eat." — " And what did yOu procure there ?" " A 
kabobed goose, half of which I ate, and the rest I have put into my 
pocket for to-morrow's march." 

Ganja contains five thousand inhabitants, who are all Mahommedari* 
of the Shiah sect. The language is a dialect of the Turkish, but the 
people read and write the Persian. The manufacture of silk is carried 
on to a great extent. This is for exportation, and a supply is regular- 
ly sent to the Russian market, though as yet little encouragement is 
held out. A small quantity found its way to Bombay, where it has 
been justly appreciated. The people of Ganja are very hostile to the 
Russians from a religious feeling, but the peasantry are favourably 
disposed, as they evade various taxes which were exacted by their 
Mahommedan rulers. 

Before proceeding further with a description of this interesting 
Country, it may not be improper to bring into view some observations 
(derived from unquestionable authority) with regard to that period when 
the Russian and Persian armies were opposed to each other, since thii 
very plain is celebrated for the last decisive victory gained by the for- 
mer troops over the latter during the campaign of 1826. 

In 1795, Aga MahommedKhan, uncle to the present Shah, assembled 
a powerful army at Teheran, and moving rapidly into Georgia, defeated 
Heraclius near Tiflis, and entered that city before General Goodwitch, 
who commanded the Russian troops in the Caucasus, could arrive to 
oppose him. Determined to intimidate the Georgians by making an 
example of their capital, he abandoned it to the rapine of his soldiers ; 
while the religious enthusiasm he excited in his army, and the natural 
ferocity of his troops, prepared them to take every advantage of the 
licence he had given. 

The Empress Catherine II., irritated by the vengeance which hadfal- 
len on Georgia, in consequence of its having transferred its allegiance to 
Russia, immediately declared war against Persia; and in the following 
year, Count Zuboff, at the head of a powerful force, marched upon 
Durbund, and took that fortress by assault. He subsequently captured 
Ganja, Lankeran, and the island of Saree on the Caspian Sea. At 
this period, Paul ascended the throne of Russia, and recalled his 
army. 

Aga Mahommed Khan was at this time in Khorasan, and on 
tearing of the Count's successes, hastily returned to oppose him ; but - 



278 Journal of a Tour through Georgia, [June, 

ere he could reach the scene of action, Zuboff had already abandoned 
his conquests. 

Ibrahim Khuleel Khan, the chief of Karabagh, had hitherto suc- 
ceeded in holding the fort of Shesha against Aga Mahommed Khan ; 
but its inhabitants, wearied by the yearly plunder of their country, rose 
against their chief, compelled him to retire to Daghestan, and surren- 
dered Shesha into the hands of the Shah, who was advancing with a 
sweeping army to invade Georgia. On his arrival at Shesha, he was 
murdered by one of his servants, whom he had threatened to put 
to death ; and his successor, the present Shah, was too much occu- 
pied in establishing his authority to pursue the bold policy of his 
predecessor. 

In 1798, Heraclius died, and left his crown to his son, whose short 
reign was disturbed by a rebellious brother, who, backed by the Les- 
guys, endeavoured to seize the kingdom. He was however completely 
defeated, and escaped into Persia. In 1 800, the Emperor Paul, incor- 
porated Georgia with the Russian empire, and in 1801, the son of 
Heraclius was no more, and Paul assassinated. On the accession of 
Alexander, this act was confirmed, and shortly after, General Seeseea- 
noff was appointed Governor General and Commander-in-chief of Geor- 
gia. He captured Ganja,and advancing to Irivan, encountered the Persian 
forces : an action ensued, in which the Persians were entirely routed. 
Seeseeanoff then invested Irivan, which the governor refused to sur- 
render ; but the Russians were in want of supplies, and consequently 
made a hasty retreat when the enemy hovered over their flanks, and 
committed great havoc by their nocturnal attacks. This was the 
first time in which these armies had met in a general action. It may 
be said to have commenced the war for the possession of Georgia. 
About a year after this, Karabagh submitted to Russia, and in 1806, 
Seeseeanoff was assassinated at Bakou. 

, The war continued till 1814, when by the mediation of Sir Gorb 
Ouselet, the ambassador extraordinary from the king of Great Britain, 
a treaty of peace was concluded. Persia ceded to Russia all her ac- 
quisitions south of Mount Caucasus, and agreed to entertain no navy 
on the Caspian ; while Russia engaged to aid the heir to the Persian 
throne against all competitors. Upon Constantine's abdication in favor 
of Nicholas, it was whispered at the Court of Teheran that violent dis- 
turbances had arisen at St. Petersburgh ; that in fact a civil war had 
broken out, and that the mountaineers of Caucasus had risen to assert 
their independence. It was known also that the interference of the 
Russians with the religious prejudices of the Mahommedan subjects had 
produced feelings of the most serious discontent. Proposals had been 



1834.] Persia, and Mesopotamia. 270 

made to the Governor of Azerbijan by chiefs of districts to co-operate 
with him in a war against Russia. Letters were written to these leaders, 
by the head of their religion, who came from Meshed Hussein, and urged 
the king to arm against the insulters of his religion. The Mool- 
lahs flocked around their leader, the inhabitants of the capital listened 
to their inflammatory orations. The Shah was called upon to declare 
war, the troops were enthusiastic in the cause, and the contest com- 
menced. The following account of the reception given to the chief 
priest of the holy shrine of Meshed Hussein, being from an eye-wit- 
ness, may not prove devoid of interest. " When Aga Syyud Mahom- 
med arrived, a vast number of people, and most of the infantry, without 
regimentals or arms, went out to meet him. The Shah sent his own 
litter for the Syyud : and some princes, and many of the chief people 
of the court did honour to his entry. Much enthusiasm was manifested 
by the populace. To the Syyud's person they could not get access, but 
they kissed the litter, kissed the ladder by which he ascended to it, and 
collected the dust which had the impressions of the mule's feet that bore 
him. The people beat their breasts, and the litter was brought close to the 
Shah's door, that the Syyud might alight without being overwhelmed 
by the populace. Six or seven of the chief priests entered the court 
with him, and one of them insisted on going in on his mule. An offi- 
cer of my acquaintance who happened to be there on the spot prevent- 
ed him. He said that the ordinary attendants on His Majesty seemed 
quite to have lost sight of their duty to the sovereign, and were occu- 
pied in paying their devotions to the Syyud. The Shah came to the 
door of the court to receive him, and the enthusiasm of the populace 
seemed to be communicated to the royal hearts, as the Shah and the 
prince royal wept bitterly in speaking of the misfortunes of the Faithful 
under the Russian Government. Aga Syyud Mahommed, with a suite 
of one thousand Moollahs, had a separate encampment. Two princes 
had by order of the king pitched near him, professedly to prevent the 
intrusion of the populace, but secretly to hinder too general a mani- 
festation of public esteem and consideration. Another detachment of 
holy men have just reached this, covered with winding sheets, and we 
hear that .the heads of the religion of most of the principal cities are flock- 
ing to this point. The Shah has twice visited the Syyud, and on one 
occasion, His Majesty said, " I am anxious to shed the spoonful of blood 
that remains in my weak body in this holy cause, and it is my wish to 
have in my winding sheet a written evidence from you, that the inquir- 
ing angels may at once recognise my zeal, forgive my sins, and admit 
without delay my entrance into heaven." This description is not 
very dissimilar to the language and conduct of European monarcht 



$80 Journal of a Tour through Georgia, $c. [Junk, 

during the age of the Crusades ; and it is not surprising that the graver 
considerations of policy should have been neglected under the excite- 
ment of religious enthusiasm. The Syyud, I have little doubt, found 
reasons for combining motives of probable worldly advantage with the 
promise of heavenly favour. 

The result of the campaign is already known to every one. Persia 
lost more of her territories, and was obliged to make peace on any 
terms ; while Russia interferes with Persian affairs ad libitum — and 
England, who might have prevented the aggressive and unjust scheme 
of the autocrat, looks placidly on the scene, and is satisfied with her 
own innocence and fidelity ! A few more years, and she will bitterly 
reproach her blind and irreparable policy. Having considered it expe- 
dient to bring these interesting circumstances into view, I shall now re- 
sume my narrative. Before however proceeding to this, I may be perr 
mitted to advert for a momentto the" arrowthat flieth by day ;" namely, 
the plague, which always creates so much alarm to the traveller. 

It would appear that this disease is endemial to the Russians, for it 
is a singular fact, that previous to their occupation of Georgia, the 
whole country was exempted from this pestilence. It made its appear- 
ance at Ganja in 1 805 ; at Tiflis in 1 806, and at Erivan, in 1 825, and from 
that time down to the period I was in Georgia, the country had ( with 
the exception of the mountainous districts, which are rarely visited 
•with it) been regularly afflicted. This scourge is generally checked 
by the summer heats and winter frosts. But I may further observe, 
that among the anomalies of this extraordinary disease, there is one 
fact, viz. that it raged unchecked in the severe winter of 1829, 
throughout the Caucasian villages. Its consequences were of course 
fatal in a country where no medical practitioners, and consequently no 
means to lessen the mortality of the disorder, are to be found. When 
I was last at Annanour, in the recesses of Mount Caucasus, a peasant 
came to the commandant, and said, " My father, mother, wife, and 
sister, are lying dead in the next village ; I am afraid to bury them." 
The Russian instantly despatched a party of soldiers to set fire to all 
the hamlets they could meet with, and turning to me, said — " 'Tis my 
Vocation!" To administer relief, as far as human means could accom- 
plish, to the suffering villager, would with us have been the primary 
feeling : but this barbarian could only ridicule the concern I expressed 
for this unfortunate creature. I afterwards mentioned this to Count 
Paskewitch at Tiflis, who laughed heartily, and exclaimed, " You 
English are always inclined to regard with seriousness the veriest 
trifles:* 

[To be continued.] 



1834.] On the Adaptation of the Roman Alphabet. 281 

III. — On the Adaptation of the Roman Alphabet to the Orthography of 

Oriental Languages. 

All who have devoted themselves to the acquirement of any of the 
languages of India must have experienced in the irreconcileable difference 
of the alphabets of the East and West a stumbling block in the porch 
of their studies, and a source of constant doubt and difficulty, whenever 
the occasion has arisen for expressing in the letters of their mother 
tongue sounds and vocables belonging to any of those languages. It is 
the scholar's object to write the words so that they shall be read with 
a correct pronunciation by the uninitiated, and at the same time show 
the true spelling of the original. He seeks therefore the letters of 
known pronunciation that come nearest, not only to the sounds he de- 
sires to represent, but likewise to the letters used in the language from 
which the word is taken. Unfortunately it is not always easy to find 
letters that will answer this double purpose, and the difficulty is much 
increased by the circumstance, that all the vowels and several of the 
consonants in use have more than one sound in the same language of 
Europe, and some of them half a dozen sounds at least, if the vai-ieties 
of all the countries which use the Roman alphabet are taken into ac- 
count. What then was to be done when India fell into European hands, 
and the necessity arose for continually writing Indian words in books 
and public correspondence ? Every one at first of course had to 
decide for himself, and unfortunately they who commenced the work 
of writing Asiatic names in the alphabets of Europe were not scholars. 
At present we shall confine ourselves to the proceedings of our own 
countrymen in this respect, putting out of view all reference to the 
modes of writing adopted in France and Germany, and elsewhere, and 
those in particular which have been adopted recently, in consequence of 
the efforts making by the literati of Europe, to bring into vogue the 
Sanscrit language and its literature, at the very time that the half in- 
formed of our countrymen are seeking to discredit both here. 

It would appear that they who first had occasion to write in Eng- 
lish the names or words of the East, bethought themselves of the sounds 
in that language which came nearest to those they desired to represent, 
and spelled the words accordingly : thus sipahee was very generally 
spelt seapoy, doubtless from the similarity of its sound to the well 
known word teapoy, and in the jargon of the day, Surajood-doula was 
corrupted into Sir Roger Bowler, and Allahabad became known as the 
Isle of Bats. Many absurdities of this description might be pointed 
out were it our object to seek them : even Governor Holwell, though 
himself a Bengalee scholar, has in his printed tracts, Morattors — Shaw 
o o 



282 On the Adaptation of the Roman Alphabet [June, 

Zadda — Genana — Patsha — Shaw Allum — Phirmaund — Metre (for Mitur) 
&c. &c. He has also Sou Raja Dowla which is nearly as ridiculous as 
the English knighthood of that Nuwab. 

• This method of writing from the ear did very well so long as it was 
the half-informed addressing the absolutely ignorant. The transmu- 
tations were precisely of the same description as those of which we 
find examples, not only in the Greek and Roman methods of writing 
Teutonic and Asiatic names, but in the Leghorn and Cales of the old 
English writers of the past century, the Naples and Venice of the pre- 
sent day, and the Ecosse and Galles and Espagne, into which the less 
pronounceable native names of those countries have been softened 
in France. 

But as ,the knowledge of the languages of the East extended, and 
they who had to write became themselves well acquainted with the 
true pronunciation and orthography of the words and names they were 
using, and felt likewise that they were addressing others as well inform- 
ed upon the subject as themselves, they began to seek the means of 
spelling true — that is, of using in English corresponding letters for 
those used in the language from which the word or name might be ta- 
ken. The Persian and Arabic are languages that have long been known 
in Europe, and the force and power of each of the letters of those al- 
phabets have accordingly been attempted to be expressed in various 
ways, according to the native conntry of the interpreter ; but the first 
we believe who accurately gave to the public the Nagree, Devanagree, 
and Bengalee alphabets was Mr. Halhed in the Preface to his version 
of the Code of Hindoo Law, compiled under the orders of Warren Has- 
tings in 1775. His consonants correspond very nearly with those of 
Sir William Jones's alphabet, except that he makes no distinction be- 
tween the hard and soft d, t, dh, and th. The short vowel ^ he 
writes with a short *r, the letter "^ with a double ee, bearing similarly 
the short mark : <r, is expressed by de ; V, he writes i and ^SfT, ou. Every 
vowel according to this system had its long or short mark above it, 
which was very inconvenient either for printing or writing. 

When the Asiatic Society was established, Sir Willian Jones saw 
the necessity of introducing a consistent mode of writing all Indian 
words. Not satisfied with this system of Mr. Halhed, he devised the 
alphabet that bears his name, and is still used by that learned body in 
its proceedings ; but neither the influence nor the reputation of this 
great linguist was sufficient to procure for his alphabet the general 
adoption so desirable, and indeed so essential, to the purposes he had 
in view. It continued as a sort of Devanagree for the learned par 
excellence ; a style of writing to be reverenced and respected, but not 



1834.] to the Orthography of Oriental Languages. 283 

imitated. In spite of every endeavour to recommend the Society's 
alphabet for universal use, the business of the country continued to be 
conducted either in the jargon spelling first adopted from similarity 
of sound, or with the ad libitum improvements of those, who, knowing 
the correct spelling of the original, adopted the letters they thought 
best calculated to express the true sound of the words properly pro- 
nounced. It is now near fifty years since the attempt was first made 
to introduce this obvious benefit of a consistent and correct alphabet, 
and yet Sir William Jones's mode of writing has gained no ground 
in India, whatever may have been its fate elsewhere. What can have 
been the reason for this ? Does not the fact itself afford irrefragable 
evidence that there must be some inherent defect in the system that 
induced its rejection, and led to others being preferred. There it was, 
recommended by the Asiatic Society, composed of the principal civil 
servants, and of all in the military, clerical, and medical professions, 
who were entitled by knowledge of the subject, or by situation, to 
take the lead in such a matter. There was this Society, periodically 
putting forth its volumes, and all its principal members publishing their 
works according to the orthography of the illustrious founder ; yet 
no one out of the pale, and not all of those within it, could be brought 
to spell names, in their correspondence, as the Society spelt them. For 
fifty years this tree of Sir William Jones's planting has been stationary 
or has grown like the aloe repulsive and disagreeable, living still, but 
putting forth no branches and yielding no fruit. Who after this can 
say that there must not be something in this system repugnant to the 
ideas and preconceived notions of those whose language is English ? 
The powers and pronunciations given to the different letters are ma- 
nifestly not such as have been recognized and adopted as just and ap- 
propriate by those who read and write that language. Another sys- 
tem has gained ground in its stead, and to its prejudice, and this in spite 
of the great names of Jones and Colebrooke and Wilson, whose ad- 
herence to the antiquated style has prevented its sinking into absolute 
disuse and oblivion. Let us inquire then what is this other system, 
and what the claims it possesses to the preference of the unlearned. 

Towards the close of Lord Cornwalhs's government, Dr. John 
Borthwick Gilchrist produced his Dictionary and Grammar of the 
Hindoostanee language, and as matter of necessity, prefaced both by ex- 
plaining the force of all the letters in use in that language, and the cor- 
responding vowels and consonants of the Roman alphabet, by which 
he proposed to express them. The difference between his system and 
thatof Sir William Jones lies entirely in the vowels : the short unexpress- 
o o 2 



284 On the Adaptation of the Roman Alphabet [June, 

ed letter <s$r which Mr. Halhed wrote 8 was written a by Sir William 
Jones and u by Dr. Gilchrist; the ee andee of Halhed, i,\ of Sir W. 
Jones, were rendered i and ee by Gilchrist ; the oo, o'a, of Halhed, u, u of 
Jones, were expressed by oo ; and the 1, ai, of the two former systems by 
y, corrected but not improved to ne ; and lastly, the o%c of Halhed and 
au of Jones by ou corrected to uo. 

The more taking and popular part of this system lies evidently in 
the use of the short u instead of a, for the silent unexpressed inherent 
letter of the languages of India : people could not be brought to write 
bat for the sound of but, tab for tub, and patee for putee. Having the choice 
therefore, they discarded the letter which never in any of the words of 
any of the languages within their knowledge had the sound it was pro- 
posed to give to it. The adoption of oo, instead of Sir W. Jones' u, fol- 
lowed as a necessary consequence of the appropriation of u to the short 
sound; and au for the sound of ow in how was so unnatural, that it was 
gladly discarded for ou. 

It does not appear that the Government took any part, until very 
recently, in promoting the use of one or other of these systems : they 
had each therefore a fair field and no favor for thirty years at least. 
During the whole of that period the knowledge of the languages 
was extending, and the old jargon was disappearing from all the public 
departments, finding only a sanctuary and stronghold that bade defi- 
ance to all reform within the precincts of the supreme Court. The 
issue was in a decided leaning from the first to the system of Gilchrist. 
This has now been that of all official correspondence for fifteen or twenty 
years at least, whereas it will not be found that the orthography of Sir 
William Jones has taken root in any single department, pertinaciously 
as certain learned individuals of high authority have adhered to it. 

In 1822, the design was conceived of forming an accurate record 
in the English language and character of all the land tenures of the 
country. It was felt to be necessary to determine upon some al- 
phabet or system, for the conversion of names correctly, prior to the 
formation of these registers, and then first did the Government 
officers indicate any system under authority for preference. The 
merits of each method were fully weighed and considered, prior 
to the determination, and the scheme of Gilchrist was adopted, 
simplified by the rejection of some of his quaint methods of expressing 
the nicer distinctions of sound. This alphabet was circulated, and great 
progress was made all over the country in producing registers, in which 
the names of persons, and places, and properties were so written that 
no one could hereafter find difficulty in writing them back, into any 
given character, upon bare inspection. 



1834.] to the Orthography of Oriental Languages. 285 

Contemporaneously with this measure, and as part of the same scheme, 
revenue surveys were put in hand, and maps on a large scale were con- 
structed, in which the names of every place or object were accurately 
entered according to the same system. Up to this time, no attempt had 
ever been made to make this grand improvement in the geography of 
India. The maps of Bengal were copied to the letter from the sur- 
veys of Rennell made in the era of jargon, and though better spelt than 
most of the documents of that period, yet still partaking largely of the 
miscellaneous mode of writing, so liable to mislead. All the surveyors 
subsequently employed had been left to pick up the names of places 
by the ear, and it had never been made an instruction to them to as- 
certain how they were written in any dialect or language of India, and 
to transfer them according to system into their maps. The surveyors 
too unfortunately were very seldom scholars. In order to show the 
consequences of this neglect, and to expose at once the absurdity of 
trusting to the ear in a matter of this kind, an extract is annexed* from 
a map of the Dooab, compiled not ten years ago, and now in our pos- 
session : it bears the official signature of the surveyor-general of the 
day, and professes to be from the best materials then in the archives 
of that department. In this extract it will be seen that the well known 
road from Cawnpoor (Kanhpoor) to Ukburpooris laid down double, be- 
ing taken apparently from two routes made with compasses, or the- 
odolites, varying in a small degree, so as to give a different direction, 
and the copyists of the surveyor general's department have not disco- 
vered that the routes are the same, because all the names are spelled dif- 
ferently. There are regularly 

Kuttra, Gittera, 

Chichehree, Chiclundy. 

Bhysour, Bhysawn, Bheisawn, (Bhenour ?) 

Fattipr. Futtehpr. 

Reneea, Runneah, 

Oomrun, Oomeron. 

With sundry other names, till one road comes to Akberpoor and the 
other to Akbarpoor, the relative distances of all these places being the 
same. Like absurdities might be shown in many maps similarly con- 
structed from materials, in which the names have been set down by the 
ear without the observance of any system of spelling. It is no fault 
of the map compiler if he has not recognized Chicheree to be the same 
place as Chichindy, and Kuttra as Gittera, when they stand in two maps 
in positions not exactly corresponding. The fault was in the employment 
of an officer to survey, without instructing him specifically how he was 
to write the names of his map. The revenue surveys, so far as they went, 

* See Plate xix. fig. 1. 



286 On the Adaptation of the Roman Alphabet [June, 

effectually corrected this error ; and what is more, the maps, constructed 
by the officers employed in this department, are capable of being con- 
verted with confidence into any character, without each name being as 
at present, an object of separate inquiry and research, whenever it is 
desired to publish a map in the Persian, the Hindee, or in any other 
character of the country. 

But to return to our subject : the Record Committees, wheresoever 
they were established, succeeded entirely in reforming the orthography 
of names in the zila dufturs. That they did not do more, but after 
involving considerable expence, failed to provide the desired land 
registers, was owing to many causes, which need not be discussed 
here. The effect of these institutions in confirming the use of the 
Gilchristian system is all we have now to do with : that effect will we 
presume not be denied. The leaning had been to this system for 
thirty years before, but at last the act of Government, and the specific 
exertions of all public officers throughout the country, continued for 
nearly eight years consecutively while the Committees lasted, fixed and 
established this system of Gilchrist, as the orthography of office and of 
business. Even though there were not in it any innate inherent supe- 
riority or grounds for preference, even were it the inferior system of the 
two, still this fact ought, one would think, to secure it from any hasty 
attempt at change. Except there be some obvious apparent defects 
pointed out, the undoubted ascertainment of which has been the result 
of actual experience, would it not be madness to think of discarding 
what had been so established ? What then is to be thought of this new 
attempt of Mr. Trevelyan, to set up again the rejected alphabet of Sir 
Wlliam Jones, and by the gratuitous circulation of thousands of copies 
to diffuse and disseminate, as if from authority, a system fully and form- 
ally tried and found wanting ? 

The Journal of the Asiatic Society, being a work of science, conducted 
under the special countenance and support of that Society, will always 
be respected for the matter it contains ; and it signifies little in what 
garb it may choose to present its Asiatic names. Allowance will 
be made for the consistency of the Society's adherence to the system of 
its venerable founder, and all that read its proceedings know well what 
they have to expect, and are prepared to encounter familiar letters 
applied to strange uses after the manner practised by this Society for 
half a century. But now that the Gilchristian method of writing has 
been so long established for record, for surveys, and for making fami- 
liar to the uninitiated public, the sounds and names of Hindoostan, 
every official man and every man of sense must protest against the 
present attempt to introduce once more the discarded system, one 



1834.] to the Orthography of Oriental Languages. 287 

too that from its use of the a for the short u would change the spelling 
of every word and name from one end of India to the other. 

Let the Sir William Jones' system, his a and his i, i, and his long and 
short u be reserved, like the Devanagree, for recondite science : there his 
alphabet has its footing, and no one desires to eject it from its strong- 
hold : but for business let us have our current Nagree, the short u and 
the ee, and the oo, which have grown into use from their ready adapt- 
ation to the ear, and from the preference secured for them by all the 
associations of sound to letters, which we have been accustomed to 
from our infancy. 

In the pages of the Journal there has appeared a notice laudatory of 
Mr. Trevelyan's attempt to effect by a coup de main a change in all 
the established methods of writing mofussil names. As this Journal 
has won for itself so wide a circulation in the interior, it is necessary 
that its pages should not be made to serve the party views of the advocates 
of any one exclusive system, but that the merits of each in its particular 
line should be fairly stated. The Sanscrit scholar will perhaps find his 
advantage in following the alphabet of Sir William Jones, which is 
that of the grammars and dictionaries, and of most of the translations 
from that language ; but he that is content with the Persic, Oordoo, or 
the familiar literature of Hindoostan, the man of business and of the 
world, will find all the books, the dictionaries, and grammars, and 
vocabularies, to which he is in the habit of referring, and all the records 
and public documents that fall under his observation, written uniformly 
in the character of Gilchrist. There is little fear that even the weight 
of the Journal's recommendation will be successful in superseding what 
is so established. If the world were not wide enough to hold both 
systems — if the order had gone forth from (Lesar, that one only should 

stand, and the issue were, a helium ad internecionem between the two 

then might the Journal fitly advocate the cause of its scientific mode of 
writing to save it from destruction and the sponge : but so long as 
there is no attempt to encroach on the ground it occupies, or to inter- 
fere with its peculiar province in literature ; while it is suffered to 
luxuriate in the paradise of Sanscrit, without any attempt to foist in its 
rival, even as an humble companion of its pleasures in that Eden of joy; 
why should the votaries of this learned system strive to gain for it an 
universal dominion, for which it has been found unfitted, and assume 
the offensive against the system in use for business ? Let each retain 
its own, and both abide together in peace and good will and harmony, 
holding forth in the facilities they jointly offer an invitation to all 
people to adopt either one or the other, accordingly as they find either 
most convenient for their purpose, and under the assurance that the 



288 On Catadioptric Miscroscopes . [June, 

object, which is to obtain such a method of writing as shall afford a 
ready means of transferring the word back into its native character, will 
equally be accomplished, whichever may be the character adopted. 
Both systems represent perfectly to the scholar the letters used in the 
original languages, but it is contended that the Gilchrist alphabet, aa 
now generally introduced and used in the public offices of this presi- 
dency, conveys to the uninitiated a more correct and true notion of the 
proper pronunciation, than the antiquated and rejected system of Sir 
William Jones, and therefore is the best adapted to business. Through 
the pages of the Journal let the European public of India be undeceiv- 
ed on this point. The attempt to dislodge the system of Gilchrist is 
entirely a matter of individual speculation, and is certainly not the result 
of any inconvenience felt, or dissatisfaction expressed with it, by the 
Government, or by any class of public officers or persons whatso- 
ever. ■*■ F« *■* 

[We had no intention of conveying an impression, in our brief notice of the Alpha- 
betical Scheme to which the above alludes, that it was circulated by authority ; nor, 
though we hailed with pleasure the promise of increased uniformity in the spelling 
of Oriental words, did we express any very sanguine hopes of success ; — for our 
own opinion on the subject, and the rules which we shall continue to follow in the 
pages of this work, we beg leave to refer to the Preface of the second volume of the 
Journal. — Ed.] 



IV. — On Catadioptric Microscopes. By J. W. Laidly, Esq. 

The construction of reflecting microscopes having of recent years 
greatly occupied the attention of philosophers and artists, and arrived 
at a high degree of perfection in their hands ; one can scarcely, without 
incurring the censure of presumption, advance any suggestion for its 
further improvement. Even in the detail of mere mechanical arrange- 
ment, ingenuity appears exhausted in contrivances to gratify the taste 
or anticipate the wents of the most fastidious observer; while the opti- 
cal principle has been so matured, as to lead competent judges to de- 
clare, that the instrument in its present state would pass down unchang- 
ed to posterity. Narrowed however, as the field undoubtedly is, there 
appears still some room for the exertions of subsequent inventors, and 
I incline to think that the modification about to be described will be 
found for many purposes to improve, as it most certainly simplifies, the 
construction of these beautiful and delicate instruments. 

To enable the general reader the more easily to comprehend the 
alteration I propose, it is requisite in the first instance to place before 
him the principle of former constructions, which it is the object of my 



Jour. As. Sac. 



vol. m. pi. xix 




Fig- 2 




Fig- 3 




1 1 it /■>•<■■ \hlmii Scuip. 



1834.] On Cutudioptric Miscroscopes. 289 

present attempt to supersede. For this purpose, I select the microscope 
invented by Professor Amici of Modena, as justly deemed the most 
refined and perfect now in use. The optical principle of this instru- 
ment is represented in fig. 2, PI. XIX, andis thus described in Dr. Brew- 
ster's elegant treatise upon optics : " He (professor Amici) made use of a 
concave ellipsoidal reflector, whose focal distance was 2 T 4 5 inches. The 
image is formed in the other focus of the ellipse, and this image is 
magnified by a single or double eye-piece, eight inches from the reflector. 
As it is impracticable to illuminate the object, m n, when situate as in the 
figure, professor Amici placed it without the tube or below the line RN, 
and introduced it into the speculum A B by reflection from a small 
plane speculum placed between m n and A B, and having its diameter 
about half that of A B." I have marked the requisite position of the 
object m n to facilitate the reader's conception. 

The reader will note that there are two reflections in the objective 
part of this instrument ; one of which is useful only as introducing the 
rays proceeding from the object, and contributes in no respect to the 
magnifying virtue of the microscope. He cannot fail to observe also, 
that the great size of the plane forms a very serious impediment to the 
rays of light proceeding from the conca\e metal to the eye-glass. By 
an improvement of Dr. Goring's, the size of the plane has indeed been 
reduced to ^rd the diameter of the great mirror. But even in this 
improved state it continues so material an obstacle, besides having other 
and greater disadvantages to be touched upon in the sequel, that one 
cannot avoid wishing it removed if possible, by introducing and illumi- 
nating the object itself in the axis of the tube at the focus of the con- 
cave speculum. This improvement I have endeavoured to effect by a 
very simple optical contrivance, which will be easily understood by re- 
ference to figure 3, representing the form of the instrument adapted for 
diaphanous objects. A B is the concave ellipsoid or mirror, and C is 
a transparent object situated directly in its focus : D and E are the 
illuminating apparatus ; D being a bull's-eye lens, and E a very 
small plane diagonal mirror, so situated as to reflect parallel with the 
axis of the tube rays of light coming from the lens. By this arrange- 
ment, an image of the luminous aperture F, is formed in the focus of 
the lens and just behind the transparent body C. It is now apparent 
that but one reflection is sufficient to form an image of a microscopic 
body in the conjugate focus of the speculum; and that the diagonal 
plane being of almost evanescent dimensions, presents no obstacle 
worth mentioning to the rays in their passage to the eye-glass. 

The mere loss of light however, attendant upon the Amician construc- 
tion, is a disadvantage of very secondary importance ; for it is obvious 



290 On Catadioptric Mlscroscopes. [June, 

that almost any amount of loss may be compensated by an artificial con- 
densation of light upon the object under examination. But the disad- 
vantages of a double reflection are of a higher and more important or- 
der. It is one of the most inflexible laws of practical optics, that all 
superfluous refractions or reflections are to be avoided, and for this sim- 
ple reason, that to form a perfect surface, either plane or spherical, or 
of any other figure, is beyond the power of human art, however exqui- 
site, and hence the greater the number of reflections or refractions, the 
more darkened and muddy will the vision become. When we consider 
therefore, how extremely minute are many objects of microscopic inves- 
tigation (such for instance as the marks, probably not the 10,000th of 
an inch in diameter, upon the dust of lepidlopterous insects), we maycon- 
ceive how much vision may be impaired by a very slight error in the 
figure of the plane, augmented in the long passage of the rays from the 
mirror to the eye-lens. It is well known that Newton's objections to 
the Cassigramian and Gregorian telescopes arose from considerations of 
this kind. " The errors (says he) of the said convex will be much aug- 
mented by the too great distance through which the rays reflected from 
it must pass before their arrival at the eye-glass. For which reason I 
find it convenient to make the tube no wider than is necessary, that 
the eye-glass be placed as wear to the oval planes as possible, &c." If 
we conceive his own form of the instrument subjected to reversed vision, 
it will bear no remote resemblance to the Amician microscope; and 
tried in this way, I am pretty confident we should find a material differ- 
ence in the performance of the most exquisite reflector. I took a one- 
foot Newtonian, having a very indifferent plane, but which showed 
objects in the day time sufficiently well ; and making the rays from the 
object enter by the small metal, I looked with a leas directly in front, 
throwing the image a little out of the axis so as to escape the plane. 
Allowing for the necessary deficiency of light, the image was so con- 
fused and distorted, that it was almost impossible to distinguish any 
object whatever. 

As there is some analogy between the telescopic " front view" of 
Herschell (magnis componere parva !) and the microscope I propose, 
it may not be amiss to remind the reader of the advantage that great 
optician found in laying aside the oval plane. Besides the " capital 
advantage of nearly double the light of former constructions," the de- 
fining power seems also to be increased. " The 20ft. reflector having 
been changed from the Newtonian form to my present one, I had a 
very striking instance of the great advantage of the increased pene- 
trating power in the discovery of the Georgian satellites. The improve- 
ment, by laying aside the small mirror, was as 61 to 75, and whereas 



1834.] On Catadioptric Microscopes. 291 

the former was not sufficient to reach these faint objects, the latter 
showed them perfectly well." 

But to return to our humble sphere ; the advantages of the new con- 
struction may be very briefly summed up. First, increased brillian- 
cy and penetrating 1 power, arising from the removal of the plane. 
Secondly, the probability of obtaining finer instruments; for the artist 
having the difficulties of but a single reflecting surface to contend with, 
manifestly enjoys at least a double chance of producing a perfect woi-k. 

Of the method of observing with this instrument, I think it hardly 
necessary to speak. The object must be inserted into the tube, affixed 
either upon a very small plate of talc, or upon the point of a fine needle ; 
and adjusted to the focus with a delicate screw. This is a very simple 
affair in the hands of a skilful mechanic. For observing large objects 
with low powers, a speculum of long focus, say 1^ or 2 inches, is 
obviously the best ; but for more minute investigations a deeper one is 
desirable. With the requisite arrangements, such an instrument would, 
I conceive, be hardly if at all more difficult to use than a refractor. 

I have wrought several metals upon this plan, and though I enjoy no 
opportunity of having them fitted up otherwise than in the rudest and 
most imperfect manner, I find their performance upon some minute and 
rather difficult objects very satisfactory. With a metal of about six inches 
focus and three aperture, without any attempt at adjustment, or any con- 
venience for arranging the focus, several test objects have been easily 
developed, such as the asperities on the surface of the human hair, the 
striae upon the dust of lepidlopterous tribes, &c. Fig. 5. represents the 
hair of the mouse, like apiece of well twisted whipcord, with longitudinal 
marks between the spirals, considered by microscopists as a good test. 
(Dr. Goring in the Quart. Journal, June 1827,) A represents the hair 
near the root, B near the extremity. 

When I first applied myself to these constructions, I was apprehensive 
that the introduction of light would produce a glare in the tube detri- 
mental to vision. But I find this not at all the case. The main tube 
however, should be made considerably larger than the diameter of the 
mirror, and a well blackened diaphragm may be placed on each side the 
illuminating apparatus to quench any straggling light that may intrude. 
The size of the diagonal plane in the above instrument is about .05, in 
shorter diameter, and is I find a great deal too large. One of only .025 
would be sufficient, I think. I had almost omitted to mention, that as 
many objects require a somewhat oblique radiance to be even seen, this 
may be obtained by giving the diagonal a slight revolution on its shorter 
axis ; or perhaps as simply by closing up one half of the bull's-eye 
lens. 

p p 2 



292 On Catadioptric Miscroscopes. [June, 

Having now so fully described the microscope for viewing transpa- 
rent objects, I shall very briefly notice that intended for opaque ones. 
It is represented in fig. 4, where A B is the great mirror, perforated 
in the centre for the purpose of admitting a cone of light proceeding 
from the lens D, and forming an image of a luminous aperture (not 
represented in the figure for want of space) just in front of the micros- 
copic object C, situated in the focus of the metal. The attempt to con- 
struct this instrument was at first attended with a great deal of trouble, 
my original intention being to introduce a parallel beam of light, con- 
densed by a combination of lenses, through a very small bole pierced in 
the centre of the metal. But for want of proper mechanical assistance 
the attempt proved abortive. I accordingly altered the plan, and en- 
larged the aperture to about 0.2, as in the figure, and admitted light 
through a bull's-eye. E, is a stop, to arrest the rays that would other- 
wise pass out to the eye-glass. It may be coloured according to the 
ground that is best adapted for displaying the object under observation. 
After enlarging so fully upon the former instrument, it is not neces- 
sary to enter into much detail regarding the present one. All the ob- 
servations upon the .optical principle of the one apply with equal force 
to that of the other. I regret, however, that I had not an opportunity 
of ascertaining as satisfactorily by experiment the performance of this 
instrument, the perforated metal having been accidentally shattered to 
fragments by a fall. Some trials however, upon ordinary objects in 
its incomplete state, convinced me that this construction would perform 
well. It exhibited the brilliant scales of a curculio in a very pleasing 
manner. If upon the back of the stop E, a small silver cup be fixed 
so as to be turned round occasionally, it will enable us to vary the light 
by which objects are viewed ; and to examine them at once by radiated 
and transmitted rays. 

Nothing I conceive can be more simple than the optical principle of 
these instruments ; a single reflection, and a single refraction. And 
what on the other hand can be more complex than achromatic re- 
fractors with their triple, quadruple, quintuple, sextuple, and even triple- 
triple object glasses? As any ordinary reflector may be very simply con- 
verted into one upon the new construction for diaphanous objects, 
by merely substituting a small diagonal metal for the Amician plane, I 
am not without hopes that some naturalist in possession of a standard 
instrument will do me the honour of giving the new principle a fair 
trial. The result with an object metal wrought by a good artist will 
be decisive. 

I have already extended this notice too far to enable me by this op- 
portunity to communicate some speculations I intended upon several 



1834.] Geological Section of the Kasia hills. 293 

new and curious achromatic combinations I have tried. I shall possibly 
do myself the houour of submitting them upon a future occasion ; mean 
while, nothing I trust has escaped me in the foregoing observations 
that can be construed into a disrespectful mention of the Amician 
reflection. Far from me be the impertinence of disparaging an instru- 
ment which the highest optical authorities have concurred to applaud. 
I have merely ventured to inquire whether that instrument, superior as 
it is, has vet attained the maximum of excellence. 



V. — Notes relative to the collection of some Geological Specimens in the 
Kdsia Hills betiveen Assam and Nunklow . By W. Cracroft, Esq. C. S. 
On myjourney from Chira Poonjee to Assam, I endeavoured to recog- 
nize the ascents and descents, and the geological features of the countrv, 
as laid down in Captain Fisher's Sketch, but I found this impractica- 
ble, excepting at those mountains of which he observed the altitudes. I 
was therefore led to imagine that the intervals between the points 
given in his sketch had been filled in at random, and that the general 
geological characters of only the observed points were noted. 

On my return, I endeavoured to obtain a nearer approximation to the 
real outline of the road, and the positions of the various rocks, and 
I accordingly made the following notes of the time occupied in travel 
ling, both in ascending and descending, the different hills, sketching their 
profile at the same time on the opposite page of my memorandum book, 
and noting the times and places at which the geological specimens al- 
ready forwarded to you were collected. The heights of Jyrong and 
other points I have taken from Captain Fisher, whose barometrical 
observations have been found to correspond very closely with others 
since made. Allowance has been made in the outline for the difference 
of time in ascending and descending. (See PI. XX.) 

First day, from 8h. 48m. ; commencement of ascent to Jyrong. 
I began to ascend at viii. 48, through a narrow defile ; the rock is 
apparently a fine grained granite, containing beds of A 2 (a conglo- 
merate of iron clay) : at viii. 50, reached the bottom of the first descent, 
(which was a granite similar to No. l.but rather whiter and less decom- 
posed) : by xi. 7, I reached the next summit, the ascent yielding the 
granites, A. 4, 5,6, and 7, and decomposing felspar: the road was 
then comparatively level till viii. 37, when the ascent became steeper 
and the rock all along was A. 8, (granite) ; but at 37 minutes containing 
large scales of mica (A. 9.) 

The descent, after ix. 40, was at first very steep, with precipices at the 
road side : afterwards less steep ; A. 10 and 1 1 mica and gneiss being in 



294 Geological Section between Chira Poonjee [June, 

situ with red clay : the stream, passed at x. 57, runs over gneiss rock : at 
xi. 50, began to descend, and after passing a small stream, running over 
rock A 12, arrived at Jyrong at 12 o'clock ; the rock at Jyrong is A 
13. The whole of this day's march was through a well wooded country. 
The gibbon or long-armed ape inhabits the forest near Jyrong, and its 
hootings echo through the forest ; wild elephants are occasionally seen 
and leopards. 

Second day, from Jyrong to Ongsivye and Mopea. 

The road continues through the forest, principally along the course 
of mountain torrents till vii. 33. where there is a level, capable of cul- 
tivation, and formerly was a stockade ; it is however a swampy place, and 
certainly not a good situation for a stage-house. If a stockade were 
erected at the top of the hill, which we reached at viii. 56., it would divide 
the journey from Mopea to Ranegang very equally, and much better 
than either Jyrong or Ongswye, the latter of which is situated in a 
hollow surrounded by a swamp. The decomposing felspar found at 
I. 25., and other places seems likely to afford porcelain. A small ches- 
nut not much larger than a fine marrow-fat pea grows here ; also a few 
beech trees, 

Third day, from Mopea to Nunklow. 

The view from Mopea is I think more beautiful than any on the 
road between Assam and that place. 

Between Mopea and the Burpanee there is no jungle, the neighbour- 
ing hills have many fir trees. The water-fall at the Burpanee surpasses 
in beauty any I have seen ; it has not indeed the advantage of falling 
from a great height, but the body of water is very large : I descended 
with some difficulty to the rocks at the bottom of the fall, which seems 
not to be more than 80 or 90 feet, and is broken in several places ; the 
black rocks, through which it has cut its passage, rise considerably higher 
than the stream, and overhang the basin at the bottom of the fall : 
tbey are well covered with wood. The basin extends to a great distance, 
beyond which a turn of the river seems to inclose it, and gives it the 
appearance of a spacious lake. It is altogether truly sublime and beau- 
tiful. Between this river and the small stream at the bottom of the 
great ascent, the road winds through a forest of enormous fir trees ; 
the mountain seems perfectly to overhang the road wherever you get 
a glimpse of it through the trees, and almost discourages the traveller 
from attempting the ascent, which occupies more than two hours. 

An accident whichbefell me at Nunklow prevented the continuance of 
these remarks, but I collected a few specimens mentioned in the list, and 
made the following observations in the neighbourhood of the Bogapanee 
and Kalapanee rivers. 



] 834.] and Nunklow, in the Kdsla hills. 295 

At Mouflong the rock is white flinty slate, the joints or strata being 
nearly in the direction of the meridian and inclined to the horizon 
at an angle of about 60° ; this rock continues all the way down to the 
bed of Bogapanee river, which is covered with rolled masses of granite, 
gneiss, porphyry, and sandstone : wherever the rock bassets, it is red 
slate (E 2,) at the same angle and in the same direction as the white 
at Mouflong ; immediately upon this lies a stratum of the conglomerate 
(E 3), containing pebbles of quartz and jasper with a talcose cement, 
of which large masses have fallen into the bed of the stream ; it may 
be traced to the bed of the next nullah, where it also appears in sight ; 
the stratum above this is a dark sandstone, E 4, upon which is a 
stratum of basalt, or porphyry, F 5, the outside of which becomes red 
by decomposition. Above this are new sandstones of various hardness 
and colours (mostly white), alternating with conglomerate (E 6), which 
continue as far as the valley of the Kalapanee, in descending into which 
the same strata are visible in the perpendicular face of the rock, and in the 
large masses which have fallen over ; E 7 (conglomerate) is picked out 
of a stream : about 80 feet above the stream, the same porphyry or green- 
stone basalt again appears, E 8, with veins of fine quartz E. 9. This 
rock forms the bed of the river, and continues till we begin to ascend on 
the opposite side of the valley (I saw one mass evidently columnar, the 
faces with angles of 120°). In the ascent we return to the sandstone, 
and conglomerate, in which I found a bed of lithomarge, E 10, and a 
bed of quartz conglomerate, containing crystals of amythystine quartz. 

After reaching the summit on the road to the left leading to Mo- 
leem (at about 100 yards distance) is a bed of bituminous slate, E 
1 2 ; from hence to Chira we meet only varieties of sandstone, with 
beds of stalactitic iron ore, (No. 13), and of coal adjoining pipe-clay 
E 14, 15, which are found about a mile and a half south of Sura- 
reem. 

Catalogue of Specimens, deposited in the As. Soc. Museum. 
Ascent to Jyrong. Specimens marked A. 

1. Finegrained granite, glassy and angular. 

2. Conglomerate of iron ore with pebbles in beds in the above. 

3. Granite resembling 1. 

4. Do. apparently quartz in fine grains stratified with decomposing felspar, 
being No. 1, in a state of decomposition ; but the rock No. 1, is regularly crys- 
talline, its angles and joints perfectly defined. 

5. 6. Fine grained red granite, (with minute crystals of hornblende ?) 

7. Decomposing felspar with quartz in irregular fragments. 

8. Fine grained red granite. 

9. Gneiss (granite stratified with plates of mica). 

9§. Conglomerate ; iron ore and pebble found in a watercourse. 

10. Decomposed gneiss, — purple. 

11. Decomposing felspar with quartz in very small particles. 



296 Geological Specimens from Kdsia hills. [June, 

11§ Quartz passing into gneiss ; apparently a vein in the gneiss. 

12. Fine grained granite, the mica in larger masses than the felspar and quartz. 

13. Fine grained white granite (containing hornblende). 

Between Jyrong and Mopea, (marked B.J 

1. Black gneiss containing much hornblende. 

2, 3. Granite, fine grained, with much -black mica. 

4. Quartz and mica (not in situ) white in great quantity, with red clay. 

5. Quartz, in situ, white. 

6. Decomposing felspar containing small crystals of quartz. 

7. Fine grained granite, white, containing minute crystals (of hornblende) ? 

8. 9. Do. do. red. 

10. Mica stratified with decomposing felspar, (query gneiss?) 

11. Gneiss with much mica. 

12. Do. less mica, much felspar, decomposing. 

13. Granite with much mica. 
13£. Almost all mica (gneiss ?) 

14. Gneiss with much mica. 

15. Granite with black mica. 

16. 17. Gneiss. 18. Granite, grey. 

19. Decomposing felspar with quartz, fit for porcelain. 

Between Mopea and Nunklow, (marked C.J 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Granite, reddish and grey varieties — approaching sandstone. 
7. A micaceous schist with red felspar. 

9. Crystals of felspar decomposed, but retaining their form. 

10. Mica stratified with decomposed felspar. 

11. Mica in hexagonal plates. 

12. Quartz tinged with mica. 

13. Micaceous, with crystals radiating from a point (approaching actinolite ?) 

14. Red quartz (approaching hornstone) with mica. 

15. Granite (the felspar decomposed). 

16. 17. Quartz with mica in veins. 

Specimens, none of them in situ, found on the ascent immediately below Nunklow. 
C-a. White and black zeolitic porphyry ? 
C b, c, and d. Micaceous schist. 
C e. Decomposed ditto, ferruginous. 
Cf. Ditto white, in laminae. 

C g. Quartz with black mica : and fine specimens of green actinolite. 
Collected between Myrong and Mouflong, marked D. 

1. Near Ly,yung, clay slate. 

2. Lithomarge. 

3. Slate, a small hill between the valley of Kiug-lung-tung and Mouflong. 

Between Mouflong and Surareem, marked E. 

1. White sandstone. 8. Greenstone. 

2. Red ditto ditto. 9, and 8. Fat quartz veins in^No. 8. 

3. Brescia. 10. Lithomarge. 

4. Dark red sandstone (query old) ? 11. Coarse quartzy sandstone. 

5. Basalt, conchoidal lumps. 12. Bituminous shale. 

6. Sand stone, new. 13. Stalactitic iron ore. 

7. Clay slate. 14, 15. Coal. 



Journal ■ 1s. St 



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1834.] 



Longitude of Sehdranpur, Nas(rabad, and Dlwleswar. 



297 



VI. — Observations of the Moon and Moon- culminating Stars at Sehdranpur, 
Nasirabad, and Dlwleswar, with the Longitudes deduced. 

[Mr. Boulderson's observations were given to thousandths, and Col. Oliver's to hun- 
dredths, of a second, and the calculations are made therefrom ; but we have been obliged to 
omit the second and third decimals for want of space.] 



Date. 



1833. 
Dec.20 



21 



22 



26 



1834. 

Jan. 16 

17 



18 



Names of 
Stars. 



19 



20 



3) 1 Limb, 
V 2Piscium, 

X , 

b Ceti, .... 
v Piscium, . 
(151) Phen. 
fi Piscium, 

O , 

)8 Phenicis, 
X Piscium, 

Ceti 

v Piscium, . 
(151) Phen. 
yu. Piscium, . 
(1/9) Ceti, 
o Piscium, 
3) 1 Limb, 
<p Eridani, . 
ty Fornacis, 
| Ceti, .... 
(267) Forn. 
3) 1 Limb, 
a Arietis,. . 
7r Ceti,. . . . 
e Arietis,. . 
H Geminor. 

r . 

/* > 

J 1 Limb, 

3) 2 , 

v Geminor. 

fi Piscium, 
3) 1 Limb, 
a Piscium, 

* i 

<p Phenicis, 
(212) Pise, 
a Piscium, . 
£ Ceti, .... 

fi , .. 

fi. Ceti 



f Tauri,... 
5 Arietis, . . 

f , •• 

65 — — , .. , 
F ' Tauri, 
« 2 . . , 



At Sehdran- 
pur by Mr. 
Boulder- 
son. Ob- 
served AR. 



h. m. 

56 
59 

1 2 
6 

10 
17 
21 
36 

58 

1 2 
6 

10 
17 
21 
29 
36 
41 

2 10 
14 
19 
26 
29 
33 
36 
40 

5 54 
59 

6 12 
13 
15 
19 



22 

36 
44 
47 
50 
53 



s. 

0.0 

1.9 
31.3 

1.8 
20.3 
18.8 
37.9 
36.9 
39.3 
31.4 

1.6 
20.0 
19.6 
36.7 
18.4 
37.5 
48.7 
33.7 
55.8 
19.4 
33.7 
24.0 
43.0 
13.2 
13.4 

2.2 
39.3 
54.1 
20.3 



8.5 
37.5 
57.1 
28.6 
32.5 
26.5 



At Nasira- 
bad by Col 
T. Oliver 



Dif. 

b. 
— 



of AR. 
m. s. 

43 48 



45 5.9 

41 55.4 

32 24.3 

-f 14 32.3 

— 12 12.9 



+ 

+ 
+ 
— 



0416.1 
27 30.2 
20 33 
05 42.9 
25 10.9 



Date. 



Names of 
Stars. 



At Seharan- 
pur by Mr. 
Boulder- 
son. 

Dif. of AR. 



1834. 
Jan. 20 



23 



Feb. 16 



U 



20 





S Geminor. 
3) 1 Limb, 
<r Geminor. 
j8 



Mar. 16 
17 



19 



20 



M Cancri,. . 
o Tauri, . . 

fj. Geminor, 

e 

£ ■ 

74Geminor. 

77 

jS 



h. m. s. 
— 19 14.3 
23 3.3 

26 4.9 

27 14.6 

29 36.6 
31 49.3 
31 54.8 
39 6.6 

+0 16 34.4 

10 58.3 

3 4.9 

— 9 34.4 
19 9.1 
23 51.7 
25 31.6 

28 40.7 

30 44.1 
— 26 22. 5 

41 14.1 
45 13.4 
61 15.9 



AR. 

h. m. s. 

7 10 12.5 
15 31.7 
32 56.0 

7 35 9.6 
43 20.9 
56 28.7 



Apr.18 



81 

83 

3) 1 Limb, 
16 Cancri, 

19 , 

8 Cancri,. . 
77 Cancri, 



At Nasira. 

badbyCol. 

T. Oliver. 

Dif. of AR. 



+0 20 10.6 

— 40 40.6 

51 30.3 



7 29 52.7 
34 24.3 

36 30.5 
43 18.9 
49 19.4 

8 2 41.2 
10 39.1 



— 28 13.5 
+ 24 59.8 
— 36 20.0 
— 51 30.4 
+ 34 56.6 
+ 14 08.4 
— 47 17.7 



+0 14 41.2 



— 45 24.5 
+ 28 27.1 



298 



Observations of Moon Culminating Stars — (continued). 



[June, 



Date. 



1834. 
Apr. 18 



19 



21 



Names of 
Stars. 



At Nasira- 
badbyCol. 
T.Oliver. 

Dif. of AR. 



4 Leonis, 
D 1 Limb, 
(11 7 3) Leo a 
20 Leonis, 
(1200) 
30 Leonis, 
a Leonis,. . 

34 , . . 

37 , . . 

y , . . 

46 , .. 

]) 1 Limb, 
17 Virginis, 
(1434) .... 
J 1 Limb, 
(1458)Virg. 

7 1 , 

37 , 

44 1 

22 66 Virginis, 
J) 1 Limb, 
79 Virginis, 

82 • , 

93 ,. 

S9 , 



fa. m. s. 

— 05 49.1 

— 26 59.5 

+0 28 09.0 

19 53.8 
16" 50.4 
04 19.7 



At Dholes- 
war by Lt- 
R. Short- 
rede. AR. 



. m. s. 
22 14.6 
28 19.9 

40 32.0 



58 16.7 

9 59 32.2 

10 02 42.9 

07 46.4 

23 20.4 
27 45.1 

12 14 06.4 

19 51.0 
23 18.0 
29 55.0 
33 15.5 
43 10.7 
51 07.3 

13 15 56.0 

20 34.1 
26 15.4 
32 54.3 
53 33.5 

14 07 20.2 



Date. 



Names of 
Stars. 



At Nasira- 
badbyCol. 
T.Oliver. 

Dif. of AR. 



1834. 
Apr.23 



24 



Mayl7 



94 Virginis, 
k Virginis 
a Bootis, . 
2 Librae, . 
5 2 Limb 
27 Bootis, 

34 , . 

7 Librae, 

13 , . 

18 -, . 

a 2 Librae, 
5 2 Limb 
p Leonis, . 

52 , . 

k , . 

73 , . 



v Virginis, 

it ? . 

y Virginis 
5 



7T - 

9- 
16- 
yl 

8 ■ 



fa. m 



+ 39 41. 
26 07. 
07 17. 

— 03 25. 
33 35, 
48 37. 

+0 22 03, 
17 19 
07 00 
02 37 

— 12 33 
33 53, 
47 52 



At Dholes- 
war by Lt. 
R. Short- 
rede. Alt. 



h. m. s. 

13 57 31.6 
04 04.5 

14 08 08.3 
14 30.9 
20 48.6 
25 28.8 
36 11.6 
40 13.9 
45 23.6 
49 56.8 

14 41 43.7 

15 19 59.9 



From which Observations the Longitudes have been deduced as under — of 





S 


eha'ranpur. 


Nasirabad. 


Dholeswar. 




CO 
St 


Result- 1 „, 
. Mean 


co 


Result- 


Mean 


en 


Result- 


Mean 


Date. 


<«-t co 
0.0 

6 o 


ing 1 


CO . 

O O 


ing 




c« 

°. -Q 

o o 


ing 






Longitude. 


Longi 


:ude. 


Longitude. 




Ii. in. 


h. 


m. 


h. 


m. 






5 11 


z 


4 


58 


2 


4 


57 


1833. 




s. 


s. 














Dec. 26 


4 


8.462 


— 8.462 














1834. 










s. 


s. 








Jan. 16 








i 


59.511 


59.511 








17 


4 


+27.236 


+ 9.387 














18 




• • 


• • 


2 


51.157 


53.942 








19 








3 


63.206 


58.574 








20 


13 


+ 19 899 


15.894 














23 


9 


+ 2.748 


11.950 














Feb. 16 




















18 








3 


62.738 


59.962 








19 


4 


— 5.743 


9.869 














20 


5 


— 8.782 


7.478 














March 16 




.. 




1 


42.248 


58.191 








17 








3 


58.067 


58.162 








19 








3 


£4.761 


59.399 








20 


5 


—13.941 


4.844 


2 


54.407 


58.845 




s. 


s. 


April 18 




• • 




5 


64.374 


60.047 


3 


23.098 


23.098 


19 








6 


63.051 


60.668 


7 


1.962 


8.303 


21 














6 


27.855 


15.635 


22 














5 


7-787 


13.766 


23 














7 


—8.056 


8.30L 


24 




.. 










1 


—30.728 


6.965 


May 17 








6 


69.365 


62.159 








18 




•• 




7 


73.313 


64,018 









The observations made on the second limb 
rede, shew the necessity of observing that 
as the first, with the view of determining the 



of the moon by Lieut. Short- 
limb as well and as frequently 
exact longitude of a place. 



1834.] 



Observations of Moon Culminating Stars, fyc. 299 



The following is a List of the Occultations of Stars by the Moon, 
observed by Mr. Boulderson, at Seharanpi'ir, latitude 29° 57' 79" N. 
longitude 5 h. 10. m. 54.1 E. with the longitudes as deduced by him. 



1833. 

Feb.... 

1834. 
Jan. . . 
Feb.... 



Mar... , 



* Tauri,. 



* Tauri, 

o Tauri, 

(796)Geminorum, 

(908) , 

H , 

H , 

13 — , 



AR of Star. 


h. 


in. 


s. 


4 


38 


55,263 


3 


51 


7,95 


5 


17 


40,165 


6 


15 


27,271 


7 


13 


28,88 


5 


54 


1,508 


5 


59 


38,38 



Dec. 


of Star. 


+ 


18 


i 
25 


26,60 


4- 


16 


49 


18,7 


I 


21 


47 


16,4 


23 


24 


39,84 


+- 


23 


15 


26,12 


+ 


23 


15 


53,4 


+ 


23 


7 


58,4 



Mean time o! 
Phenomenon. 

h. m. s. 
Im.ll 40 

Im. 9 8 45,0 
Im. 9 7 7,3 
Im. 8 49 28,3 
Im. 6 38 30,0 
Im. 9 12 44,3 
Em. 9 46 43,3 
Im.ll 52 7,7 



Resulting 
Longitude. 



h. m. s. 
5 10 31,6 

56,5 
45,1 
74,6 
62,2 
49.9 
62,9 
53,5 



Mean, 5 10 54,1 

Note. — The AR of these stars have been deduced from the Madras catalogue (by 

Mr. Taylor we suppose) : and, with the exception of the emersion of H. Gemino- 

rmn which may be in excess about 3", the mean times of the other phenomena are 

estimated to be correct within one second. 

Of the other stars whose occultations have been observed there is but 
one (63 Ceti) that can be traced in Piazzi's catalogue. 

Jan. 1st, 1800 63 Ceti (78) AR=32° 44' 30"0, Annual motion + 47 ",34 

Dec. + 6° 49'6',8 „ 16,88 

The observations made by Mr. Boulderson and by Col. T. Oliver 
would have been published in a former No. of this Journal, but that we 
were in expectation of obtaining other corresponding observations from 
some of our scientific correspondents to incorporate with them : the 
longitudes of the places where these observations were made have been 
deduced for them, for each day, with reference to Greenwich, on the 
supposition that the apparent AR of the stars, and of the moon, as given 
in the Nautical Almanac, would accord with observations made on these 
objects at Greenwich. 

A correspondent has brought to our notice that there is, generally, 
about 0,5s. of difference between the apparent AR as given in former 
numbers of this Journal and in the Nautical Almanac for 1834. This 
we much regret ; and the more so, as it is out of our power, at pre- 
sent, to apply a remedy. 

In a catalogue of 720 stars, recently published by the Astronomer 
Royal, and from which, doubtless, the places of those in the Almanac have 
been taken, there are but seven which accord in AR with the catalogue 
of the Astronomical Society, (Mem. As. Soc. iv. 258,) while there are, 

s. s. 

94 stars whose AE differs between 0,3 and 0,4 

78 0,4 and 0,5 

51 0,5 and 0,6 

37 0, 6 and 0,7 

27 . . 0,7 and 0,8 &c. 

from which it will be seen that, without that catalogue, which unfor- 
tunately we do not possess, we cannot apply a remedy to this evil. 



300 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [June, 

VII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 
Wednesday Evening, the 2nd July, 1834. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Calcutta, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Read the Proceedings of the last Meeting. 

Read letter from Dr. A. Hamilton, and Capt. William Foley, acknow- 
ledging their election as members of the Society. 

Read a letter from M. A. Langlois, Professor of the University of 
France, acknowledging his election as an honorary Member of the Society. 

Read extract of a letter from T. Clemishaw, Esq. stating that he regrets 
being obliged to withdraw from the Society from motives of economy. 

Read a letter from H. T. Prinsep, Esq. Secretary to Government in the 
General Department, forwarding copy of a letter from Monsieur Cordier, 
administrator of the French Possessions in Bengal, soliciting on behalf of a 
learned Society at Paris, a complete set of Meteorological Tables for this 
country, from January, 1823, to June, 1834. 

Resolved, that such records as exist for the period in question shall be 
placed at the disposal of the French Society. 

Library. 

Read a letter from Edward T. Bennett, Esq. Secretary of the Zoological 
Society of London, forwarding the Journal of their proceedings, January to 
October, 1833, together with the first part of 1st volume of their Transac- 
tions, for presentation to the Society. 

The following books were also presented : 

Memoirs of the Astronomical Society of London, 6th vol. — by the Society. 

De la Beche's Geological Manual, 3rd edition — by the Author. 

Chrestomathie Chinoise, comprising six Chinese works, (including the Santsuk- 
ing, or Vocabulary, in three characters,) lithographed at Paris under the charge of 
Monsr. Klaproth, at the expence of the French Asiatic Society — by the Society. 

Observation on Cholera Asphyxia, by J. Hutchinson, Esq. — by the Author. 

Transactions of the Medical and Physical Society, vol. vii. Pt. 1 — by the 
Society. 

The Indian Journal of Medical Science, Nos. 5, 6, and 7 — by Messrs. J. Grant 
and J. T. Pearson, Editors. 

The Bytul Pachisee, and the second edition of the " Vidvun Moda Taranginee,'' 
translated into English, by Raja Kalikishen — presented by the Author. 

Meteorological Register for May, 1834 — by the Surveyor General. 

Ditto, kept at Cawnpore, for October, November, and December, 1832, and 
March, April, and May, 1833 — by Lieut. Col. Pollock, C. B. 

Read extracts from a letter addressed to the Secretary by Professor H. 
H. Wilson, announcing the receipt of the Moorcroft Manuscripts sent 
home under charge of Lieut. Burnes, and stating that an arrangement was 
under negociation to print them free of expence to the Society. 

" Part of the journals, digested and corrected as I propose, have been already 
placed in the publisher's (Murray's) hands. I sought for Trebeck's map, at the 
India House for some time in vain, but at last found it had been incorporated 
with other cis-Himalayan maps, by Mr. Walker in his atlas. He is willing to 
prepare it in as much detail as Trebeck's field books will allow." (We have rea- 
son to know that the matter incorporated in Walker's atlas was taken from « 



1834.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 301 

eopy traced on thin paper from the original map in this country by a gentleman 
who visited England on furlough, in 1824, and we are not sure that copies were 
ever sent home officially to Leadenhall street, but rather suppose they may be 
still found in the archives of the Political Secretary's Office.) 

Mr. Wilson alludes also to the Indo-Scythic coin brought to light by Lieut. 
Burnes, and attributed to Kanishca. The Greek scholars of Oxford all read the 
inscription KANHPKOY. No doubt the discoveries since made in Bactrian 
numismatics will excite great interest among the antiquarians of the University. 

Antiquities. 
Read a letter from W. Sturmer, Esq. forwarding twelve pieces of me- 
tal supposed to be ancient coins, which were dug up on clearing an estate 
in the Sunderbuns (lot. xliv. of Capt. T. Prinsep's Sunderbun map.) 

These coins are of silver and copper, square or circular, without any proper 
die impression, but bearing merely small chhdps or shr&f marks of various kinds. 
The silver pieces have an average weight of 52 grains, and have been adjusted 
by cutting off the corners. 

Read a letter from Major L. R. Stacy, bringing to the notice of the 
Society two coins of his cabinet, having the symbol observed in the Behat 
coins of Capt. Cautley, united to a Greek inscription. Connected with this 
subject, the Secretary also exhibited to the meeting, and read a note 
on, a silver coin of the same type just received from Lieut. A. Conolly, 
bearing a most clear and unequivocal inscription in the illegible character, 
No. I. of the Allahabad column. 

(We shall hasten to lay drawings of these two curious coins before our 
readers.) 

A second letter from Major Stacy drew the Society's attention to a 
small copper coin found in Malwa, having the image of a sphinx on the 
obverse. 

Read a letter from Captain Geo. Burney on the subject of the Pali 
inscription at Gaya. 

The impressions of the inscriptions were it seems taken off by Captain Burney 
himself in Feb. 1833, with very great trouble ; and there was no Pandit in the 
envoy's suite; one copy was given to the Governor General, with a translation, 
and the other to the Burmese Ambassador. The remaining copy with the trans- 
lator's observations was intended for the Asiatic Society. We regret that our 
ignorance of these circumstances should have caused a premature publication of 
the inscription, but Capt. B.'s observations will still be of equal value. 

Copies of an inscription in Nagri, Marhatta, and Tamul characters, 
from a stone dug up in building a new ghat at Benares, were communicate 
ed in a Persian letter from Munshi Pal Singh, at Benares. 

The stone was 29 feet long and 9 feet in girth, it seems to have belonged to a 
temple of no great antiquity. The inscriptions are too imperfect to be deci- 
phered, but the example of making such discoveries known is deserving of every 
encouragement. They bear the date Samvat 1655. 

Physical. 
Specimens of the fossil shells found in the lime quarries on the banks of 
the Derwent river, 12 or 13 miles from Hobart Town, in Van Dieman's 
Land, were presented by H. T. Prinsep, Esq. 



302 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [June, 

They are identical in appearance with some of Dr. Gerard's shells from Spitf, 
(spirifer striates of Sowerby, a shell of the mountain limestone group.) 

A fine specimen of the Kyuk-Phyoo lignite half-silicified and other 
minerals were presented in the name of Lieut. W. Foley. 

A flying fish preserved in spirits, presented by J. A. Williams, Esq. 

The saw of a saw -fish, 5 feet long, presented by Capt. R. Lloyd, Mar. 
Surv. 

Read a letter from Serjeant Edmund Dean, of the Sappers and Miners, 
forwarding some selected specimens of the fossil bones discovered and col- 
lected by himself in blasting the rocks of the Jumna river, for inspection 
and examination. 

Among the present specimens are some not found in the collections received 
from Captain Smith and Lieut. Burt, from the same localities ; of these the most 
interesting are, two teeth of the fossil hippopotamus, and a bone resembling the 
cervical vertebra of a camelopardalis, as compared with one in possession of Dr. 
J. T. Pearson. 

[This paper shall appear as soon as possible.] 

Read extracts of a letter from Dr. Malcolmson, Secretary Medical Board, 
Madras, forwarding some botanical specimens collected by him at Malacca, 
and a report upon them, by Dr. N. Wallich, Superintendant Botanical 
Garden. 

Having seen the interest excited by Lieut. Newbold's fern from Mount Ophir, 
Dr. M. obligingly sent his collection in hopes that some prize might reward the 
labour of their examination. Dr. Wallich, however, finds nothing in the list 
which is not already well known. No. 9, only, a Bossia, is probably new and an 
interesting plant. 

Dr. Malcolmson's letter contains the following account of fossil shells 
discovered in the Hyderabad country. 

Fossil Shells in Hyderabad. 

" In the Neermal hills lying north of the Godaveri river on the road from Hy- 
derabad to N&gpur, many very perfect fossil shells, mostly bivalves, and evidently 
marine, have been found imbedded in a volcanic rock ; also the head and vertebrae of 
a fish. The formations rest almost every where on granite, and have the usual 
characters of this class of hills. The most interesting facts however, are the rais- 
ing of some portions of the blue limestone, passing into clay-slate, by the basalt, 
and in one place the bursting through of the latter with very remarkable dis- 
tinctness through the limestone, which is singularly altered, its silicious consti- 
tuents being converted into gloss-slag, and a cinder-like rock. There is a series 
of hot springs holding lime in solution, which is deposited in rocks on the passing 
off of the carbonic acid which gives the river a sour taste. The contrast between 
the ancient and recent fossils is very striking. The hills I find belong to the 
Sehsa range, extending S. E. to N. W. several hundred miles. In the same oc- 
curs the Lunar lake, (40 miles from Jaulnah,) which I examined some years ago. 
It is a vast crater nearly 500 feet deep, and four or five miles round on the upper 
margin. Its waters are green and bitter, supersaturated with alkaline carbonate, 
and containing silex in solution as well as some iron. The mud is black and 
abounds with sulphuretted hydrogen, but the water is pure and without smell. 
The rocks are volcanic, and springs of pure water rise out of the salt mud or 



1834.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 303 

stream down the sides of the punch howl, thus strangely sunk in a nearly level 
country, there being but a gentle rise to the edge. The crystals of salt fouud at 
.the bottom by the divers who remove it for purposes of commerce are tabular. 
Between this and che hot springs of Ka'ro others are found, and the direction of the 
range corresponds with the dykes described by VoYSEYin the Hyderabad country." 

A note from Capt. F. Jenkins to the Secretary intimated the discovery of 
limestone in Assam. 

" I find the shell lime of Sylhet extends across to Assam in the direction of 
Dharmpur ; it having been discovered on the right bank of the Kopili — a discovery 
of no small importance to us : no lime before Laving been known to exist in Assam 
nearer than the Brahmakund." 

A Persian letter from Shekh Keramat Ah at Cabul, accompanied a 
package of the fruit and flower seeds of that country^ and some specimens 
of lead and antimony ores. 

Tiie seeds ware unfortunately nearly spoiled on their way down by the rain. 
They were made over to Dr. Wallich's care. 

Extracts from the letter before alluded to of Prof. Wilson, were read. 

Professor Buckland had been much gratified with the duplicates of Dr. J. G. 
Gerard's fossil shells selected and transmitted for his examination. He found 
them to corroborate in every respect a view of the distribution of the ammonites, 
on the subject of which he had recently been delivering a lecture to the Ashmolean 
Society at Oxford : he had no doubt, although doubts had been very justly enter- 
tained before, that the formation to which these shells belonged in India was 
allied to the Lias of Europe. We shall look with eagerness for the report of this 
high authority, which promises to confirm the opinion of our associate the Rev. 
R. Everest on the subject. A most valuable article on the species and distribu- 
tion of ammonites, by De Buch, appears in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles 
of May, 1833, which we regret our inability to transfer to the Journal : it contains 
plates of all the varieties of this fossil hitherto discovered in the Himalaya range. 

The business of the evening being concluded, The Right Rev. the Vice- 
President rose and addressed the meeting : — 

It had been suggested to him that the death of the Rev. Dr. Carey, one of the 
oldest and warmest supporters of the Asiatic Society, was an occasion which called 
for some testimonial of the sense entertained by all its members of the value of his 
Bervices to the literature and science of India, and of their sincere respect for his 
memory. 

He had himself enjoyed but two short interviews with that eminent and good 
man, but a note from Dr. Wallich, who was prevented himself from attending to 
propose the resolution, supplied his own want of information. Dr. Carey had 
been 28 years a member of the Society : and (with exception of the last year or 
two of his life, when protracted illness forced him to relinquish his Calcutta 
duties), a regular attendant at its meetings, and an indefatigable and zealous mem- 
ber of the Committee of Papers since the ye;u- 1807. 

He had enriched the Society's publications with several contributions : — an inter* 
esting report on the agriculture of Dinajpur, appeared in the tenth volume of the 
Researches. An account of the funeral ceremonies of a Burman priest in the 
twelfth : — The catalogue of Indian medicinal plants and drugs in the 11th voL 
bearing Dr. Fleming's name, was also known to have been principally derived 



304 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [June, 

from his information and research. As an ardent Botanist, indeed, he had done 
much for the science in India, and one of the last works upon which he had heen 
engaged, was the publication, as Editor, of his deceased friend Dr. Roxburgh's 
Flora Tndica. 

His Bengalee, Marhatta, Telinga, and Punjabi dictionai-ies and grammars, 
his translation of a portion of the Ram^yana, and other works, were on our 
shelves, to testify the extent of his learning as an oriental scholar. It was well 
known that he had prepared some time ago an elaborate dictionary of the 
Sanscrit language, the manuscripts of which, and a considerable portion of 
the work already printed off, the result of many years' intense labour and 
study, had been destroyed by the fire which burnt down the Serampore premises. 
He had also been of great assistance, as the author testified, in the editing of Ba- 
boo Ram Comul Sen's Anglo-Bengalee Dictionary. 

The memory of those members, who had been longer associated with him than 
liimself, would easily fill up this very imperfect estimate of his various services. 

During 40 years of a laborious and useful life in India, dedicated to the highest 
objects which can engage the mind — indefatigable in his sacred vocation, active in 
benevolence, yet finding time to master the languages and the learning of the East, 
and to be the founder, as it were, of printing in these languages, he contributed by 
his researches, and his publications, to exalt and promote the objects, for which the 
Asiatic Society was instituted. The close of his venerable career should not there- 
fore pass without a suitable record of the worth and esteem in which his memory 
was held ; and His Lordship begged to move that the following minute be entered 
on the Journals of the Society : — it was seconded by Colonel Sir Jer. Bryant, 
and carried unanimously : 

" The Asiatic Society cannot note upon their proceedings the death of 
the Rev. Wm. Carey, D. D., so long an active member and an ornament of 
this Institution, distinguished alike for his high attainments in the oi'iental 
languages, for his eminent services in opening the store of Indian literature 
to the knowledge of Europe, and for his extensive acquaintance with the 
sciences, the natural history and botany of this country, and his useful con. 
tributions in every branch towards the promotion of the objects of the 
Society, without placing on record this expression of their high sense of 
his value and merits as a scholar and a man of science ; their esteem for 
the sterling and surpassing religious and moral excellencies of his charac- 
ter ; and their sincere grief for his irreparable loss." 



VIII. — Indian Zoology. 

Notices extracted from the proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 

January 22, 1833. 
Mr. Bennett called the attention of the Society to a stuffed specimen of an An- 
telope, from the southern part of the peninsula of India, which had been present, 
ed to the Society several months since by Charles Telfair, Esq., Corr. Mem. 
Z. S. He remarked, that notwithstanding some discrepancies between the speci- 
men exhibited and the description published by Pallas, he was disposed to regard 



1834. J Indian Zoology. 305 

it as the young of the Indian Antelope, Antilope Cervicapra, Pall. Its general 
colour is pale fawn, and it has a paler streak on each side, passing from the 
shoulders to the haunches ; characters by -which, as well as by the form of its 
horns, the pale circle surrounding the eyes, and the white patch under the tail, 
it agrees with the young of the Indian Antelope: but it differs by the fawn colour 
extending down the sides to the under parts of the body, which are merely of a 
lighter shade than the upper, and are not pure white ; and by the length of the 
ears, which does not exceed 4 inches, while in no specimen of the Indian Antelope 
possessed by the Society, is the length of these organs less than 5 inches. The 
latter circumstance is so remarkable, as to suggest the necessity of further in- 
quiries into the history of the race from which this individual was derived. Its age 
may be conjectured from the size of its horns, which have made two nearly 
complete turns, and are surrounded by eighteen rings. 

Specimens were exhibited of the adult male of the lineated Pheasant, Phasianus 
lineatus, Lath., and of two immature birds of the same species : for the whole of 
these the Society is indebted to George Swinton, Esq., Corr. Mem. Z. S. The 
immature birds died on their passage to this country ; the adult skin was obtain- 
ed from the Tennasserim coast. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Gould made some observations on these 
specimens. The adult bird differs in some particulars from the description 
published by Dr. Latham. " Its total length is 2 feet 8 inches ; the length of the 
wings, from the shoulder to the end of the longest feather, 9 inches ; of the beak, 
from the gape to the tip, 1 J inch ; of the tarsus, 3f inches ; and of the tail, 1 foot 
2 inches. 

" The beak is strong, and considerably arched ; the naked space round the eye 
bright red, and covered with numerous papilla ; the head crested with long 
glossy blue-black feathers ; the back of the neck, and whole of the upper surface 
delicate grey, very numerously barred with fine zigzag lines of black ; which are 
broader on the quill feathers ; the throat, breast, and belly, black ; the sides of 
the breast and flanks having white lanceolate feathers with black edges ; the tail 
of eighteen feathers, very much graduated, and arched, as in the Silver Pheasant, 
Phasianus Nycthemerus, Linn., the outer edge of the two centre feathers, and the 
tips of the two next, being white ; the remainder are alternately marked with irregu- 
lar lines of black and white, the black predominating ; and the legs strong, of a 
reddish flesh colour, furnished with conical sharp spurs. 

" The two immature birds are alike in colouring, and appear to be male and 
female. They differ very materially from the adult, and very much resemble the 
female or the young male of the Silver Pheasant. They are about 18 inches in 
length ; wing, 8$ inches ; tarsus, 2\ ; beak, 1$ ; tail, 10. The head is crested 
with feathers nearly 2 inches long, of a reddish brown, obscurely marked with mi- 
nute zigzag lines of black ; the naked skin round the eye is not so much developed 
as in the adult male; the neck, throat, breast, and under parts are brown, each 
feather having a lancet-shaped mark of white ; the whole of the back and shoulders 
brown, minutely sprinkled with a darker colour ; the quill-feathers brown, having 
the outer edges barred with yellowish white ; the secondaries brown, with oblique, 
irregular, and narrow lines of a lighter colour ; the tail irregularly barred, and 
dotted with rich brown and yellowish white ; the legs and feet reddish brown." 

February 12, 1833. 

A note from Col. Hall^m was read, accompanying drawings of the Mango-fish, 
Polynemus paradisceus, Linn. ; and of two individuals of a race of pigs with only 
R It 



306 Indian Zoology. [June, 

two legs, the hinder extremities being entirely wanting. The latter, Col. Hallam 
states, were observed " afea town on the coast in the Tanjore country, in the year 
1795 : they were from a father and mother of a similar make, and the pigs bred 
from them were the same." 

June 11, 1833. 
Specimens were exhibited of various Mammalia, Birds, and Reptiles, from the 
continent of India, which had been recently presented to the Society by Thomas 
Heath, Esq. Mr. Bennett observed on the several objects, pointing out especially 
the more interesting among them. They included an individual apparently refer - 
rible to the Semnopithecus cucullatus, Isid. Geoff. St.-Hil., although darker in all 
its markings than is indicated in the description given by the original observer of 
the species. They also included a species of Felis, of a size intermediate between 
the larger and the smaller animals of that genus, and having in its grey colour and 
longitudinal striping a general external resemblance to some of the Viverrce. This 
Mr. Bennett regarded as new to science, and proposed to designate it 

Felis viverrinus. Fel. fulvo-cinereus, subtiis albescens ; capite,nuchd,dorso, 

genis, guldque nigra vittatis ; lateribus, ventre, pedibusque nigro maculatis. 
Long, corporis cum capite, 33 unc. ; Cauda mutilse, 7 ; auricula, 1§. 
The prevailing colour of the upper surface is a rather deep yellowish grey, 
the separate hairs being dusky at the base, yellowish in the middle, and having 
short black tips. The black lines and spots are formed of hairs destitute of yellow, 
and having the black tips of much greater length. A longitudinal black band 
passes on each side from the inner canthws of the eye above the ear nearly to the 
shoulder ; a second, more internally, passes to the same distance backwards, and 
is somewhat interrupted anteriorly ; and between this and its fellow on the vertex 
is the vestige of a median line, which on the forehead is broken up into a double 
row of spots ; these and the two adjoining lines subdivide in front into numerous 
very small spots between the eyes. Two black lines pass downwards obliquely on 
either side from below the eye, over the angle of the jaw ; and from their termi- 
nations on each side there passes a transverse band across the throat : the space 
between these lines is nearly white, as is also a stripe over each eye, and the whole 
of the under jaw and chin. There is a large black spot surrounding the base of 
the ear posteriorly, and the ear is also tipped with black. The long, linear, mark- 
ings of the back are disposed in about five interrupted, longitudinal bands, and 
some of the spots on the sides assume a linear form. Of these the most remark- 
able are, one on each side of the neck, and an oblique wavy band on the shoulder. 
The spots on the sides generally approach a rounded shape, and form, posteriorly, 
four or five interrupted longitudinal rows. Those of the under surface are larger, 
aud are arranged without order. On the fore limbs the spots are small externally, 
and internally there are on each two large transverse black patches. On the hinder 
limbs the spots are arranged so as to form interrupted transverse bands on both 
surfaces. The hairs of the soles of the feet are dusky brown. The tail is spotted 
above in the same manner as the sides ; its colour beneath is uniform. The spots 
are throughout numerous. The whiskers are white, and take their origin from 
three black lines on either side. 

The species is nearly allied to Felis Serval, Schreb., but will readily be distin- 
guished by the characters above given, by the comparative shortness and strength 
of its limbs, and by the locality whence it was obtained. 

Col. Sykes reminded the Society that, in submitting his catalogue of the Mam. 
malia observed in Dukhun, East Indies, he took occasion to comment on th* 



1834.] Indian Zoology. 307 

popular error respecting the ferocious and untameable disposition of the common 
Hyana, Hyaena vulgaris, Cuv. His opinions were founded partly on observation 
of a cub which he had domesticated, and partly on facts communicated by his 
friends. He went on to state as follows : 

" Two years have elapsed since I placed in the Gardens of the Society the above- 
mentioned cub (a female), which has now attained its full growth, and I am happy 
to be enabled to confirm the opinions I formerly advanced. In India it was allowed 
to run about my house, and on board ship it was released from its cage two or 
three times a day, to play with the sailors and gambol with the dogs. It early 
rocognised my person and voice, and would obey when called ; and in general was 
as playful and good-humoured as a puppy. My visits to it in the Gardens have 
been rare, and at long intervals, nor have I ever carried it food ; I anticipated, 
therefore, that it would outgrow its early associations, and that I should be to it 
as any other stranger ; but it has always greeted me not only as an acquaintance, 
but as an old friend ; and if I am to judge from its agitation and peculiar cries, 
the animal's recognition is that of affection. 

" On Sunday last it was asleep in its cage when I approached. On calling to 
it by its name it looked up, distinguished me in the crowd, started on its legs, and 
on my applying my hand to its mouth to smell to, it threw itself down against the 
bars, rubbed its head, neck, and back against my hand, and then started on its 
legs and bounded about its cage, uttering short cries. On ceasing to speak to it, 
and moving away, it stopped, and looked wistfully after me, nor resumed its mo- 
tions until I addressed it again. Its manifestations of joy were so unequivocal, 
as to excite the surprise of a great number of bystanders. As these pleasing traits 
in the disposition of a calumniated animal appeared so new to those who surround- 
ed me on that occasion, they may possibly be deemed of sufficient interest to be 
worthy of extended promulgation by record in our Proceedings. 

" I take occasion to repeat my conviction, that association with man, constant 
kindness, and abundance of food, will suffice not only to modify, and indeed era- 
dicate, the worst traits in the disposition of any animal of the higher classes, but 
give birth to others of which their natures were not deemed susceptible." 

September 10, 1833. 
A letter was read, addressed to Mr. Vigors by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Corr. 
Memb. Z. S., and dated Nepal Residency, February 23, 1833. It referred to the 
zoological specimens which the writer had forwarded to Calcutta, to be thence 
transmitted to England, some account of which, as contained in a letter from Mr. 
Prinsep, was read at the last Meeting. 

[The account given of tbe Mammalia of Nepal in this day's proceedings has 
already appeared in the Journal for 1832. A letter from Mr. Bennett, Sec. Zool. 
Soc. gives a sad account of the result of Mr. Hodgson's consignment of animals : 
of the few which remained alive to be shipped by the Susan, in April, 1833, none 
reached England 1 One of the deer leaped overboard, the other knocked itself to 
death against the bars of its cage. The pheasants and pigeons lived until the ves- 
sel got into the colder latitudes, when they died one after the other I a most unfor- 
tunate termination of an attempt from which much had been hoped, and on which 
no trouble or expense had been spared by our zealous naturalist.] 

A " Description ofPerdixLerwa," by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z. 
S., was read. It was accompanied by a coloured drawing of the bird, which in- 
habits the northern region of Nepal, and forms, by its half-plumed tarsi, a sort 
of link between the Partridges and the Grouse. Its habits assimilate with those 



308 



Indian Zoology. 



[June, 



of the latter genus. It is found close to the permanent snows, among rocks and 
low brushwood, and sustains itself upon aromatic buds, leaves, and small insects. 
It is characterized as follows: 

Perdix Lerwa. Perd. nigra, albo castaneoqve. transversim lineata ; pectore 

Irunneo ; tarsis ultra calcar plumosis , remige 2dd longiore. 
The great comparative expanse of the wing ; the diminution of its rounded form 
by the second quill feather being the longest ; the increased length and strength 
of the tail ; and the extent of the feathering of the tarsi, are very remarkable 
characters, which give to this species a peculiar interest. Its dimensions, as com- 
pared with several allied birds, are given by Mr. Hodgson in the following table : 

Perd. Perd. Perd. Perd. 

Lerwa. Chukar. Gularis. Francolinus. 

1-2| I'll 1-2J 1-2 

1 1| 1 I t \ 



Length, from the tip of the bill 

to that of the tail 

Length of the bill 

Basal height of ditto 

Basal breadth of ditto 

Length of the tail 

Expanse of the wings 

Length of the tarsi 

Length of the central toe and nail 
Weight 



H 



1-8 
o 

~\? 
2-?. 

" 1 6 

1 lb. 2 oz. 



'9 

I 6 

in 

2f 

2\ 

1 lb. 2 



oz. 



31 
1-8 

2-'- 

If 

lb. 



41 
l-lii 

H 
i« 

1 lb. 8 2 oz. 

September 24, 1833. 

A collection of skins of Birds, sixty-four in number, formed in the Himalayan 
Mountains, and presented to the Society by Lddy William Bentinck, was ex- 
hibited. It included several species apparently new to science, and was particularly 
rich in the interesting Pheasants of the Himalaya. The collection was remarka- 
ble on account of the fine condition of the specimens, which generally surpassed 
in beauty those previously contained in the Society's Museum. 

A series of eighty skins of Birds, selected from a collection formed in India by 
H. B. Hillier, Esq., and presented by that gentleman to the Society, was exhibit- 
ed. It comprised specimens of many species in fine or interesting plumage. 

[This day's proceedings also contains a note of Mr. Hodgson's papers on the 
Chira antelope and the wild dog of Nepal, published in the Gleanings and Asiatic 
Researches.] 

October 8, 1833. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretaryby W. A. Wooler, Esq., and giv- 
ing an account of a wild Dog from the Mahabal^shwar Hills, now known as 
Malcolm's Pate, in the Presidency of Bombay : its local name is Dhale. The ha- 
bits of this Dog, in a state of nature, are described by Mr. Wooler : they accord 
with those of the Biidnsu of Nepal, as detailed by Mr. Hodgson in a paper read 
at the previous Meeting of the Society. 



Miscellaneous. 

1. — On Spherical Mirrors. 
It would appear from the undermentioned paragraphs, which have been extracted 
from Hutton's Mathematical Recreations, vol. ii. p. 201, that opticians have not 
yet determined the reason why objects on being reflected from convex and concave 
mirrors appear of less magnitude in the former, and of greater in the latter ; than 
they really are. Now, nothing appears to me to be more easy of demonstration, for 
let us suppose a cylinder having its outer surface so polished as to reflect distinctly 



1834.] Miscellaneous. 309 

all objects surrounding it. In the next place, let us imagine another cylinder, a 
hollow one, to be placed concentric with the former, but at such a distance on the 
outside of it, that any object situated on the inner surface of the outer cylinder, 
may be distinctly reflected upon the outer surface of the inner one. 

Now as every particle in the outer cylinder is reflected from that part of the 
inner one which is situated immediately and perpendicularly opposite to it, it is 
evident that the whole of the outer cylinder is represented on the polished surface 
of the inner one, but the latter being on account of its interior situation the smal- 
ler of the two, it follows that every object that is situated on the inner surface of 
the outer or larger cylinder, must be represented on a smaller scale (as far as its 
lateral measurement is concerned) upon the polished surface of the inner and 
smaller one, than it really is in the other, which contains the real size or dimen- 
sions of the object. 

It may be easily seen then, that if a polished globe or a polished segment of a 
circle similar to a convex mirror be substituted for the inner cylinder, the same 
reasoning must hold good, for each dimension of the image, in which case the 
reflected objects must become diminished both in height and diagonal measure- 
ment, as well as breadth, merely because the surface upon which they are repre- 
sented is less than that of the objects themselves. 

So much for the reduction of the spectrum or image of objects in convex mirrors, 
and as to the increase of it in concave ones, the reasoning must be exactly the 
same, as for the above, excepting that the object must then be considered as 
situated on the outer surface of the inner cylinder, which should be unpolished, and 
be reflected from the inner polished surface of the outer one, in a magnitude of 
course greater than the object itself, in proportion to the increased radius of the 
outer mirror. 

I cannot but express a difference with the common opinion, that the place of 
the spectrum in the convex mirrors is at H., see the accompanying figure numbered 
in Hutton, fig. 30, plate 9 ; it may surely with fairness be considered to be at M., 
that is exactly at the same distance within the mirror measured on the prolonga- 
tion of the line of reflection, as the object is distant from the point of incidence, 
in the same manner as in a plane mirror ; for although the object or rather its 
image arrive at the eye in a reduced size when reflected from the convex mirror, 
yet by the above reasoning, with the two cylinders, it is easily explained, for the 
image of the object, having fallen from without upon the convex surface of the mir- 
ror which is situated within and which in this case corresponds as it were with the 
inner cylinder above noticed, has become itself reduced in size, and being so reflect- 
ed, proceeds towards the point of sight in that diminished state, and therefore it 
necessarily appears to the eye when reflected from the convex mirror less in size 
than it really is, and by a parity of reasoning, greater in size when reflected from 
a concave one. 

In my opinion, the image (with the exception above noted of its being reduced 
in size, by its actual contact with the speculum without the eye having any thing to 
do with that reduction) is not only situated at the same distance above described 
within the mirror, as the object is distant from the point of incidence, but it 
becomes reflected from a convex mirror in exactly the same manner that it would 
be from the polished surface of a plain one, such as F. G. where the angles B. E. 
F. A. E. G. formed by the lines of incidence and reflection, B. E. E. A., with the 
speculum are always equal to one another. 



310 Miscellaneous. [Junk, 

Extracts for Hutto7i , s Mathematical Recreations, vol. ii. p. 201. 
"A more philosophical principle advanced by Dr. Barrow is, that the eye per- 
ceives the image of the object in that point where the rays forming the small diver- 
gent bundle, which enters the pupil of the eye, meet together. It is indeed natural 
to think that the divergency as it is greater when the object is near, and less when 
it is distant, ought to enable the eye to judge of the distance." 

" By this principle, also, we are enabled to assign a pretty plausible reason for 
the diminution of objects in convex, and their enlargement in concave mirrors ; 
for the convexity of the former renders the rays which compose each bundle that 
enters the eye more divergent than if they fell on a plane mirror, consequently 
the point where they meet in the central ray produced is much nearer. It may 
even be demonstrated that in convex mirrors it is much nearer, and in concave, much 
farther, distant than the point H., considered by the ancients, and the greater part 
of the moderns, as the place of the image. In short, it is concluded that in con- 
vex mirrors, this image will be still more contracted, and in concave ones, more ex- 
tended than the ancients supposed ; which will account for the apparent enlarge- 
ment of objects in the latter, and their diminution in the former." 

" We must allow that even this principle is attended with difficulties, which 
Dr. Barrow, the author of it, does not conceal, and to which he confesses he 
never saw a satisfactory answer." 

2. — Replies to Lieut. Burt's Questions, by Lieut. W. S. Jacob, Engineers. 
Sir, 

Having just seen in your No. for December last, several questions proposed 
by Lieut. Burt, Engs. I take the liberty of sending you the following answers 
to them, for insertion in your Journal, should none more satisfactory have been 
received in the mean time. 

Reply to Q. 1st. The longest known period of any comet that has appeared 
twice is about 575 years, but it was calculated that of 1811 would return in not 
less than 3000 years ; then by Kepler's rule, the major axis of its orbit — 2d X 
(3000)§=2d x 208 nearly, (d being the mean distance of © and Q :) now it is 
very certain, that no star has an annual parallax of 2" (nor probably 1''), conse- 
quently the nearest star will be distant more than 2d x 100,000, or nearly 500 
times as far as the furthest known comet. There may, however, be others more 
distant, which have never appeared to us ; but as the period of one, which should 
extend from our system to another star, would be at least 11,000,000 years, it is 
not easy to see, what connection this could form between the two systems. 

Q. 2nd. Supposing the moon to have an atmosphere like our own, this 
would be insufficient to render visible the whole of her dark disc, for we find that, 
on the earth, the sun's light is extended by refraction to barely 18° beyond the 
limit of direct vision, instead of 90°, as it appears to be in the moon. The pheno- 
menon alluded to is much more simply accounted for by the light reflected from 
the earth, which will be nearly 14 times greater than what we receive from the 
moon. The limit of light and darkness on the moon's disc is more clearly defined 
than it could be, if she were surrounded by an atmosphere like ours. 

With regard to the law of attraction of fluids, I conclude it to be the same with 
that of all other bodies, viz. that they are attracted in proportion to their mass, or 
in equal bulks, directly as their specific gravities ; as far as I know there is nei- 
ther fact nor analogy to support the idea that the attraction is either directly or 
inversely as the cube root of the specific gravity. 



1 834.] Miscellaneous. 3 1 1 

With regard to the tides, Lieut. Burt appears to have rather overestimated them, 
for the height of the mean lunar tide wave is about five feet, and of the solar, two feet, 
so that the total spring-tide, unaffected by local causes, will be seven feet, instead of 
12^. Also the mean depth of the sea is usually estimated at much more than for even 
than 1 mile, but it is difficult to perceive any connection between this depth and 
the height of the tide ; for were the whole earth a globe of water, it would, I con- 
clude, assume the same figure, when acted on by the same forces, as in its present 
state; supposing, of course, gravitation to remain unaltered. But if the height 
of the tide be T Jj 5 X the depth of the fluid, it is evident that Lieut. Burt has 
made an error in his calculation ; for in that case, the mercury in the barometer 
will be raised to T ~ X its own height, or 30 inches ; now f 5 | = jg, or more than -J, 
instead of 3 'o inch. This mistake has arisen apparently from the indirect mode of 
calculation which he has used, thus unnecessarily increasing the number of figures, 
and of course the liability to error; in the quotient of 5% -f- 138, the decimal 
point is wrongly placed. 

It is certain, however, that the tide does not raise the mercury 0.2 inch, but if 
the barometer be carefully observed at the times of high and low water, it is pos- 
sible that a very small difference may be perceived ; which, however, will be ac- 
counted for by the fact that at these times the height of the observer above the sea 
is actually changed, or in other words, the atmosphere is raised and lowered by 
the tide of water, so that strata of different densities are brought in contact with 
the mercury. 

I cannot conceive how the moon's attraction, by opposing gravitation, could 
increase the weight of the air or any other body ; it would produce a contrary 
effect, and cause the mercury to fall, were it not that its weight also is diminished 
in the same proportion with that of the air, so that the one will continue to coun- 
terpoise the other, as if acted on by gravity alone. It is evident, then, that the 
barometer is utterly incapable of indicating either the amount or existence of a tide 
in the atmosphere. 

As Lieut. Burt does not know the temperature of red-hot iron, it may be well 
to bear in mind that the zero of Wedgewood's pyrometer is fixed at the lowest red 
heat visible in day-light. [This instrument has been proved greatly incorrect.] 
Soolkee, Feb. 10th, 1834. I remain, &c. 

The Burmese philosopher prince seems to have excited the talent of many 
champions of science. A writer in the Madras Literary Gazette has taken up a 
new ground in his reply, and insists that a comet is as cool and habitable when 
shiningon the solar disc as when wandering in its aphelion darkness. We shall ven- 
ture no remark ourselves, as we think the prince has now had enough of a discus- 
sion which any of our standard elementary works would fully explain to him.— Ed. 
Asiatic Society of Paris, 2nd Sept. 1833. 
A letter was read from Mr. Lewis DaCosta, presenting a prospectus and speci- 
men of a work on Universal History, translated by bim into Persian. The author 
at the same time presents a copy of Nares' Elements of Natural History, ancient 
and modern, translated into Hindustani, by Mr. DaCosta. Both works were refer- 
red to the Journal Committee. 

Mr. Mohl, in the name of the Committee, appointed last Meeting, pro- 
posed to admit as Honorary Members of the Society, Messrs. Prinsep and 
Harkness, Secretaries, one of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta, the other of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal— (read London; a curious mistake to occur in an Orien- 
tal Journal). This proposition was carried. 



312 



Meteorological Register. 



[June, 1834. 



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JOURNAL 



OF 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



JVb. 31.— July, 1834. 



I. — On the Coins and Relics discovered by M. le Chevalier Ventura, 
General in the Service of M aha Rdjd Runjeet Singh, in the Tope of 
Manikydla. By James Prinsep, F. R. S. Sec. As. Soc. #c. 
[Read at the meeting of the As. Soc. 20th March, 1834.] 
General Ventura's well imagined and successfully executed opera- 
tions for the examination of the Tope of Manikydla, near Kabul, in the 
year 1830, are familiar to all who are interested in antiquarian re- 
search. His own account of the excavations was published in the Cal- 
cutta newspapers of the day, and was afterwards inserted, with remarks, 
in Professor Wilson's essay on ancient Indian Coins, in the seventeenth 
volume of the Researches. Some of the coins have been the subject of 
discussion and investigation at Paris ; and the subsequent collections of 
Lieut. Burnes, Doctor Martin Honigberger, and especially, Mr. Mas- 
son, who have all followed in the track pointed out by the success of 
General Ventura, have materially contributed to demonstrate the value 
of his original enterprize, and to make us wish for a fuller account of 
its highly curious results. Lieut. Burnes favored the Society with his 
own impressions of the importance and magnitude of the Chevalier's la- 
bours from an ocular inspection of the Tope itself, and of the collection of 
relics which were shewn to him at Lahore. This is printed in the second 
volume of the Journal, p. 308 ; and an expression, which I ventured 
to use, in a note subjoined on that occasion, " trusting that the Che- 
valier would no longer deem us unworthy of being made the medium 
of their introduction to the world," was, in fact, a hesitating allusion to 
the good fortune which a letter from Captain Wade had that moment 
announced ; but which I could hardly bring myself to believe. A more 
s s 



314 On the Coins and Relics discovered [July, 

than ordinary degree of m